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Armaforte E.,University College Cork | Armaforte E.,University of Bologna | Curran E.,University College Cork | Huppertz T.,University College Cork | And 10 more authors.
International Dairy Journal | Year: 2010

Understanding the differences between the protein system of human milk and bovine milk is critical in the development of infant formulae. In this study, the proteins of bovine milk and a bovine-based whey-dominant infant formula were compared with those of human milk for infants born prematurely (pre-term) or at full term (term). The protein distribution of infant formula differed significantly from that of either type of human milk. A proteomic comparison between pre-term and term human milk showed a reduction of levels of β-casein and αs-casein and appearance of additional products, corresponding to low molecular weight hydrolysis products of the caseins, in pre-term milk. Pre-term milk samples also had higher total nitrogen concentration and plasmin activity, consistent with the proteomic data. These results suggest the operation of a physiological mechanism that may adjust enzyme and/or protein expression to modify protein digestibility, and may facilitate design of infant formulae, closer to maternal milk, particularly for premature infants. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Marc Y.L.,UK Institute of Food Research | Skandamis P.N.,Agricultural University of Athens | Belessi C.I.A.,Agricultural University of Athens | Merkouri S.I.,Agricultural University of Athens | And 6 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2010

This study aims to model the effects of acid and osmotic shifts on theintermediate lag time of Listeria monocytogenes at 10°C in a growth medium. The model was developed from data from a previous study (C. I. A. Belessi, Y. Le Marc, S. I. Merkouri, A. S. Gounadaki, S. Schvartzman, K. Jordan, E. H. Drosinos, and P. N. Skandamis, submitted for publication) on the effects of osmotic and pH shifts on the kinetics of L. monocytogenes. The predictive ability of the model was assessed on new data in milk. The effects of shifts were modeled through the dependence of the parameter h0 ("work to be done"prior to growth) induced on the magnitude of the shift and/or the stringency of the new environmental conditions. For shifts acrossthe boundary, the lag time was found to be affected by the length of time fo which the microorganisms were kept at growth-inhibiting conditions. The predicted concentrations of L. monocytogenes in milk were overestimated whenthe effects of this shift were not taken into account. Th model proved to be suitable to describe the effects of osmotic and acid shifts observed bothwithin the growth domain and across the growth boundaries of L. monocytogenes. © 2010 American Society for Microbiology. Source

O'Beirne D.,University of Limerick | Gleeson E.,University of Limerick | Auty M.,Moorepark Food Research Center | Jordan K.,Moorepark Food Research Center
Food Control | Year: 2014

The effects of severity of slicing and peeling, and of storage atmosphere and temperature on the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 at and below the cut surfaces of fresh-cut carrot discs were determined. Slicing with a blunt machine blade enhanced penetration of E.coli O157:H7 and its subsequent survival during storage at 8°C. Significantly (P<0.05) higher numbers of cells (0.5logCFUg-1) penetrated deeper (475-500, 725-750 and 975-1000μm) into carrot tissue sliced with a blunt machine blade compared to those sliced with a razor blade. Counts on Day 3 and Day 5 of storage remained higher in carrot tissue sliced with a blunt machine blade at all depths sampled. There were no significant effects of peeling method on penetration and survival. Storage of carrot slices in sub-optimal atmospheres (20%CO2/1%O2 resulted in increased survival of cells at the surface and within the tissue compared to storage in more optimal atmospheres (5% CO2/3% O2). Increasing storage temperature from 4 to 10°C resulted in growth of E.coli O157:H7 at all sample depths. For all experiments, E.coli O157:H7 cells colonising the surface generally survived better than cells that penetrated into the tissue. The data are relevant to improving microbial safety in the fresh-cut sector by demonstrating that cutting with sharp blades (e.g. during harvesting and processing) reduces the depth of potential contamination by E.coli O157:H7. This may also have implications for more efficient anti-microbial dipping and reduced pathogen survival during storage. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Mateo M.J.,Moorepark Food Research Center | O'Callaghan D.J.,Moorepark Food Research Center | Everard C.D.,Moorepark Food Research Center | Castillo M.,Moorepark Food Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Food Research International | Year: 2010

This study focuses on the prediction ability of several optical sensing techniques, namely single wavelength (980 nm), broad spectrum and colour coordinates, for monitoring key syneresis indices during cheese manufacture. Three series of trials were undertaken in which milk gel was cut and stirred in an 11 L cheese vat. Three full factorial designs were employed with experimental variables consisting of: (i) three curd stirring speeds and three cutting programmes; (ii) three milk fat levels and three gel firmness levels at cutting; and (iii) two milk protein levels and three fat:protein ratio levels in the respective experiments. Models developed using the range of techniques investigated demonstrated that an on-line visible-NIR sensor was able to predict curd moisture content. However, the broad spectrum technique was the only one capable of predicting whey solids. The findings show that on-line sensing techniques can significantly improve the control of curd moisture content in cheese factories, across the range of experimental variables used in this study. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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