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Tønsberg, Norway

Aune E.,Vestfold Hospital Trust | Roislien J.,University of Oslo | Roislien J.,Morbid Obesity Center | Mathisen M.,Medical Library | And 2 more authors.
BMC Medicine

Background: Smokers have been shown to have lower mortality after acute coronary syndrome than non-smokers. This has been attributed to the younger age, lower co-morbidity, more aggressive treatment and lower risk profile of the smoker. Some studies, however, have used multivariate analyses to show a residual survival benefit for smokers; that is, the "smoker's paradox". The aim of this study was, therefore, to perform a systematic review of the literature and evidence surrounding the existence of the "smoker's paradox".Methods: Relevant studies published by September 2010 were identified through literature searches using EMBASE (from 1980), MEDLINE (from 1963) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, with a combination of text words and subject headings used. English-language original articles were included if they presented data on hospitalised patients with defined acute coronary syndrome, reported at least in-hospital mortality, had a clear definition of smoking status (including ex-smokers), presented crude and adjusted mortality data with effect estimates, and had a study sample of > 100 smokers and > 100 non-smokers. Two investigators independently reviewed all titles and abstracts in order to identify potentially relevant articles, with any discrepancies resolved by repeated review and discussion.Results: A total of 978 citations were identified, with 18 citations from 17 studies included thereafter. Six studies (one observational study, three registries and two randomised controlled trials on thrombolytic treatment) observed a "smoker's paradox". Between the 1980s and 1990s these studies enrolled patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) according to criteria similar to the World Health Organisation criteria from 1979. Among the remaining 11 studies not supporting the existence of the paradox, five studies represented patients undergoing contemporary management.Conclusion: The "smoker's paradox" was observed in some studies of AMI patients in the pre-thrombolytic and thrombolytic era, whereas no studies of a contemporary population with acute coronary syndrome have found evidence for such a paradox. © 2011 Aune et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Roislien J.,University of Oslo | Roislien J.,Morbid Obesity Center | Van Calster B.,Catholic University of Leuven | Hjelmesaeth J.,Morbid Obesity Center
Cardiovascular Diabetology

Background: The biological mechanisms in the association between the metabolic syndrome (MS) and various biomarkers, such as 25-hydroxyvitamin D (vit D) and magnesium, are not fully understood. Several of the proposed predictors of MS are also possible predictors of parathyroid hormone (PTH). We aimed to explore whether PTH is a possible mediator between MS and various possible explanatory variables in morbidly obese patients.Methods: Fasting serum levels of PTH, vit D and magnesium were assessed in a cross-sectional study of 1,017 consecutive morbidly obese patients (68% women). Dependencies between MS and a total of seven possible explanatory variables as suggested in the literature, including PTH, vit D and magnesium, were specified in a path diagram, including both direct and indirect effects. Possible gender differences were also included. Effects were estimated using Bayesian path analysis, a multivariable regression technique, and expressed using standardized regression coefficients.Results: Sixty-eight percent of the patients had MS. In addition to type 2 diabetes and age, both PTH and serum phosphate had significant direct effects on MS; 0.36 (95% Credibility Interval (CrI) [0.15, 0.57]) and 0.28 (95% CrI [0.10,0.47]), respectively. However, due to significant gender differences, an increase in either PTH or phosphate corresponded to an increased OR for MS in women only. All proposed predictors of MS had significant direct effects on PTH, with vit D and phosphate the strongest; -0.27 (95% CrI [-0.33,-0.21]) and -0.26 (95% CrI [-0.32,-0.20]), respectively. Though neither vit D nor magnesium had significant direct effects on MS, for women they both affected MS indirectly, due to the strong direct effect of PTH on MS. For phosphate, the indirect effect on MS, mediated through serum calcium and PTH, had opposite sign than the direct effect, resulting in the total effect on MS being somewhat attenuated compared to the direct effect only.Conclusion: Our results indicate that for women PTH is a plausible mediator in the association between MS and a range of explanatory variables, including vit D, magnesium and phosphate. © 2011 Røislien et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Gade H.,Morbid Obesity Center | Gade H.,e Arctic University of Norway | Friborg O.,e Arctic University of Norway | Rosenvinge J.H.,e Arctic University of Norway | And 3 more authors.
Obesity Surgery

Background: To examine whether a preoperative cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) intervention exceeds usual care in the improvements of dysfunctional eating behaviours, mood, affective symptoms and body weight 1 year after bariatric surgery. Methods: This is a 1-year follow-up of a single centre parallel-group randomised controlled trial (http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01403558). A total of 80 (55 females) patients mean (SD) age 44 (10) years were included. The intervention group received 10 weeks of CBT prior to bariatric surgery, and the control group received nutritional support and education. Both groups were assessed at baseline (T0), post CBT intervention/preoperatively (T1), and 1 year postoperatively (T2). Using a mixed modelling statistical approach, we examined if the CBT group improved more across time than the control group. Results: Our hypothesis was not supported as both groups had comparable improvements in all outcomes except for anxiety symptoms. Body weight declined by 30.2 % (37.3 kg) in the CBT group and by 31.2 % (40.0 kg) in the control group from baseline to follow-up, p = 0.82. There were statistically significant reductions in anxiety and depression symptoms in the CBT group between T0 and T1 and between T1 and T2 for depression only. However, in the control group, the anxiety score did not change significantly. The CBT group showed an earlier onset of improvements in all eating behaviours and affective symptoms than the control group. Conclusion: The 10-week CBT intervention showed beneficial effects preoperatively, but the non-significant group differences postoperatively indicate a genuine effect of surgery. © 2015, The Author(s). Source

Valderhaug T.G.,University of Oslo | Hjelmesaeth J.,University of Oslo | Hjelmesaeth J.,Morbid Obesity Center | Hartmann A.,University of Oslo | And 7 more authors.

Aims/objective: We aimed to assess the long-term effects of post-transplant glycaemia on long-term survival after renal transplantation. Methods: Study participants were 1,410 consecutive transplant recipients without known diabetes who underwent an OGTT 10 weeks post-transplant and were observed for a median of 6.7 years (range 0.3-13.8 years). The HRs adjusted for age, sex, traditional risk factors and transplant-related risk factors were estimated. Results: Each 1mmol/l increase in fasting plasma glucose (fPG) or 2 h plasma glucose (2hPG) was associated with 11%(95% CI -1%, 24%) and 5% (1%, 9%) increments in all-cause mortality risk and 19% (1%, 39%) and 6% (1%, 12%) increments in cardiovascular (CV) mortality risk, respectively. Including both fPG and 2hPG in the multi-adjusted model the HR for 2hPG remained unchanged, while the HR for fPG was attenuated (1.05 [1.00, 1.11] and 0.97 [0.84, 1.14]). Compared with recipients with normal glucose tolerance, patients with posttransplant diabetes mellitus had higher all-cause and CV mortality (1.54 [1.09, 2.17] and 1.80 [1.10, 2.96]), while patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) had higher all-cause, but not CV mortality (1.39 [1.01, 1.91] and 1.04 [0.62, 1.74]). Conversely, impaired fasting glucose was not associated with increased all-cause or CV mortality (0.79 [0.52, 1.23] and 0.76 [0.39, 1.49]). Post-challenge hyperglycaemia predicted death from any cause and infectious disease in the multivariable analyses (1.49 [1.15, 1.95] and 1.91 [1.09, 3.33]). Conclusions/interpretation: For predicting all-cause and CV mortality, 2hPG is superior to fPG after renal transplantation. Also, early post-transplant diabetes, IGT and postchallenge hyperglycaemia were significant predictors of death. Future studies should determine whether an OGTT helps identify renal transplant recipients at increased risk of premature death. © The Author(s) 2011. Source

Valderhaug T.G.,University of Oslo | Hjelmesaeth J.,Morbid Obesity Center | Jenssen T.,University of Oslo | Jenssen T.,University of Tromso | And 4 more authors.

Background: The association of early-onset posttransplantation hyperglycemia with long-term renal allograft survival is unknown. Methods: Seventy-one (SD 9) days after transplantation, 1410 first-time kidney transplant recipients without diabetes underwent an oral glucose tolerance test and were observed until primary outcome (graft loss) or December 31, 2008 (median [range], 6.0 years [0.3-13.8 years]). We used multivariable Cox regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, creatinine level, donor age, preemptive transplantation, deceased donor, early rejection, and early cytomegalovirus infection to estimate hazard ratios for overall and death-censored allograft survival. Results: A total of 392 (28%) recipients experienced graft failure, and 235 (60%) were induced by death. Each 1 mmol/L increase in 2-hr plasma glucose (2hPG) was associated with 7% and 3% increased risk of unadjusted and adjusted overall graft failure (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.07 [1.04-1.10] and 1.03 [1.00-1.07]). Fasting plasma glucose was associated with unadjusted but not adjusted overall graft failure (1.09 [1.01-1.18] and 1.07 [0.98-1.17]). Neither 2hPG nor fasting plasma glucose was associated with death-censored graft loss (P=0.578 and P=0.896). Compared with recipients with normal glucose tolerance, recipients with posttransplantation diabetes mellitus showed a tendency toward increased overall multiadjusted graft failure (1.30 [0.98-1.73]). This was not observed in patients with impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance. Conclusions: In this study, 2hPG was associated with overall graft failure but not death-censored graft failure. The link between 2hPG and graft failure may be explained by the association with mortality. © 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

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