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Kitao N.,Asahikawa University | Fukui D.,Asahikawa Municipal Asahiyama Zoological Park and Wildlife Conservation Center | Shibata H.,Morinaga Institute of Biological Science Inc. | Saito M.,Tenshi College | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A: Ecological Genetics and Physiology | Year: 2011

Leptin is an adipocyte-derived peptide hormone that acts on the brain and regulates food intake and energy balance. Several previous reports have suggested that overwintering raccoon dogs Nyctereutes procyonoides are able to control their adiposity efficiently, but the contribution of leptin to weight regulation in these animals remains unclear. To study the seasonality of overwintering raccoon dogs as well as the effects of fasting on them, serum leptin levels were investigated using a newly established canine leptin-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Of the nine animals studied, five were fed and four were fasted (deprived of food for 2 months in winter). Blood samples and body fat weights were monitored once a month throughout the experimental period (July 2007-March 2008). Leptin concentrations obtained by ELISA were significantly higher than and had a positive correlation with those obtained by previously used multispecies radioimmunoassay (RIA) kits. Moreover, ELISA showed a clearer correlation between the body fat weight and leptin levels compared with RIA, suggesting the efficacy of canine leptin-specific ELISA kit for leptin estimation in raccoon dogs. Autumnal fattening was observed in both groups of animals, but the wintertime loss of adipose tissue was more obvious in the fasted group. Serum leptin concentrations determined by ELISA showed seasonal changes without significant differences between the fed and fasted animals. Therefore, high levels of leptin may be responsible for the suppression of feeding behavior in raccoon dogs before winter. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company.

Kohno K.,The University of Shimane | Matsuo H.,Hiroshima University | Takahashi H.,The University of Shimane | Niihara H.,The University of Shimane | And 6 more authors.
Allergology International | Year: 2013

Background: Challenge testing with wheat plus exercise and/or aspirin is a gold standard for the diagnosis of wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA); however, the test may often yield false-negative results. Our previous study suggested that an increase in serum wheat gliadin levels is required to induce allergic symptoms in patients with WDEIA. Based on this knowledge, we sought to extract the patients with false negative results in the challenge tests of WDEIA. Methods: Thirty-six patients with suspected WDEIA were enrolled. First, group categorizations-Group I, challenge tests were positive; Group II, challenge tests were negative and serum gliadin were undetectable; Group III, challenge tests were negative and serum gliadin were detectable-were given according to the results of wheat plus exercise and/or aspirin challenge testing and serum gliadin levels. Second, diagnoses were made using retests and/or dietary management in Group II and III. Results: Positive results for wheat plus exercise and/or aspirin challenge tests gave a diagnosis of definite WDEIA in 17 of 36 patients (Group I). Of the remaining 19 challenge negative patients, serum gliadin was undetectable in ten patients (Group II). Of the ten patients (Group II), three of them were diagnosed as definite WDEIA by retesting and six of them were diagnosed as probable WDEIA using a wheat elimination diet, whereas one patient was non-WDEIA. In the rest of the nine challenge negative patients, serum gliadin was detectable (Group III). No allergic episodes with a normal diet provided a diagnosis of non-WDEIA in seven of the nine patients, whereas the remaining two patients were probable WDEIA or had another food allergy because of repeated episodes. Conclusions: Our study revealed that serum gliadin monitoring during challenge testing is useful. © 2013 Japanese Society of Allergology.

Morinaga Institute of Biological Science Inc. | Date: 2006-11-07

Chemical solutions and diluents for conducting tests to analyze allergy-causing food substances; ultra sensitive freeze dried rat insulin for use as a standard for detecting the amount of insulin of samples; chemical substances for laboratory use, for diagnostic purposes other than for medical or veterinary purposes, and not for use in humans or animals. Allergy analyzing kits, consisting of apparatus in the nature of antibody-coated microplate module, standard protein, enzyme-conjugated antibody, enzyme substrate, stop solution, sample buffer, wash buffer and extraction component for determining the concentration of allergy-causing ingredients in foodstuff; laboratory equipment, namely plastic testing modules and frames used in food allergy analysis; food safety analyzing apparatus, namely, incubators, microplate readers and shakers.

Johnson P.E.,University of Manchester | Johnson P.E.,UK Institute of Food Research | Rigby N.M.,UK Institute of Food Research | Dainty J.R.,UK Institute of Food Research | And 27 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

A dessert matrix previously used for diagnosis of food allergies was incurred with pasteurised egg white or skimmed milk powder at 3, 6, 15 and 30 mg allergen protein per kg of dessert matrix and evaluated as a quality control material for allergen analysis in a multi-laboratory trial. Analysis was performed by immunoassay using five kits each for egg and milk (based on casein) and six 'other' milk kits (five based on β-lactoglobulin and one total milk). All kits detected allergen protein at the 3 mg kg-1 level. Based on ISO criteria only one egg kit accurately determined egg protein at 3 mg kg-1 (p = 0.62) and one milk (casein) kit accurately determined milk at 6 (p = 0.54) and 15 mg kg-1 (p = 0.83), against the target value. The milk "other" kits performed least well of all the kits assessed, giving the least precise analyses. The incurred dessert material had the characteristics required for a quality control material for allergen analysis. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Sakai S.,Japan National Institute of Health Sciences | Adachi R.,Morinaga Institute of Biological Science Inc. | Akiyama H.,Japan National Institute of Health Sciences | Teshima R.,Japan National Institute of Health Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Journal of AOAC International | Year: 2010

Because food allergens from tree nuts, including walnuts, are a frequent cause of adverse food reactions for allergic patients, the labeling of foods containing ingredients derived from tree nuts is required in numerous countries. According to Japanese regulations, the labeling of food products containing walnuts is recommended. To ensure proper labeling, a novel sandwich ELISA kit for the determination of walnut protein in processed foods (Walnut Protein [2S-Albumin] Kit; Morinaga Institute of Biological Science, Inc.; "walnut kit") has been developed. We prepared seven types of incurred samples (model processed foods: biscuits, bread, sponge cake, orange juice, jelly, chicken meatballs, and rice gruel) containing 10 mg walnut soluble protein/g of food for use in interlaboratory evaluations of the walnut kit. The walnut kit displayed sufficient reproducibility relative standard deviations (interlaboratory precision: 5.8-9.9% RSDR) and a high level of recovery (81-119%) for all the incurred samples. All the repeatability relative standard deviation (RSDr) values for the incurred samples that were examined were less than 6.0%. The results of this interlaboratory evaluation suggested that the walnut kit could be used as a precise and reliable tool for determination of walnut protein in processed foods.

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