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Ossorio P.,Morgridge Institute for Research | Ossorio P.,University of Wisconsin - Madison
Genetics in Medicine | Year: 2012

Most discussions of researchers' duties to return incidental findings or research results to research participants or repository contributors fail to provide an adequate theoretical grounding for such duties. Returning findings is a positive duty, a duty to help somebody. Typically, such duties are specified narrowly such that helping is only a duty when it poses little or no risk or burden to the helper and does not interfere with her legitimate aims. Under current budgetary and personnel constraints, and with currently available information technology, routine return of individual findings from research using repository materials would constitute a substantial burden on the scientific enterprise and would seriously frustrate the aims of both scientists and specimen/data contributors. In most cases, researchers' limited duties to help repository contributors probably can be fulfilled by some action less demanding than returning individual findings. Furthermore, the duty-to-return issue should be analyzed as a conflict between (possibly) helping some contributors now and (possibly) helping a greater number of people who would benefit in the future from the knowledge produced by research. ©American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics. Source


Heltemes T.A.,Morgridge Institute for Research | Moses G.A.,University of Wisconsin - Madison
Computer Physics Communications | Year: 2012

The BADGER equation of state library was developed to enable inertial confinement fusion plasma codes to more accurately model plasmas in the high-density, low-temperature regime. The code had the capability to calculate 1- and 2-T plasmas using the ThomasFermi model and an individual electron accounting model. Ion equation of state data can be calculated using an ideal gas model or via a quotidian equation of state with scaled binding energies. Electron equation of state data can be calculated via the ideal gas model or with an adaptation of the screened hydrogenic model with ℓ-splitting. The ionization and equation of state calculations can be done in local thermodynamic equilibrium or in a non-LTE mode using a variant of the Busquet equivalent temperature method. The code was written as a stand-alone Fortran library for ease of implementation by external codes. EOS results for aluminum are presented that show good agreement with the SESAME library and ionization calculations show good agreement with the FLYCHK code. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Dixon J.R.,Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research | Dixon J.R.,University of California at San Diego | Jung I.,Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research | Selvaraj S.,Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research | And 18 more authors.
Nature | Year: 2015

Higher-order chromatin structure is emerging as an important regulator of gene expression. Although dynamic chromatin structures have been identified in the genome, the full scope of chromatin dynamics during mammalian development and lineage specification remains to be determined. By mapping genome-wide chromatin interactions in human embryonic stem (ES) cells and four human ES-cell-derived lineages, we uncover extensive chromatin reorganization during lineage specification. We observe that although self-associating chromatin domains are stable during differentiation, chromatin interactions both within and between domains change in a striking manner, altering 36% of active and inactive chromosomal compartments throughout the genome. By integrating chromatin interaction maps with haplotype-resolved epigenome and transcriptome data sets, we find widespread allelic bias in gene expression correlated with allele-biased chromatin states of linked promoters and distal enhancers. Our results therefore provide a global view of chromatin dynamics and a resource for studying long-range control of gene expression in distinct human cell lineages. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Source


News Article | May 27, 2011
Site: www.xconomy.com

Jeffrey Leiden, MD, PhD is a Managing Director of Clarus Ventures, LLC, a life sciences venture capital firm headquartered in Cambridge, MA. Prior to joining Clarus in 2006, Dr. Leiden was President and COO of Abbott Laboratories, Pharmaceuticals Products Group, and a member of the Abbott Board of Directors and the TAP Board of Directors from 2000-2006. From 1987-2000 Dr. Leiden held several academic appointments, including Chief of Cardiology and Director of the Cardiovascular Research Institute at the University of Chicago, the Elkan R. Blout Professor of Biological Sciences at the Harvard School of Public Health, Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School and Assoc. Professor of Medicine and Associate Investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute at the University of Michigan. During his academic career, Dr. Leiden studied the transcriptional regulation of cardiovascular and immune cell development. Dr. Leiden is currently a director of Biolex Therapeutics and Catabasis Pharmaceuticals, and is Chairman of the Board of Lycera Corp, Variation Biotechnologies and TyRx, Inc. He is also the Lead Independent Director of Vertex Pharmaceuticals (NASDAQ:VRTX), and a non-executive director and Vice Chairman of the Board of Shire plc (LSE: SHP). He is a trustee of the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine and Vice Chairman of the Board of Trustees of the Ravinia Music Festival. Dr. Leiden received both his medical degree and PhD from the University of Chicago and an honorary MA from Harvard University. He is an elected member of both the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences. For more information, click here.


Elwell A.L.,Morgridge Institute for Research | Gronwall D.S.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Miller N.D.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Spalding E.P.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Durham Brooks T.L.,Doane College
Plant, Cell and Environment | Year: 2011

Plant growth and development is profoundly influenced by environmental conditions that laboratory experimentation typically attempts to control. However, growth conditions are not uniform between or even within laboratories and the extent to which these differences influence plant growth and development is unknown. Experiments with wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana were designed to quantify the influences of parental environment and seed size on growth and development in the next generation. A single lot of seed was planted in six environmental chambers and grown to maturity. The seed produced was mechanically sieved into small and large size classes then grown in a common environment and subjected to a set of assays spanning the life cycle. Analysis of variance demonstrated that seed size effects were particularly significant early in development, affecting primary root growth and gravitropism, but also flowering time. Parental environment affected progeny germination time, flowering and weight of seed the progeny produced. In some cases, the parental environment affected the magnitude of (interacted with) the observed seed size effects. These data indicate that life history circumstances of the parental generation can affect growth and development throughout the life cycle of the next generation to an extent that should be considered when performing genetic studies. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

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