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Cameron J.D.,University of Ottawa | Riou M.-E.,University of Ottawa | Tesson F.,University of Ottawa | Goldfield G.S.,University of Ottawa | And 6 more authors.
Appetite | Year: 2013

Introduction: Polymorphisms of the dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) gene have been associated with obesity phenotypes. Our aim was to examine if the genotype of TaqIA Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFPL) was related to an attenuated weight loss response or to changes in energy expenditure (EE) and food preference before and after weight loss. Methods: Obese post-menopausal women (age=57.1±4.6yr, weight=85.4±15.4kg and BMI=32.8±4.5kg/m2) were genotyped for TaqIA (n=127) by using PCR-RFLP analysis and categorized as possessing at least one copy of the A1 allele (A1+) or no copy (A1-). Women were randomized into two groups, caloric restriction (CR) and caloric restriction+resistance training (CRRT) and in this study were further classified as follows: A1+CR, A1+CRRT, A1--CR and -A1-CRRT. Body composition, total daily EE, physical activity EE, Resting EE (REE), and energy intake were obtained at baseline and post-intervention using DXA, doubly-labeled water, indirect calorimetry, and 3-day dietary records, respectively. Results: Overall, all of the anthropometric variables and REE significantly decreased post-intervention (p<0.001). Women in the CRRT group lost significantly more fat mass (FM) than the CR women (p<0.05). There were significant time by group by allele interactions for attenuated body weight (BW), BMI, and FM loss for A1+ (vs. A1-) in CRRT (p<0.05) and for increased % carbohydrate intake (p<0.01). Conclusion: TaqIA genotype was associated with body weight loss post-intervention; more specifically, carriers of the A1 allele lost significantly less BW and FM than the A1- and had increased carbohydrate intake in the CRRT group. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Lavoie M.-E.,University of Montreal | Lavoie M.-E.,Montreal Institute for Clinical Research IRCM | Rabasa-Lhoret R.,University of Montreal | Rabasa-Lhoret R.,Montreal Institute for Clinical Research IRCM | And 7 more authors.
International Journal of Obesity | Year: 2010

Objective: Chronic subclinical inflammation and regular physical activity have opposing relationships to obesity-related metabolic diseases. Yet, the association between chronic inflammation and physical activity has rarely been examined in obese subjects. We examined the association between physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE), total (TEE) and resting energy expenditure (REE) and cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2 peak) with inflammatory markers in overweight/obese women. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: The study included 152 overweight/obese postmenopausal women who were sedentary and free of chronic/inflammatory diseases (mean age: 57.5 (95% confidence interval (CI) 56.7-58.3) years, body mass index (BMI): 32.5 (95% CI 31.8-33.2) kg m -2). The following parameters were measured: TEE (doubly labeled water), REE (indirect calorimetry), PAEE (as (TEE × 0.90)REE), VO 2 peak (ergocycle) and serum high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), haptoglobin, soluble tumor necrosis factor-α receptor 1 ( sTNFR1), interleukin-6, orosomucoid and white blood cells. Results: Sedentary women with the highest tertile of PAEE (1276 (1233-1319) kcal day -1) had lower concentrations of hsCRP and haptoglobin than those in the lowest tertile (587 (553-621) kcal day-1) after adjustment for fat mass (P<0.05). Soluble TNFR1 was positively correlated with VO 2 peak, TEE and REE (P<0.05), and hsCRP and orosomucoid were positively associated with REE (P0.01), whereas haptoglobin was negatively associated with PAEE (P<0.05). In stepwise regression analyses that examined the concomitant associations of components of energy expenditure with inflammatory markers, PAEE remained the only predictor of hsCRP and haptoglobin (P<0.05), explaining 14 and 5%, respectively, of their variation,whereas REE was the only predictor of orosomucoid (r2=0.05,=P0.02) after adjustment for fat mass. Adding leptin to the regression models results in similar relationships between inflammatory markers and components of energy expenditure. Conclusion: PAEE is an independent predictor of hsCRP and haptoglobin in sedentary overweight/obese postmenopausal women free of chronic disease. Our data support the role of physical activity in reducing subclinical inflammation and risk of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved. Source

Abdulnour J.,University of Ottawa | Yasari S.,University of Ottawa | Rabasa-Lhoret R.,Montreal Institute for Clinical Research IRCM | Rabasa-Lhoret R.,University of Montreal | And 6 more authors.
Obesity | Year: 2014

Objective To measure the circulating levels of endocannabinoids and related molecules at fasting, after acute hyperinsulinemia and after weight loss in insulin sensitive vs. insulin resistant obese postmenopausal women. Design and Methods The sample consisted of 30 obese postmenopausal women (age: 58.9 ± 5.2 yrs; BMI: 32.9 ± 3.6 kg/m2). Subjects underwent a 3-hour hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp (HEC) (glucose disposal rate (M-value): 10.7 ± 3.3 mg min-1 kg-1 FFM) and 6-month weight loss intervention. Participants were classified as insulin sensitive obese (ISO) or insulin resistant obese (IRO) based on a predefined cutoff. Plasma levels of the endocannabinoids, anandamide (AEA), 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), and of the AEA-related compounds, palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) and oleoylethanolamide (OEA), were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results IRO presented higher levels of 2-AG (P < 0.05) independently of the HEC and weight loss, whereas the HEC had an independent inhibitory effect on AEA, PEA, and OEA levels (P < 0.05) in both groups. Furthermore, there was an independent stimulatory effect of weight loss only on PEA levels in both groups (P < 0.05). Conclusions This study is the first to show that higher circulating levels of the endocannabinoid 2-AG are found in IRO compared to ISO postmenopausal women, and that weight loss is associated with an increase in PEA, a PPAR-α ligand. © 2013 The Obesity Society. Source

Brazeau A.S.,University of Montreal | Brazeau A.S.,Montreal Institute for Clinical Research IRCM | Mircescu H.,University of Montreal | Mircescu H.,Montreal Institute for Clinical Research IRCM | And 7 more authors.
Diabetes and Metabolism | Year: 2012

Aim: Perceived barriers are one determinant of physical activity. Depending on the study population, these barriers can vary. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and predictive validity of the 'Barriers to Physical Activity in Type 1 Diabetes' (BAPAD-1) scale, developed by Dubé et al. Methods: A total of 77 adults (48% women; age: 43.5±10.4; body mass index: 25.2±4.3kg/m 2; HbA 1c: 7.6±1.3%) with type 1 diabetes completed the questionnaire and an evaluation of their physical activity using an accelerometer (8.4±1.2 days) and cardiorespiratory fitness assessment (VO 2 peak). To evaluate the temporal stability of the questionnaire, a subgroup of 17 participants answered the BAPAD-1 scale on both visits required by the protocol (10±4 days). Results: The BAPAD-1 scale showed good internal validity with an inter-items correlation coefficient (Cronbach's correlation) of 0.85. The intraclass correlation coefficient for the two times the scales were completed was 0.80. The BAPAD-1 score was negatively correlated with both physical activity energy expenditure (r=-0.25; P=0.03) and VO 2 peak adjusted for gender and age (r=-0.27; P=0.02). Conclusion: The BAPAD-1 scale is a reliable and valid tool for assessing salient barriers to physical activity. In future, this scale could be used to describe the factors accounting for physical activity, and for planning interventions aimed at promoting physical activity among adults with type 1 diabetes. © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. Source

Brazeau A.S.,Montreal Institute for Clinical Research IRCM | Brazeau A.S.,University of Montreal | Mircescu H.,Montreal Institute for Clinical Research IRCM | Mircescu H.,University of Montreal | And 9 more authors.
Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice | Year: 2013

Aims: Carbohydrate counting is an established approach used by patients with type 1 diabetes to improve their glycemic control. The aims of this study were to evaluate, in real life conditions, the accuracy of meal carbohydrate estimate and its impact on glycemic variability. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we observed the ability of 50 adults (48% women) with type 1 diabetes (age: 42.7 ± 11.1 years); diabetes duration: 21.4 ± 12.7 years; HbA1c: 7.2 ± 1.2% (60 ± 10. mmol/mol) to accurately estimate carbohydrates by analyzing 72-h food records and their corresponding 72-h blood glucose excursions using a continuous glucose monitor. Results: The mean meal carbohydrate difference, between the patients' estimates and those assessed by a dietitian using a computerized analysis program, was 15.4±7.8g or 20.9±9.7% of the total CHO content per meal (72.4±34.7g per meal). Sixty-three percent of the 448 meals analyzed were underestimated. Greater differences in CHO's estimates predicted higher glycemic variability, as measured by the MAGE index and glucose standard deviation, and decreased time with glucose values between 4 and 10mmol/L (R2=0.110, 0.114 and 0.110, respectively; P<0.05). Conclusion: Inaccurate carbohydrate counting is frequent and associated with higher daily blood glucose variability in adults with type 1 diabetes. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

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