Mora Ferenc Museum

Szeged, Hungary

Mora Ferenc Museum

Szeged, Hungary
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Balazs J.,University of Szeged | Zadori P.G.,University of Kaposvár | Vandulek C.,University of Pécs | Molnar E.,University of Szeged | And 8 more authors.
Acta Biologica Szegediensis | Year: 2015

Two human thoracolumbar spine remains showing angular kyphosis have been investigated. Both skeletons come from medieval Hungary; one of them was recovered from the skeletal material of Szeged Castle and the other one from the cemetery of Nyárlôrinc. Both cases show serious bone deformities; on account of a chronic pathological process, several vertebral bodies have been destroyed and have collapsed resulting in a gibbus. Because of the specific character of the lesions, the diagnosis of vertebral tuberculosis (TB) could be rendered probable even after the initial macroscopic observations. As for the spine from Nyárlorinc, the diagnosis of TB was confirmed by a molecular test too. A comparative paleoradiological analysis has also aided our diagnosis. The radiological picture is consistent with characteristics of Pott's disease in both cases.


Szecsenyi-Nagy A.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz | Szecsenyi-Nagy A.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Brandt G.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz | Haak W.,University of Adelaide | And 26 more authors.
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2015

Farming was established in Central Europe by the Linearbandkeramik culture (LBK), a well-investigated archaeological horizon, which emerged in the Carpathian Basin, in today's Hungary. However, the genetic background of the LBK genesis is yet unclear. Here we present 9 Y chromosomal and 84 mitochondrial DNA profiles from Mesolithic, Neolithic Starčevo and LBK sites (seventh/sixth millennia BC) from the Carpathian Basin and southeastern Europe. We detect genetic continuity of both maternal and paternal elements during the initial spread of agriculture, and confirm the substantial genetic impact of early southeastern European and Carpathian Basin farming cultures on Central European populations of the sixth–fourth millennia BC. Comprehensive Y chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA population genetic analyses demonstrate a clear affinity of the early farmers to the modern Near East and Caucasus, tracing the expansion from that region through southeastern Europe and the Carpathian Basin into Central Europe. However, our results also reveal contrasting patterns for male and female genetic diversity in the European Neolithic, suggesting a system of patrilineal descent and patrilocal residential rules among the early farmers. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Eötvös Loránd University, University of Szeged, Curt Engelhorn Center for Archaeometry, University College Dublin and 9 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Proceedings. Biological sciences | Year: 2015

Farming was established in Central Europe by the Linearbandkeramik culture (LBK), a well-investigated archaeological horizon, which emerged in the Carpathian Basin, in todays Hungary. However, the genetic background of the LBK genesis is yet unclear. Here we present 9 Y chromosomal and 84 mitochondrial DNA profiles from Mesolithic, Neolithic Starevo and LBK sites (seventh/sixth millennia BC) from the Carpathian Basin and southeastern Europe. We detect genetic continuity of both maternal and paternal elements during the initial spread of agriculture, and confirm the substantial genetic impact of early southeastern European and Carpathian Basin farming cultures on Central European populations of the sixth-fourth millennia BC. Comprehensive Y chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA population genetic analyses demonstrate a clear affinity of the early farmers to the modern Near East and Caucasus, tracing the expansion from that region through southeastern Europe and the Carpathian Basin into Central Europe. However, our results also reveal contrasting patterns for male and female genetic diversity in the European Neolithic, suggesting a system of patrilineal descent and patrilocal residential rules among the early farmers.


Bede A.,Mora Ferenc Museum | Salisbury R.B.,Vienna Institute for Archaeological Science | Csatho A.I.,Institute of Ecology and Botany | Czukor P.,Mora Ferenc Museum | And 3 more authors.
Central European Geology | Year: 2015

The Ecse-halom is a burial mound (kurgan) in the Hortobágy region of Hungary. Built in the Late Copper Age/Early Bronze Age by nomadic people from the east, it now stands on the border between two modern settlements. A road of medieval origin runs along this border and cuts deeply into the body of the mound. The southern half of the mound was plowed and used as a rice field, and later a military observation tower was built on top of it. Despite this disturbance, the surface of the mound is in decent condition and provides a home for regionally significant, species-rich loess steppe vegetation. The mound comprises two construction layers as indicated by magnetic susceptibility and thin-section micro-morphological analysis. Examination of organic compounds and carbonate content at various levels showed different values, which suggest a variety of natural and anthropogenic stratigraphic layers. Mid-sized siltstone fraction is dominant in the section. The layers originate from the immediate vicinity of the mound, but have different characteristics than present-day soils. These mounds contain a valuable record of cultural and environmental conditions occurring at the time of their construction, and also serve as a refuge for ancient loess vegetation; therefore their conservation is highly recommended. © 2015 The Author(s).


Peto A.,National Heritage Protection Center | Peto A.,Szent Istvan University | Gyulai F.,Szent Istvan University | Popity D.,Mora Ferenc Museum | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Archaeological Science | Year: 2013

A well-preserved assemblage of pottery and a broken stone artefact were excavated within a long house in the southern part of Tiszasziget, near the town of Szeged, Hungary. The settlement had been inhabited by the Late Neolithic Tisza culture around 5000-4500 BC. Based on the position of the finds it is suggested that the objects represent an ideologically-charged structured deposition. A piece of organic residue found in a mug (No. 18) with three-fold articulation has been subjected to macro- and microfloral analysis. After precise sampling of the residue, the standard methods to recover organic and inorganic plant remains were utilised. Based on the macrofloral and amino acid content analysis, it is suggested that the organic remains were pieces of fermented pastry made of cereal flour. The recovered silicified tissues and articulated phytoliths were subjected to morphometric measurements, which revealed that the food remain placed in the structured deposition was prepared of Triticum and - probably wild - Avena species. Starch granules of cereals were also detected, whilst the palynological evidence supports morphologies most likely to be related to the accompanying weed flora. The fortunate survival of the organic matter and the complex macro- and micro-archaeobotanical approach provided an unique opportunity to gain a better insight to the food preparation of Late Neolithic communities of the Carpathian Basin. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

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