Moorfields Biomedical Research Center

London, United Kingdom

Moorfields Biomedical Research Center

London, United Kingdom

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Mathew R.,King's College | Bafiq R.,King's College | Ramu J.,King's College | Pearce E.,King's College | And 6 more authors.
British Journal of Ophthalmology | Year: 2015

Aim: To evaluate spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) changes in central retina and choroid in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). Methods: Data on visual acuity, severity of sickle cell retinopathy, macular volume scans and choroidal thickness on SD-OCT were analysed from 208 eyes of 107 consecutive patients referred for screening for SCD. The retinal and choroidal thickness of eyes with SCD were also compared with age and ethnicity matched controls. Results: 44% of the eyes of patients with SCD showed discrete areas of retinal thinning in the temporal macular area. Proliferative sickle cell retinopathy was more prevalent in these eyes compared with SCD eyes with normal macular morphology (67% vs 48%; p=0.0017). The temporal total and inner retinal thickness, macular volume and choroidal thickness were significantly lower in patients with SCD compared with age, gender and ethnicity matched controls. Macular splaying (widening of the macular contour) was noted in 30% of eyes in both groups. The choroidal and retinal thickness values showed good intergrader reliability using weighted κ statistics (0.550-0.9). Conclusions: Quantitative and qualitative changes on SD-OCT are present in asymptomatic SCD eyes. Proliferative retinopathy is more prevalent in eyes with discrete areas of macular thinning.


Wilkins M.R.,Moorfields Eye Hospital | Wilkins M.R.,University College London | Allan B.D.,Moorfields Eye Hospital | Allan B.D.,University College London | And 6 more authors.
Ophthalmology | Year: 2013

Objective To compare spectacle independence in patients randomized to receive bilateral multifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs) or monofocal IOLs with the powers adjusted to produce monovision. Design Randomized, multicenter clinical trial. Participants A total of 212 patients with bilateral, visually significant cataract. Methods Before bilateral sequential cataract surgery, patients were randomized (allocation ratio 1:1) to receive bilateral Tecnis ZM900 diffractive multifocal lenses (Abbott Medical Optics, Santa Ana, CA) or Akreos AO monofocal lenses (Bausch & Lomb, Rochester, NY) with the powers adjusted to target -1.25 diopters (D) monovision. Outcomes were assessed 4 months after the second eye underwent operation. Main Outcome Measures The primary outcome was spectacle independence. Secondary outcomes included questionnaires (VF-11R, dysphotopsia symptoms, and satisfaction) and visual function measures (near, intermediate, and distance logarithm of minimum angle of resolution [logMAR] visual acuity, stereoacuity, contrast sensitivity, and forward light scatter). Results A total of 212 patients were randomized, and 187 patients (88%) returned for assessment 4 months after surgery. Uniocular distance refractions in the monovision arm showed a mean spherical equivalent of +0.075 D in the distance eye and -0.923 in the near eye. In the multifocal arm, the mean distance spherical equivalents were -0.279 D and -0.174 D in the right and left eyes, respectively. A total of 24 of 93 patients (25.8%) in the monovision arm and 67 of 94 patients (71.3%) in the multifocal arm reported never wearing glasses (P < 0.001, Fisher exact test). The adjusted odds ratio of being spectacle free was 7.51 (95% confidence interval, 3.89-14.47). Binocular uncorrected acuities did not differ significantly for distance (0.058 logMAR for monovision vs. 0.076 for multifocal, P = 0.3774) but were significantly worse in the multifocal arm for intermediate acuity (0.149 vs. 0.221, P = 0.0001) and in the monovision arm for near acuity (0.013 vs. -0.025, P = 0.037). In the first postoperative year, 6 patients (5.7%) in the multifocal arm underwent IOL exchange (4 had a bilateral and 2 had a unilateral exchange). No patients in the monovision arm underwent IOL exchange. Conclusions Patients randomized to bilateral implantation with the diffractive multifocal Tecnis ZM900 were more likely to report being spectacle independent but also more likely to undergo IOL exchange than those randomized to receive monofocal implants (Akreos AO) with the powers adjusted to give low monovision. Financial Disclosure(s) The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article. © 2013 by the American Academy of Ophthalmology Published by Elsevier Inc.


PubMed | The Royal Wolverhampton NHS Trust, Bristol Eye Hospital, Frimley Health NHS Foundation Trust, Moorfields Biomedical Research Center and King's College London
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Eye (London, England) | Year: 2015

To compare the clinical effectiveness and safety of 5-monthly fixed dosing vs pro-re-nata (PRN) Ozurdex treatment in patients with refractory diabetic macular oedema (DMO).Prospective, multicentre, randomized active-controlled non-inferiority clinical trial.Participants were 100 patients who attended Medical Retina Clinics for management of centre-involving refractory DMO.Participants were randomized 1:1 to either 5-monthly fixed dosing or optical coherence tomography (OCT)-guided PRN regimen of Ozurdex therapy for DMO. Data were collected on best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), patient-reported outcome measures (PROM), macular thickness and morphology, diabetic retinopathy status, number of injections and adverse events from baseline for a period of 12 months.Main outcome measuresThe primary outcome was the difference between arms in change in BCVA from baseline to 12 months. The prespecified non-inferiority margin was five ETDRS letters. Key secondary outcomes included change in PROM scores, change in macular thickness, change in retinopathy and macular morphology, and safety profile.The mean change in BCVA was +1.48 (SD 14.8) in the fixed arm vs -0.17 (SD 13.1) in the PRN arm, with adjusted effect estimate +0.97, 90% confidence interval (-4.01, +5.95), P=0.02 (per protocol analysis). The conclusions of the ITT analysis were primarily supportive, -0.34 (-5.49, 4.81) P=0.07, but sensitive to an alternative assumption on missing data, +0.28 (-4.72, 5.27) P=0.04.The mean change in BCVA with 5-monthly fixed dosing of Ozurdex was non-inferior to OCT-guided PRN Ozurdex therapy for refractory DMO based on a per protocol analysis.


PubMed | Moorfields Biomedical Research Center, University College London and King's College London
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Survey of ophthalmology | Year: 2016

Drusen have been considered the clinical hallmark of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Reticular pseudodrusen (RPD), although first described about 25 years ago, have only been recently recognized as an additional clinical phenotype of AMD with distinct characteristics on multimodal imaging and significant impact on visual function. Eyes with RPD are at greater risk of progression to advanced AMD when compared with eyes with drusen only. RPD can also occur in the absence of drusen. Unlike features external to the retinal pigment epithelium that have received most attention in AMD, evidence suggests that RPD are associated with changes internal to the RPE. Therefore, new avenues regarding the pathogenesis of AMD are highlighted by these recent observations. We summarize the current knowledge regarding the histology, imaging, and functional changes in eyes with RPD in AMD and offer concepts of future research for the AMD community to discuss.


Smith R.L.,University of Sao Paulo | Sivaprasad S.,Moorfields Biomedical Research Center | Chong V.,University of Oxford
Developments in Ophthalmology | Year: 2015

The vitreous, the vasculature of the retina, macular pigments, phototransduction, retinal pigment epithelium, Bruch's membrane and the extracellular matrix, all play an important role in the normal function of the retina as well as in diseases. Understanding the pathophysiology allows us to target treatment. As ocular angiogenesis, immunity and inflammation are covered elsewhere, those subjects will not be discussed in this chapter. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.


Butt T.,University College London | Dunbar H.M.P.,University College London | Morris S.,University College London | Orr S.,University College London | And 2 more authors.
Optometry and Vision Science | Year: 2013

PURPOSE: Health utility values suitable for calculating quality-adjusted life-years are increasingly used to assess the cost-effectiveness of treatments for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In the United States, health utilities are usually derived from the patients' own valuation or modeled using visual acuity as a surrogate outcome. In the United Kingdom and throughout Europe, health utilities are derived from public valuations. Our aim was to test if utility values for health states associated with AMD elicited directly from patients were different from those calculated from public tariffs for health-related quality of life (HRQoL) questionnaires. METHODS: Generic preference-based HRQoL questionnaires (EQ-5D and SF-6D) and the time trade-off (TTO) and visual analog scale (VAS) valuation techniques were administered to a sample of UK patients with AMD (N = 60). Health utilities were calculated using standard general population tariffs for the patient EQ-5D and SF-6D health states and directly from patient TTO and VAS scores. RESULTS: Mean utilities derived from the public tariffs were significantly higher than from patients' valuation (mean [±SD], 0.613 (±0.275) for the EQ-5D and 0.628 (±0.114) for the SF-6D compared with 0.481 [±0.411] for the TTO and 56.7 [±21.8] for the VAS score; p < 0.001). The EQ-5D was not significantly different from the SF-6D (p > 0.6). Visual acuity in the better seeing eye was not associated with any utility measure (all r < 0.08; p > 0.2). CONCLUSIONS: Patient and public preferences for health states associated with AMD are different, with patients valuing their health state more severely than the public tariffs of commonly used HRQoL questionnaires. Visual acuity did not predict health utility using any measure, and therefore, care should be taken when using visual acuity as a surrogate measure for utility in health economic analyses. © 2013 American Academy of Optometry.


Rubin G.S.,University College London | Rubin G.S.,Moorfields Biomedical Research Center
Vision Research | Year: 2013

Despite significant changes in the treatment of common eye conditions like cataract and age-related macular degeneration, reading difficulty remains the most common complaint of patients referred for low vision services. Clinical reading tests have been widely used since Jaeger introduced his test types in 1854. A brief review of the major developments in clinical reading tests is provided, followed by a discussion of some of the main controversies in clinical reading assessment. Data for the Salisbury Eye Evaluation (SEE) study demonstrate that standardised clinical reading tests are highly predictive of reading performance under natural, real world conditions, and that discrepancies between self-reported reading ability and measured reading performance may be indicative of people who are at a pre-clinical stage of disability, but are at risk for progression to clinical disability.If measured reading performance is to continue to increase in importance as a clinical outcome measure, there must be agreement on what should be measured (e.g. speed or comprehension) and how it should be measured (e.g. reading silently or aloud). Perhaps most important, the methods for assessing reading performance and the algorithms for scoring reading tests need to be optimised so that the reliability and responsiveness of reading tests can be improved. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Erikitola O.C.,Moorfields Biomedical Research Center | Crosby-Nwaobi R.,Moorfields Biomedical Research Center | Lotery A.J.,University of Southampton | Sivaprasad S.,Moorfields Biomedical Research Center
Eye (Basingstoke) | Year: 2014

Purpose Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) is an idiopathic disorder characterised by detachment of the neurosensory retina due to serous fluid accumulation between the photoreceptor outer segments and the retinal pigment epithelium. There are currently no set guidelines or protocols on its treatment. This study was undertaken to assess the current literature on the the efficacy and safety of photodynamic therapy (PDT) as a treatment option for CSCR. Methods Seven databases (PubMed, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Web of Science, Embase, Scopus, and The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews) were searched without restrictions on time or location. We followed PRISMA guidelines and evaluated quality according to STROBE criteria. In total, 117 citations were identified and 31 studies describing 787 eyes were included for review. Data on indications for PDT in CSCR, dosing regimens of verteprofin PDT (which includes treatment dose of vertoporfin, treatment time, fluence, and spot size), number of treatment sessions, response to treatment, mean length of follow-up, and complications were extracted and analysed.ResultsSince the introduction of PDT for the treatment of CSCR in 2003, there have been three randomised controlled trials (RCTs), one for acute and two chronic CSCR and 28 further studies that met the STROBE criteria that compared the use of PDT with other treatment options. All studies showed short-term efficacy of PDT in CSCR. The studies were of small sample size and lacked sufficient follow-up to draw conclusions on long-term efficacy and safety.ConclusionsThere is sufficient scientific evidence to suggest that PDT may be a useful treatment option for chronic CSCR in the short-term. The review identifies a need for robust RCTs with longer follow-up to ascertain the role of PDT as a useful treatment option for CSCR. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.


Nicholson L.,Moorfields Biomedical Research Center | Ramu J.,Moorfields Biomedical Research Center | Triantafyllopoulou I.,Moorfields Biomedical Research Center | Patrao N.V.,Moorfields Biomedical Research Center | And 3 more authors.
Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology | Year: 2015

Background: Disorganization of the retinal inner layers (DRIL) on optical coherence tomography (OCT) is thought to represent retinal capillary non-perfusion (CNP) in eyes with diabetic retinopathy. This study was designed to evaluate the ability of DRIL to accurately predict CNP. Design: Retrospective masked reliability and diagnostic accuracy study performed in the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Moorfields Biomedical Research Centre, London, UK Samples: Retinal images of patients with diabetic retinopathy Methods: The OCT images from 90 separate areas of angiographically confirmed perfused and non-perfused areas of the macula from 37 eyes of 31 patients were anonymized and coded. Two masked graders independently graded these OCT scans for the presence or absence of DRIL to determine the intergrader reliability. The diagnostic accuracy of DRIL in identifying CNP was evaluated from the results obtained. Main Outcome Measures: Sensitivity and specificity of DRIL in accurately detecting CNP Results: The intergrader agreement was high with a Cohen's kappa of 0.909. DRIL was present in 84.4% (38/45) of non-perfused retina and none in perfused retina (0/45). The sensitivity and specificity of DRIL in detecting angiographic evidence of CNP was 84.4% and 100%, respectively. The positive predictive value was 100% and the negative predictive value was 86.5%. Conclusions: The presence of DRIL is a reliable predictor of areas of macular CNP. However, DRIL is not a universal finding of non-perfusion, with some cases exhibiting absence of DRIL despite angiographic CNP. © 2015 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.


Sivaprasad S.,Moorfields Biomedical Research Center | Arden G.,Moorfields Biomedical Research Center
Eye (Basingstoke) | Year: 2016

Visual function improves with oxygen inhalation in people with diabetes even in the absence of visible retinopathy. Rods consume the most oxygen in the retina due to the high metabolic activity required to maintain the dark current. Therefore, Arden hypothesized that in diabetes where oxygen supply may also be affected due to the changes in retinal vasculature, prevention of dark adaptation may be a viable option to prevent or decrease the rate of progression of diabetic retinopathy. Animal experiments have proven that the absence of rods decreases the development of retinal neovascularisation. The same principle applies to panretinal photocoagulation, an established treatment for proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Recently, a few clinical studies have also shown that preventing dark adaptation by suppressing rods with 500-nm light source at night decreases the rate of progression of early diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy in the short-term. We await the results of a large two-year multi-centre trial (CLEOPATRA trial) to evaluate the long-term effects of decreasing dark adaptation by applying a 500nm light source as a mask over eyes with non-central diabetic macular oedema. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights.

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