Montreal Behavioural Medicine Center

Montréal, Canada

Montreal Behavioural Medicine Center

Montréal, Canada
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Laurin C.,Montreal Behavioural Medicine Center | Laurin C.,Montreal Heart Institute | Laurin C.,Concordia University at Montréal | Moullec G.,Montreal Behavioural Medicine Center | And 7 more authors.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2012

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality. COPD is also associated with high levels of psychological distress, which has been linked with higher exacerbation rates. At a recent American Thoracic Society conference symposium titled "Depression and Obstructive Lung Disease: State of the Science and Future Directions" held in 2010 in New Orleans, clinicians and researchers identified a number of important research priorities related to psychiatric comorbidities, including the need to better understand their impact on COPD outcomes, such as exacerbations. This article reviews the current literature andquantifies the prospective impact of anxiety anddepression on exacerbation risk in patients with COPD. The limitations of the existing literature and the perspectives for future research are addressed. Copyright © 2012 by the American Thoracic Society.

Austin A.W.,Montreal Behavioural Medicine Center | Austin A.W.,Concordia University at Montréal | Wissmann T.,University of Bern | Von Kanel R.,University of Bern
Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis | Year: 2013

Numerous naturalistic, experimental, and mechanistic studies strongly support the notion that-as part of fight-or-flight response-hemostatic responses to acute psychosocial stress result in net hypercoagulability, which would protect a healthy organism from bleeding in case of injury. Sociodemographic factors, mental states, and comorbidities are important modulators of the acute prothrombotic stress response. In patients with atherosclerosis, exaggerated and prolonged stress-hypercoagulability might accelerate coronary thrombus growth following plaque rupture. Against a background risk from acquired prothrombotic conditions and inherited thrombophilia, acute stress also might trigger venous thromboembolic events. Chronic stressors such as job strain, dementia caregiving, and posttraumatic stress disorder as well as psychological distress from depressive and anxiety symptoms elicit a chronic low-grade hypercoagulable state that is no longer viewed as physiological but might impair vascular health. Through activation of the sympathetic nervous system, higher order cognitive processes and corticolimbic brain areas shape the acute prothrombotic stress response. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic dysfunction, including vagal withdrawal, are important regulators of hemostatic activity with longer lasting stress. Randomized placebo-controlled trials suggest that several cardiovascular drugs attenuate the acute prothrombotic stress response. Behavioral interventions and psychotropic medications might mitigate chronic low-grade hypercoagulability in stressed individuals, but further studies are clearly needed. Restoring normal hemostatic function with biobehavioral interventions bears the potential to ultimately decrease the risk of thrombotic diseases. © 2013 by Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc.

Doonan R.J.,McGill University | Scheffler P.,McGill University | Yu A.,McGill University | Egiziano G.,McGill University | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: Studies showed that long-standing smokers have stiffer arteries at rest. However, the effect of smoking on the ability of the vascular system to respond to increased demands (physical stress) has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of smoking on arterial stiffness and subendocardial viability ratio, at rest and after acute exercise in young healthy individuals. Methods/Results: Healthy light smokers (n = 24, pack-years = 2.9) and non-smokers (n = 53) underwent pulse wave analysis and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity measurements at rest, and 2, 5, 10, and 15 minutes following an exercise test to exhaustion. Smokers were tested, 1) after 12h abstinence from smoking (chronic condition) and 2) immediately after smoking one cigarette (acute condition). At rest, chronic smokers had higher augmentation index and lower aortic pulse pressure than non-smokers, while subendocardial viability ratio was not significantly different. Acute smoking increased resting augmentation index and decreased subendocardial viability ratio compared with non-smokers, and decreased subendocardial viability ratio compared with the chronic condition. After exercise, subendocardial viability ratio was lower, and augmentation index and aortic pulse pressure were higher in non-smokers than smokers in the chronic and acute conditions. cfPWV rate of recovery of was greater in non-smokers than chronic smokers after exercise. Non-smokers were also able to achieve higher workloads than smokers in both conditions. Conclusion: Chronic and acute smoking appears to diminish the vascular response to physical stress. This can be seen as an impaired 'vascular reserve' or a blunted ability of the blood vessels to accommodate the changes required to achieve higher workloads. These changes were noted before changes in arterial stiffness or subendocardial viability ratio occurred at rest. Even light smoking in young healthy individuals appears to have harmful effects on vascular function, affecting the ability of the vascular bed to respond to increased demands. © 2011 Doonan et al.

Bourbeau J.,McGill University | Bourbeau J.,Montreal Chest Institute | Lavoie K.L.,University of Quebec at Montréal | Lavoie K.L.,Montreal Behavioural Medicine Center | Sedeno M.,McGill University
Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2015

In this article, we provide a review of the literature on self-management interventions and we are giving some thought to how, when, and by whom they should be offered to patients. The present literature based on randomized clinical trials has demonstrated benefits (reduced hospital admissions and improved health status) for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients undergoing self-management interventions, although there are still problems with the heterogeneity among interventions, study populations, follow-up time, and outcome measures that make generalization difficult in real life. Key to the success, self-management intervention has to target behavior change. Proper self-management support is a basic prerequisite, for example, techniques and skills used by health care providers case manager to instrument patients with the knowledge, confidence, and skills required to effectively self-manage their disease. To improve health behaviors and engagement in self-management, self-management interventions need to target enhancing intrinsic motivation to change. This will best be done using client-centered communication (motivational communication) that encourages patients to express what intrinsically motivates them (e.g., consistent with their values or life goals) to adopt certain health behavior, with the goal of helping them overcome their ambivalence about change. Finally, if we want to be able to design and implement self-management interventions that are integrated, coherent, and have a strong likelihood of success, we need to take a more careful look and give more attention at the case manager, the patient (patient evaluation), and the quality assurance. © 2015 by Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc.

Johnson C.,University of Sydney | Raj T.S.,The George Institute for Global Health | Trudeau L.,Jewish General Hospital | Bacon S.L.,Concordia University at Montréal | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Hypertension | Year: 2015

The authors provided a systematic review of the clinical and population health impact of increased dietary salt intake during 1 year. Randomized controlled trials or cohort studies or meta-analyses on the effect of sodium intake were examined from Medline searches between June 2013 to May 2014. Quality indicators were used to select studies that were relevant to clinical and public health. A total of 213 studies were reviewed, of which 11 (n=186,357) were eligible. These studies confirmed a causal relationship between increasing dietary salt and increased blood pressure and an association between several adverse health outcomes and increased dietary salt. A new association between salt intake and renal cell cancer was published. No study that met inclusion criteria found harm from lowering dietary salt. The findings of this systematic review are consistent with previous data relating increased dietary salt to increased blood pressure and adverse health outcomes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Goodwin R.D.,Columbia University | Lavoie K.L.,University of Quebec at Montréal | Lavoie K.L.,Montreal Heart Institute | Lavoie K.L.,Montreal Behavioural Medicine Center | And 4 more authors.
Nicotine and Tobacco Research | Year: 2012

Introduction: Previous studies have shown links between anxiety and depression and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but little is known about possible mechanisms of this association. The current study examined whether the observed relationship between anxiety and depression and COPD is explained by confounding due to cigarette smoking and lifetime nicotine dependence. Methods: Data were drawn from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, a community-based representative sample of adults in the United States. Results: Analyses suggest that the association between anxiety disorders and COPD appears to be largely explained by confounding by former cigarette smoking and lifetime nicotine dependence. The association between mood disorders and COPD appears to be largely explained by confounding by lifetime nicotine dependence. Conclusions: These findings provide initial evidence suggesting that the association between anxiety, depression, and COPD may be at least partly attributable to confounding by cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence. Efforts toward prevention of chronic lung disease may be more effective if treatment and prevention efforts aimed at smoking cessation address mental health problems. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved.

Laurin C.,Montreal Behavioural Medicine Center | Moullec G.,Montreal Behavioural Medicine Center | Bacon S.L.,Montreal Behavioural Medicine Center
Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease | Year: 2011

Background: Exacerbations are common in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and contribute significantly to COPD morbidity and mortality. COPD is also associated with high levels of psychological distress, which has been shown to be associated with higher exacerbation rates. However, the existing literature on the association between psychological distress and exacerbation risk remains largely misunderstood. Objectives: To critically review the current literature on the association between psychological distress (defined as anxiety and depressive symptoms or anxiety and depressive disorders) and COPD exacerbations in COPD patients, to highlight the limitations of the existing literature, and to provide recommendations for future research. Methods: A critical review of English-language peer-reviewed longitudinal and retrospective studies was conducted. The Ovid portal to Medline, EMBASE, and PsycINFO databases were accessed. Results: Some acceptable evidence suggested that psychological distress confers greater risk for exacerbations, more specifically symptom-based exacerbations or those treated in the patient's own environment. However, most studies showed an absence of a positive association, especially with exacerbations leading to hospitalization. Conclusions: Methodological weaknesses and the use of a wide range of psychological tools mean that there is an inconsistent association between psychological distress and exacerbations in the current literature. However, psychological distress may confer greater risk for symptom-based rather than event-based defined exacerbations. Further studies are needed to more comprehensively assess the question, particularly in light of the high levels of both anxiety and depression in COPD patients. © 2011 The Author(s).

Favreau H.,Montreal Behavioural Medicine Center | Favreau H.,University of Montréal | Favreau H.,University of Quebec at Montréal | Bacon S.L.,Montreal Behavioural Medicine Center | And 8 more authors.
Psychosomatic Medicine | Year: 2014

Background: Panic disorder (PD) is a common anxiety disorder among asthmatic patients with overlapping symptoms (e.g., hyperventilation). However, the longitudinal impact of PD on asthma control remains poorly understood. This study assessed the impact of PD and panic-anxiety on asthma control over a 4.3-year follow-up in 643 adult asthmatic patients. METHODS: Consecutive patients presenting to a tertiary asthma clinic underwent a sociodemographic, medical history, and psychiatric (Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders) interview and completed questionnaires including the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI) to assess panic-anxiety. At follow-up, patients completed the Asthma Control (ACQ) and Asthma Quality of Life (AQLQ) questionnaires and reported emergency department visits and hospitalizations during the follow-up. RESULTS: Baseline frequency of PD was 10% (n = 65). In fully adjusted models, analyses revealed that PD and ASI scores predicted worse follow-up ACQ total scores (β = 0.292, p = .037; β = 0.012, p = .003) but not AQLQ total scores. ASI scores also predicted greater nocturnal and waking symptoms, activity limitations, and bronchodilator use on the ACQ (β = 0.012-0.018, p < .05) as well as lower symptom (β = -0.012, p = .006) and emotional distress (β = -0.014, p = .002) subscale scores on the AQLQ. Neither PD nor ASI scores were associated with hospitalizations, although ASI scores (but not PD) were associated with an increased risk of emergency department visits (relative risk = 1.023, 95% confidence interval = 1.001-1.044). CONCLUSIONS: PD and anxiety sensitivity are prospectively associated with poorer asthma control and may be important targets for treatment. © 2014 by the American Psychosomatic Society.

Bernard P.,Montpellier University | Bernard P.,Montpellier University Hospital Center | Ninot G.,Montpellier University | Moullec G.,Montreal Behavioural Medicine Center | And 7 more authors.
Nicotine and Tobacco Research | Year: 2013

Introduction: Smoking is significantly more common among persons with major depressive disorders (MDDs). Furthermore, smokers with MDD report more difficulties when they quit smoking (greater withdrawal symptoms, higher probability of relapse). The aim of this narrative review is to describe research on exercise and depression and exercise and smoking cessation. Methods: We have critically reviewed various smoking cessation intervention programs for depressive smokers examining (a) the protective effect of exercise against relapse for smokers with MDD and (b) the benefits of exercise for treating withdrawal symptoms. We have also reviewed the current literature investigating the mechanisms between exercise-depression and exercise-smoking. Results: This review suggests that exercise may reduce depressive symptoms following cessation and provide a useful strategy for managing withdrawal symptoms in smokers with MDD. Various psychological, biological, and genetic hypotheses have been tested (e.g., distraction hypothesis, expectations hypothesis, cortisol hypothesis) and few have obtained significant results. Conclusions: It might be beneficial for health professionals to recommend physical activity and promote supervised exercise sessions for smokers with MDD during smoking cessation. Future research needs to examine relationships between exercise, smoking, and depression with transdisciplinary and ecological momentary assessment. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved.

Pelaez S.,Montreal Behavioural Medicine Center | Bacon S.L.,Montreal Behavioural Medicine Center | Lacoste G.,Montreal Behavioural Medicine Center | Lavoie K.L.,Montreal Behavioural Medicine Center
Journal of Asthma | Year: 2016

Background and objectives: Adherence to daily asthma controller medication has been shown to be the most effective component of asthma self-management; however, patient's adherence to asthma medication remains poor. This study aimed to understand how patients' long-term asthma controller medication adherence may be improved and facilitated by comparing key asthma stakeholders' perspectives. Method: Six focus group interviews including 38 asthma stakeholders (n = 13 patients, n = 13 pulmonologist physicians, and n = 12 allied healthcare professionals) were conducted. Interviews were qualitatively analysed. Results: Although similar themes were brought up across different asthma stakeholders, the way in which they were framed differed across stakeholders. The most salient discussion revolved around the content and the moment in which asthma education should be approached to facilitate patients' adherence to asthma medication. Conclusion: Asthma medication adherence is a complex process and successful interventions aimed at its improvement would benefit from: (a) making an effort to understand patients' experiences and negotiate the treatment regimen, rather than imposing recommendations; (b) considering treatment as a shared responsibility involving the patient, the healthcare professional(s), and the patients' social networks; and, (c) taking into account different stakeholders' concerns, needs, perspectives, and knowledge. © 2016 Taylor & Francis

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