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Rancoule C.,University Paul Sabatier | Dusaulcy R.,University Paul Sabatier | Treguer K.,University Paul Sabatier | Gres S.,University Paul Sabatier | And 2 more authors.
Biochimie | Year: 2014

Autotaxin (ATX) is a secreted lysophospholipase D involved in synthesis of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a phospholipid growth factor acting via specific receptors (LPA1R to LPA6R) and involved in several pathologies including obesity. ATX is secreted by adipocytes and contributes to circulating LPA. ATX expression is up-regulated in obese patients and mice in relationship with insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance. LPA1R is the most abundant subtype in adipose tissue. Its expression is higher in non-adipocyte cells than in adipocytes and is not altered in obesity. ATX increases and LPA1R decreases while preadipocytes differentiate into adipocytes (adipogenesis). LPA inhibits adipogenesis through down-regulation of the pro-adipogenic transcription factor PPARγ2. Adipocyte-specific knockout (FATX-KO) mice or mice treated with the LPAR antagonist Ki16425 gain more weight and accumulate more adipose tissue than wild type or control mice fed a high fat diet (HFD). These observations suggest that LPA (via LPA1R) exerts a tonic inhibitory effect on adipose tissue expansion that could, at least in part, result from the anti-adipogenic activity of LPA. A possible negative impact of LPA on insulin-sensitivity might also be considered. Despite being more sensitive to nutritional obesity, FATX-KO and Ki16425-treated mice fed a HFD show improved glucose tolerance when compared to wild type mice. Moreover, exogenously injected LPA acutely impairs glucose tolerance and insulin secretion. These observations show that LPA exerts a tonic deleterious impact on glucose homeostasis. In conclusion, ATX and LPA1R represent potential interesting pharmacological targets for the treatment of obesity-associated metabolic diseases. © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved. Source


Prentki M.,University of Montreal | Madiraju S.R.M.,Montreal Diabetes Research Center
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology | Year: 2012

Pancreatic β-cells secrete insulin in response to fluctuations in blood fuel concentrations, in particular glucose and fatty acids. However, chronic fuel surfeit can overwhelm the metabolic, signaling and secretory capacity of the β-cell leading to its dysfunction and death - often referred to as glucolipotoxicity. In β-cells and many other cells, glucose and lipid metabolic pathways converge into a glycerolipid/free fatty acid (GL/FFA) cycle, which is driven by the substrates, glycerol-3-phosphate and fatty acyl-CoA, derived from glucose and fatty acids, respectively. Although the overall operation of GL/FFA cycle, consisting of lipolysis and lipogenesis, is " futile" in terms of energy expenditure, this metabolic cycle likely plays an indispensable role for various β-cell functions, in particular insulin secretion and excess fuel detoxification.In this review, we discuss the significance of GL/FFA cycle in the β-cell, its regulation and role in generating essential metabolic signals that participate in the lipid amplification arm of glucose stimulated insulin secretion and in β-cell growth. We propose the novel concept that the lipolytic segment of GL/FFA cycle is instrumental in producing signals for insulin secretion, whereas, the lipogenic segment generates signals relevant for β-cell survival/death and growth/proliferation. © 2011. Source


Poitout V.,Montreal Diabetes Research Center | Poitout V.,University of Montreal
Diabetologia | Year: 2013

The incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide are secreted by enteroendocrine cells and augment glucose-induced insulin secretion in response to food ingestion in a glucose-dependent manner. This mechanism forms the basis for incretin-based therapies in type 2 diabetes. However, the insulinotropic effect of incretins is diminished in type 2 diabetic patients, due in part to reduced expression of incretin receptors as a consequence of glucotoxicity. In this issue of Diabetologia, Kang et al (DOI: 10.1007/s00125-012-2776-x) provide evidence that in addition to glucotoxicity, lipotoxicity also affects incretin receptor expression and signalling in insulin-secreting cells and isolated islets. In animal models of diabetes, the authors show that co-administration of a lipid-lowering drug with a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor or a glucagon-like peptide-1 agonist improved glucose tolerance and beta cell mass. These novel findings provide convincing support for the notion that restoring normal circulating lipid levels in type 2 diabetes might help improve the efficacy of incretin-based therapies. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Li B.,McGill University | Lu Y.,McGill University | Srikant C.B.,McGill University | Gao Z.-H.,McGill University | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology | Year: 2013

The antidiabetic mechanism of bariatric surgery includes specific changes in the secretion of incretins. To identify additional players originating from the gut, we evaluated the effects of duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB) in morbidly obese Zucker fatty rats. A fast relief of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia was achieved even before a significant weight loss occurred. Fourteen days after DJB, we characterized the changes in intestinal histochemistry in the bypassed duodenum and shortcut jejunum that was reanastomosed directly to the starting point of the duodenum and compared with the corresponding regions of sham-operated rats. The bypassed duodenum exhibited mucosal atrophy and apoptosis and decreased proliferative renewal. In shortcut jejunum, DJB resulted in 40% significantly enlarged intestinal circumference and increased epithelial proliferation, especially in putative transit-amplifying (TA) cells and the crypt. Because Reg family proteins promote cell growth and survival, we explored their expression in the intestine. With the use of immunohistochemistry, Reg1, -3α, and -3β were normally expressed in intestinal mucosa. After DJB, the level of Reg1 protein was reduced, whereas Reg3α and -3β were not changed in bypassed duodenum. Downstream in shortcut jejunum, the levels of Reg1 and -3β were greatly induced and especially concentrated in the putative TA cells. Our results revealed significant changes in the integrity and proliferation of the intestinal mucosa as a consequence of DJB, and in cell- and isoform-specific expression of Reg proteins within the replicating mucosal epithelium, and provide evidence indicating that the activation of Reg proteins may contribute to intestinal compensation against increased load and/or to improving insulin sensitivity. © 2013 the American Physiological Society. Source


Fulton S.,Montreal Diabetes Research Center
Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology | Year: 2010

The tendency to engage in or maintain feeding behaviour is potently influenced by the rewarding properties of food. Affective and goal-directed behavioural responses for food have been assessed in response to various physiological, pharmacological and genetic manipulations to provide much insight into the neural mechanisms regulating motivation for food. In addition, several lines of evidence tie the actions of metabolic signals, neuropeptides and neurotransmitters to the modulation of the reward-relevant circuitry including midbrain dopamine neurons and corticolimbic nuclei that encode emotional and cognitive aspects of feeding. Along these lines, this review pulls together research describing the peripheral and central signalling molecules that modulate the rewarding effects of food and the underlying neural pathways. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

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