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Bjorkevoll I.,More Research | Reboredo R.G.,Estrada Colexio Universitario 16 | Fossen I.,More Research
Food Control | Year: 2017

Frozen light salted fillets have been subject to discussion concerning their definition as foodstuff. EU has recently placed these products in the frozen category. The aim was to investigate how a commercial polyphosphate blend affected the quality of light salted fillets. Fresh and previously frozen fillets of cod were injected with a brine containing 0, 4.5, 9 or 18 g/L of Carnal 2110. Quality, chemical characteristics and phosphate residues were analyzed in fillets. Compared to previously frozen, light salted fillets from fresh raw materials had a whither and less yellow color while significantly lower yields and oxidation levels were registered. No differences were found in drip loss during thawing. Addition of polyphosphate contributed to increased whiteness of both frozen and thawed fillets from both raw material groups, while no effects on yields or drip loss were detected. Polyphosphate reduced oxidation only in the frozen raw material group. Total phosphate contents were higher in fillets from fresh than frozen raw materials and residues were mainly detected as monophosphate. The choice of raw material will affect the end quality and yields and results suggest that polyphosphate can improve light salted fillet quality and therefor may be defined as a food additive. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Moura T.,Instituto Portugues do Mar e da Atmosfera | Jones E.,NIWA - National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research | Clarke M.W.,Marine Institute of Ireland | Cotton C.F.,Florida State University | And 13 more authors.
Fisheries Research | Year: 2014

Deep-water sharks exhibit species-specific reproductive strategies, which include segregation by sex, size and reproductive stage. However, due to the wide spatial distribution of most species, available information, usually collected at a regional scale, is usually not adequate to infer species reproductive spatial dynamics. This study draws together information on the distribution of reproductive stages of three species of squaliform sharks: Portuguese dogfish Centroscymnus coelolepis (Somniosidae), leafscale gulper shark Centrophorus squamosus (Centrophoridae) and birdbeak dogfish Deania calcea (Centrophoridae), gathering data from several geographical areas from the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans. For each species we analysed the sex ratio and the spatial patterns of reproductive stages within regions, considering the influence of geographical area, depth, season, temperature and salinity. The combination of statistical methods used in this study successfully identified a number of life history patterns which reflect different use of habitats by sex and life cycle stage. Pregnant females of the three species are spatially segregated, inhabiting shallower and/or warmer waters. In the case of the leafscale gulper shark this segregation might be associated with large scale migrations. In contrast, in Portuguese dogfish all adult maturity stages occur in the same geographical area. Pregnant female birdbeak dogfish were rare in all samples. Larger immature specimens of all the three species distribute deeper than the remaining maturity stages in most of the regions analysed. Mature males of leafscale gulper shark and birdbeak dogfish were more broadly distributed than mature females, supporting the possibility of sex-biased dispersal. Neonates and small sized specimens were scarce in the Northeast Atlantic potentially explained by their concentration in nurseries, and/or by gear selectivity. Management measures will benefit from considering the geographic scale of demographic variation between species. However, standardized collaborative approaches will be needed for comprehensive assessment. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

News Article | January 30, 2017
Site: www.realwire.com

The ADLV’s (Association For Driving Licence Verification’s) 2017 predictions show fleets using richer, bigger data more frequently. They will be using it to drive areas from compliance through to road safety. Amongst the main predictions are: Increased Regularity of Electronic Checking For Compliance The best practice frequency for compliance in licence checking by fleets has recently increased to twice a year, on average. Under the recently issued FORS Standard (Version 4.0) twice yearly checks are now the minimum requirement. However, many larger fleets are now carrying out quarterly checks. As Richard Brown MD of ADLV Member Licence Check Ltd. says, “Not that long ago, many organisations were limited to annual checks. However, as the technology is now there to carry out more frequent checks with ease, fleet managers are building this into their compliance plans on a quarterly basis. This ensures that the data that fleets are now working with is almost constantly updated and therefore of a much higher quality." Licence Data Will Combine With Additional And Client Data Sets To Boost ‘Know Your Driver’ Data Quality Early this year, CPC and Tacho data will become available alongside standard driving licence data. The ADLV is already working on a number of additional data sets to combine with driving licence and Tacho data. As Kevin Curtis Technical Director of the ADLV says, “Having driving licence data in a readily accessible format, the different types of data that can be combined are potentially endless. When combined with our clients’ own data too, one can see some quite targeted data analysis, be this regional or in respect of the particular competencies of drivers required. The value of this integrated data will grow exponentially.” Greater Use Of Big Data Analytics To Drive Corporate Decision Making There will be far more use of big data to drive fleet analytics in support of management decision making. ADLV data will play its part here. As ADLV Chair Malcolm Maycock says, “There is so much data, growing so rapidly, that we are now looking at ‘Data Lakes’ more than Data Warehouses. Often, we won’t know what’s in there unless we conduct professional business analytics to find out. Driving licence data is one of the essential elements here in terms of setting the parameters for risk profiling and management for all businesses that allow employees to drive on their behalf. It’s also the obvious starting point to begin to profile the driver pool with a view to encouraging better driving styles and habits. According to recent research by Direct Line, this could cut annual fuel bills by 40%, as well as reducing wear and tear on vehicles and driving down accident rates. With the wider acceptance of black box or mobile-based telematics solutions and the spread of “connected” vehicles into the fleet and grey fleet parcs, we shall see a far greater emphasis on fleet business intelligence and driver data analysis. The information identified will drive fleet decision making as well as wider corporate and government policies on taxation, transport and the environment. It will also create a far richer more innovative data environment for fleet managers.” More Research of Road Safety. The ADLV Will Work With Road Safety Experts Over the course of the 2017 ADLV management will be looking to work with a number of Road Safety Organisations to identify how ‘Knowing Your Driver Better’ can boost road safety. As ADLV Director & Secretary Dave Bartleman says, “There are collaborative opportunities here to see how the data we and others generate can feed in to the road safety dynamic. We expect to announce a new research project later in the year involving the ADLV, safety experts and leading fleet executives.” Note To Editors: About the ADLV (www.adlv.co.uk) The Association for Driving License Verification has been established to promote and encourage best practice within the industry for the initial and continued validation of driver entitlement for responsible employers and road safety. The ADLV will both represent and regulate Members organisations in accordance with its rigorous Code of Conduct. For further information please contact: Richard Payne-Gill ADLV 07534 199236 richard.paynegill@adlv.co.uk www.adlv.co.uk

News Article | September 6, 2016
Site: www.techtimes.com

A snake species has been discovered in Madagascar. Aptly called "ghost snake" thanks to its pale color, the reptile's name comes from the local Malagasy term "lolo," meaning ghost. In a new study, researchers claimed that the ghost snake belongs to a larger group of snakes known as Madagascarophis, which are cat-eyed, nocturnal and distinguished by their vertical pupils. Researchers at the American Museum of Natural History, the Université de Mahajanga in Madagascar and LSU Museum of Natural Science published their research work on the ghost snake in the scientific journal Copeia. "None of the other snakes in Madagascarophis are as pale and none of them have this distinct pattern," said the lead author of the paper, Sara Ruane, who is a post-doctoral fellow at the LSU Museum of Natural Science. Ruane asserted that the discovery of the new snake species, now known as Madagascarophis lolo, has been an exciting endeavor because there are many cat-eyed snakes in the island but this one stood out as an entirely new species and hitherto remained unknown because of poor exploration of the region. The researchers came across the ghost snake on pale gray limestone Tsingy rocks in the Ankarana National Park in northern Madagascar. Tsingy rock formations are the high point of Ankarana. The rocks are sharp and hard to walk on, yet the researchers traced the ghost snake's closest kin to be Madagascarophis fuchsi, discovered 100 kilometers north of Ankarana, a few years ago. They said the common factor binding the duo is that they both found them in rocky and isolated areas. More Research On Ghost Snake In The U.S. The researchers are now back in the U.S. after discovering the new ghost snake species and are planning in-depth genetic and morphological analyses of the reptile. In the preliminary studies, the focus is on physical characteristics of the snake with attention on scales spread on the belly, back, and those near the eyes and lips. Ruane has taken the ghost snake's DNA from the tissue samples and will compare it with the Madagascarophis fuchsi. She used three genetic markers found in existing Madagascarophis species to compare with the new one. With the help of her colleauges, she also mapped out the genetic family tree of the Madagascarophis and found that there are five species all in all. "All of the analyses we did support that this is a distinct species despite the fact that we only have this one individual," Ruane said. © 2016 Tech Times, All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without permission.

Deshpande R.,Karlstad University | Sundvall L.,MoRe Research | Grundberg H.,Domsjo Fabriker | Germgard U.,Karlstad University
BioResources | Year: 2016

In this laboratory study, the initial phase of a single-stage sodium bisulfite cook was observed and analyzed. The experiments were carried out using either a lab- or a mill-prepared cooking acid, and the cooking temperature used in these experiments was 154 °C. Investigated parameters were the chemical consumption, the pH profile, and the pulp yield with respect to cellulose, lignin, glucomannan, xylan, and finally extractives. Cooking was extended down to approximately 60% pulp yield and the pulp composition during the cook, with respect to carbohydrates and lignin, was summarized in a kinetic model. The mill-prepared cooking acid had a higher COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) and TOC (Total Organic Carbon) content than the lab-prepared cooking acid and this influenced the pH and the formation of thiosulfate during the cook. It was found that the presence of dissolved carbohydrates and lignin in the bisulfite cooking liquor affected the extractives removal and the thiosulfate formation.

Deshpande R.,Karlstad University | Deshpande R.,MoRe Research | Sundvall L.,MoRe Research | Grundberg H.,Domsjo Fabriker | Germgard U.,Karlstad University
Cellulose Chemistry and Technology | Year: 2016

A sodium bisulphite cooking study has been performed on spruce chips with the aim of monitoring the impregnation and the initial phase of such a cook performed at pH 4.5. Both pulp and liquor analyses have been carried out and the experiments have been done with a laboratory-prepared cooking acid, in comparison with a mill cooking acid. The pulping experiments have been performed down to a total pulp yield of 60%. The objective was to verify and extend the current knowledge of bisulphite pulping with a focus on the initial phase of the cook. With the help of a kinetic model that has been developed in the project, the pulp composition during the cook with respect to cellulose, lignin, glucomannan and xylan can now be predicted. The side reactions with respect to thiosulphate formation were also analyzed in this study.

Bjorkevoll I.,More Research | Reboredo R.G.,Estrada Colexio Universitario 16 | Fossen I.,More Research
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2014

Headed and gutted fresh or frozen and thawed cod (Gadus morhua L.) from the same net catch were hand filleted post rigor before carrying out small-scale salting trials. Fillets were heavy salted using three different methods introducing phosphate during injection, brining, or during pickle salting. For all salting methods, treatment with 0, 4.5, 9 or 18 g/L of the pyro and tri polyphosphate blend Carnal 2110 was carried out. Quality and chemical parameters were analyzed after 5 weeks and 6 ± 1 months of chilled storage of heavy salted fillets.Results showed that injection was a successful way of introducing phosphate in heavy salted fillets. Immersion in phosphate brine during pickle salting did not lead to effective uptake of these additives. Quality parameters were not altered significantly by the phosphate addition using both instrumental color and sensorial analysis of heavy salted cod. Treatment of phosphate did not significantly affect the oxidation of heavy salted cod, measured as TBARS. Considerable increases in yields were registered as a response to increased phosphate addition, and yields were significantly higher for heavy salted cod from frozen and thawed compared to fresh raw materials. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Lorentzen G.,Nofima Marin | Olsen R.L.,University of Tromsø | Bjorkevoll I.,Nofima Marin | Bjorkevoll I.,More Research | And 2 more authors.
Food Control | Year: 2010

The aim of this work was to study survival of Listeria innocua and Listeria monocytogenes in muscle of cod during salt-curing and growth during chilled storage of the rehydrated product. Fresh cod was inoculated with L. innocua and L. monocytogenes at different levels before salt-curing. After salt-curing and rehydration, the levels were within 1 log10 CFU/g lower than prior to salt-curing in all experiments. During the first 5 days of storage after rehydration, growth of L. innocua was observed in 1 out of 5 experiments at 4 °C, but a 10-100-fold increase were observed in all experiments from day 5 to day 10. The growth started earlier and was more rapid when samples were stored at 7 °C. Growth of L. monocytogenes at 4 °C appeared to start earlier than for L. innocua, but a 10-100-fold increase was observed also for this bacterium. The lag phases in rehydrated products were longer than in experiments with cod muscle juice. The differences could be explained by a different level of salt stress. This work demonstrates that long term exposure to very high salt concentrations does not eliminate Listeria spp., and that Listeria being present in the fish prior to salt-curing can recover and grow in rehydrated salt-cured cod during chilled storage. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Deshpande R.,Karlstad University | Deshpande R.,MoRe Research | Sundvall L.,MoRe Research | Grundberg H.,Domsjo Fabriker | Germgard U.,Karlstad University
O Papel | Year: 2015

The initial phase of a bisulfite cook, here defined as the first part of the cook down to 20% lignin, is highly influenced by the temperature and it can therefore be used to control the initial pulping rate with respect to lignin. However, the influence of the temperature is different for the degradation of lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose and for the formation of the by-product thiosulfate. The temperature is therefore a powerful tool to control several mechanisms in a bisulfite cook. Additionally, if the cooking acid is taken from a pulp mill, where the ionic strength, the content of by-products and COD in the liquor phase are much higher than in a lab prepared cooking acid, this will also influence the kinetics of the different chemical reactions and, thus, the composition of the pulp after a certain cooking time. Earlier literature references, which are based on lab prepared cooking acids, are therefore not completely reliable as tools to predict the final composition of the pulp in a pulp mill.

Deshpande R.,Karlstad University | Sundvall L.,MoRe Research | Grundberg H.,Domsjo Fabriker | Germgard U.,Karlstad University
Nordic Pulp and Paper Research Journal | Year: 2016

Sulfite pulping of pine is well-known to be a risky process because problematic lignin conden-sation reactions can occur resulting in poor pulp quality. However, sulfite pulping of pine is interesting of economic reasons as pine wood is cheaper than spruce. Therefore it has become interesting to investigate sulfite pulping again to determine if old data are still valid. Thus sodium bisulfite pulping of pine was carried out to investigate the influence of time, temperature and cooking acid quality. A small comparison of spruce pulping was also included. By using different cooking temperatures the activation energies for delignification and for degradation of cellulose and hemicelluloses could be determined. The results showed no lignin condensation reactions, thus it was not problematic to carry out these pine cooking experiments. It was found that glucomannan had higher activation energy than xylan and the activation energies of these hemicelluloses were lower than the corresponding value for the lignin degradation. It was found that the activation energy for bisulfite pulping of pine was slightly lower than the activation energy for bisulfite pulping of spruce.

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