Wang D.,Canadian Blood Services |
Wang D.,University of British Columbia |
Toyofuku W.M.,Canadian Blood Services |
Toyofuku W.M.,University of British Columbia |
And 3 more authors.
Biomaterials | Year: 2011
The induction of anergy or tolerance to prevent allorecognition is of clinical interest. To this end, the effects of methoxypoly(ethylene glycol) [mPEG] grafting to allogeneic lymphocytes on proliferation and phenotype (Th17 and Treg) was examined in vitro and in vivo. Control studies demonstrated that PEGylation did not affect cells viability or proliferation (mitogen) potential. Conditioned media (1° MLR) collected at 72 h from resting PBMC demonstrated no immunomodulatory effects whereas the control MLR demonstrated significant (p < 0.001) pro-proliferative potential and significantly increased in IL-2, TNF-α, and INF-γ. However, 1° media from either resting mPEG-PBMC or the PEGylated MLR resulted in a significant inhibitory effect (p < 0.001) in the 2° MLR and no increase in cytokines. PEGylation of donor murine splenocytes resulted in significant in vivo immunosuppressive effects in H2-disparate mice. While unmodified allogeneic splenocytes resulted in a significant in vivo decrease in Treg and increased Th17 lymphocytes, PEGylated allogeneic splenocytes yielded significantly increased Tregs and baseline levels of Th17 lymphocytes. This effect was persistent to at least 30 days post challenge and was not reversed by unmodified allogeneic cells. These studies demonstrate that PEGylation of allogeneic lymphocytes induced an immunoquiescent state both in vitro and in vivo. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Butenas S.,University of Vermont |
Parhami-Seren B.,University of Vermont |
Parhami-Seren B.,Moorpark College |
Undas A.,Jagiellonian University |
And 2 more authors.
Thrombosis Research | Year: 2010
Introduction: The quantitation of factor (F)VIII by activity-based assays is influenced by the method, procedure, the quality and properties of reagents used and concentrations of other plasma proteins, including von Willebrand factor (VWF). Objective: To compare FVIII concentrations measured by activity-based assays with those obtained by an immunoassay and to establish the influence of plasma dilution on the FVIII clotting activity (FVIIIc). Methods: The APTT, a chromogenic assay (Coatest) and two in-house immunoassays were used. Albumin-free recombinant FVIII was used as the calibrator in all assays. Results: For a group of 44 healthy individuals (HI), the mean value observed for FVIII antigen (FVIIIag; 1.22 ± 0.56 nM; S.D.) is substantially higher than that for FVIIIc (0.65 ± 0.29 nM) and the chromogenic assay (FVIIIch; 0.50 ± 0.23 nM). A positive correlation between FVIIIag and VWFag with R 2 = 0.20 was observed. Since plasma VWF has an inhibitory effect on FVIIIc, we evaluated the influence of plasma dilutions on FVIIIc in HI (n = 105). At a 4-fold dilution, estimates of FVIIIc by clotting assay were much lower than FVIIIag (0.77 ± 0.31 vs. 1.14 ± 0.48 nM). At 10- and 25-fold dilutions, the estimated FVIIIc increased to 0.87 ± 0.36 and 0.94 ± 0.44 nM, respectively. Conclusions: 1) In plasma, FVIIIag is higher than FVIIIc and FVIIIch; and 2) Real FVIII concentrations in plasma can be estimated by measuring FVIIIag. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zneimer S.M.,MOSYS Consulting |
Zneimer S.M.,Moorpark College
Cytogenetic Abnormalities: Chromosomal, FISH and Microarray-Based Clinical Reporting | Year: 2014
This guide discusses chromosomal abnormalities and how best to report and communicate lab findings in research and clinical settings. Providing a standard approach to writing cytogenetic laboratory reports, the guide further covers useful guidance on implementing International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature in reports. Part one of the guide explores chromosomal, FISH, and microarray analysis in constitutional cytogenetic analyses, while part two looks at acquired abnormalities in cancers. Both sections provide illustrative examples of chromosomal abnormalities and how to communicate these findings in standardized laboratory reports. © 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Romero C.E.,U.S. National Radio Astronomy Observatory |
Romero C.E.,University of Virginia |
Mason B.S.,University of Virginia |
Sayers J.,California Institute of Technology |
And 12 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2015
We present a technique to constrain galaxy cluster pressure profiles by jointly fitting Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect (SZE) data obtained with MUSTANG and Bolocam for the clusters Abell 1835 and MACS0647. Bolocam and MUSTANG probe different angular scales and are thus highly complementary. We find that the addition of the high-resolution MUSTANG data can improve constraints on pressure profile parameters relative to those derived solely from Bolocam. In Abell 1835 and MACS0647, we find gNFW inner slopes of γ= 0.36-0.21+0.33 and γ= 0.38-0.25+0.20 , respectively, when α and β are constrained to 0.86 and 4.67, respectively. The fitted SZE pressure profiles are in good agreement with X-ray derived pressure profiles. © 2015. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.
Young A.H.,University of Pennsylvania |
Young A.H.,NASA |
Mroczkowski T.,U.S. Navy |
Romero C.,U.S. National Radio Astronomy Observatory |
And 20 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2015
We present high resolution (9″) imaging of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect (SZE) toward two massive galaxy clusters, MACS J0647.7+7015 (z = 0.591) and MACS J1206.2-0847 (z = 0.439). We compare these 90 GHz measurements, taken with the Multiplexed Squid/TES Array at Ninety Gigahertz (MUSTANG ) receiver on the Green Bank Telescope, with generalized Navarro-Frenk-White (gNFW) models derived from Bolocam 140 GHz SZE data as well as maps of the thermal gas derived from Chandra X-ray observations. We adopt a serial-fitting approach, in which gNFW models are first fit to the Bolocam data and then compared to the MUSTANG data to determine an overall best-fit model. For MACS J0647.7+7015, we find a gNFW profile with core slope parameter γ = 0.9 fits the MUSTANG image with and probability to exceed (PTE) = 0.34. For MACS J1206.2-0847, we find , , and PTE = 0.70. In addition, we find a significant (>3σ) residual SZE feature in MACS J1206.2-0847 coincident with a group of galaxies identified in Very Large Telescope data and filamentary structure found in a weak-lensing mass reconstruction. We suggest the detected sub-structure may be the SZE decrement from a low mass foreground group or an infalling group. Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope measurements at 610 MHz reveal diffuse extended radio emission to the west, which we posit is either an active galactic nucleus-driven radio lobe, a bubble expanding away from disturbed gas associated with the SZE signal, or a bubble detached and perhaps re-accelerated by sloshing within the cluster. Using the spectroscopic redshifts available, we find evidence for a foreground (z = 0.423) or infalling group, coincident with the residual SZE feature. © 2015. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved..