Moredun Scientific

Penicuik, United Kingdom

Moredun Scientific

Penicuik, United Kingdom
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Russell G.C.,Moredun Research Institute | Scholes S.F.,Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency AHVLA | Twomey D.F.,AHVLA Starcross Regional Laboratory | Courtenay A.E.,University of Liverpool | And 6 more authors.
Veterinary Microbiology | Year: 2014

In order to define better virus isolates from animals with malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), segments of three genes of ovine herpesvirus-2 were amplified from diagnostic samples representing MCF cases with a range of clinical presentations in cattle, including head and eye, alimentary and neurological. The variation within each gene segment was estimated by DNA sequencing, which confirmed that the newly-annotated Ov9.5 gene was significantly more polymorphic than either of the other loci tested (segments of ORF50 and ORF75), with alleles that differed at over 60% of nucleotide positions. Despite this, the nine Ov9.5 alleles characterised had identical predicted splicing patterns and could be translated into Ov9.5 polypeptides with at least 49% amino acid identity. This multi-locus approach has potential for use in epidemiological studies and in charactering chains of infection. However there was no association between specific variants of OvHV-2 and the clinical/pathological presentation of MCF in the cattle analysed. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Tassi R.,Moredun Research Institute | Tassi R.,University of Edinburgh | McNeilly T.N.,Moredun Research Institute | Fitzpatrick J.L.,Moredun Research Institute | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2013

Streptococcus uberis is an important cause of intramammary infection in dairy cattle. Strains of Strep. uberis appear to differ in their ability to cause disease based on previous epidemiological studies. We explored the pathogenicity of 2 strains of Strep. uberis, where one strain represented a putatively host-adapted type based on its ability to cause persistent infection and to spread from cow to cow in a lactating herd. This type was part of a clonal complex that is commonly associated with bovine mastitis. The other strain, which was isolated from a transient infection in a single animal in the same herd and did not belong to any known clonal complex, was selected as putatively nonadapted type. Cows (6 per strain) were experimentally challenged in a single hind quarter and the adjacent hind quarter was used as mock challenged control quarter. Both strains showed an equal ability to grow in the milk of challenge animals in vitro. All cows that were challenged with the putatively host-adapted strain developed clinical signs of mastitis, including fever and milk yield depression as well as elevated somatic cell count due to influx of polymorphonuclear leucocytes and lymphocytes. The cytokine response followed a specific order, with an increase in IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 levels at the time of first SCC elevation, followed by an increase in IL-10, IL-12p40, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels approximately 6h later. In 4 of 6 animals, IL-17A was detected in milk between 57 and 168h postchallenge. The increase in IL-17A levels coincided with inversion of the prechallenge CD4+-to-CD8+ T lymphocyte ratio, which was observed from 96h postchallenge. This was followed by normalization of the CD4+-to-CD8+ ratio due to continued increase of the CD8+ concentration up to 312h postchallenge. Spontaneous resolution of infection was observed in 5 animals and coincided with a measurable IL-17A response in 4 animals, suggesting that IL-17 may be involved in the resolution of intramammary infection. With the exception of minor elevation of IL-8 levels, no clinical, cytological, or immunological response was detected in quarters challenged with the nonadapted strain. The observed strain-specific pathogenicity was consistent across animals, implying that it is determined by pathogen factors rather than host factors. © 2013 American Dairy Science Association.

Crouch C.F.,MSD Animal Health | LaFleur R.,1401 nter Road | Ramage C.,Moredun Scientific | Reddick D.,Moredun Scientific | And 3 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2012

Bovine respiratory disease causes significant economic losses in both beef and dairy calf industries. Although multi-factorial in nature, the disease is characterized by an acute fibrinous lobar pneumonia typically associated with the isolation of Mannheimia haemolytica. M. haemolytica A1 and A6 are the two most commonly isolated serotypes from cattle, however, the majority of vaccines have not demonstrated cross-serotype protection. In the current study, the efficacy of a novel, attenuated live vaccine, containing both M. haemolytica serotype A1 and Pasteurella multocida, was evaluated in calves challenged with M. haemolytica serotype A6. Although the challenge was more severe than expected, vaccinated calves had reduced clinical scores, lower mortality, and significantly lower lung lesion scores compared to the placebo-vaccinated control group. The results demonstrate that vaccination with an attenuated live vaccine containing M. haemolytica serotype A1 can protect calves against clinical disease following challenge with M. haemolytica serotype A6. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Forbes A.B.,University of Glasgow | Reddick D.,Moredun Scientific | Stear M.J.,University of Glasgow
Veterinary Record | Year: 2015

Flukicides are commonly administered at housing to cattle that have grazed fluke-infected pastures or that have been purchased from endemic areas. The choice of product is determined by numerous factors, one of which is the stages of Fasciola hepatica that are killed. Flukicides can be categorised into three main groups: (A) those that kill all juvenile stages and adults; (B) those that kill juveniles from six to eight weeks of age and adults and (C) those that kill adults only. This study was conducted on a commercial beef farm in Scotland and was designed to compare the efficacy of flukicides from each of these three classes in terms of their effects on faecal egg output, coproantigen and liveweight gain. The majority of animals in the untreated control group were positive for coproantigen, fluke eggs or both throughout the study duration of 16 weeks. Egg reappearance interval following housing treatment was eight weeks for clorsulon and 13 weeks for nitroxynil, though patent infections in both groups developed in only a small minority of animals; no fluke eggs were recovered from cattle treated with triclabendazole. Coproantigen was detected four weeks before the reappearance of fluke eggs in the dung. Animals treated with flukicides had significantly fewer faecal samples positive for eggs (P<0.006) and coproantigen (P<0.05) following treatment compared with the controls. Despite differences in the efficacy profiles among the flukicide-treated groups, there were no significant differences (P>0.05) in growth rates among any of the four treatment groups. There was, however, a significant negative association (P<0.001) between fluke positivity at housing and subsequent growth performance, irrespective of treatment group. © 2015, British Veterinary Association. All rights reserved.

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