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Estoup A.,Montpellier SupAgro | Guillemaud T.,University of Nice Sophia Antipolis
Molecular Ecology | Year: 2010

Detailed knowledge about the geographical pathways followed by propagules from their source to the invading populations - referred to here as routes of invasion - provides information about the history of the invasion process and the origin and genetic composition of the invading populations. The reconstruction of invasion routes is required for defining and testing different hypotheses concerning the environmental and evolutionary factors responsible for biological invasions. In practical terms, it facilitates the design of strategies for controlling or preventing invasions. Most of our knowledge about the introduction routes of invasive species is derived from historical and observational data, which are often sparse, incomplete and, sometimes, misleading. In this context, population genetics has proved a useful approach for reconstructing routes of introduction, highlighting the complexity and the often counterintuitive nature of the true story. This approach has proved particularly useful since the recent development of new model-based methods, such as approximate Bayesian computation, making it possible to make quantitative inferences in the complex evolutionary scenarios typically encountered in invasive species. In this review, we summarize some of the fundamental aspects of routes of invasion, explain why the reconstruction of these routes is useful for addressing both practical and theoretical questions, and comment on the various reconstruction methods available. Finally, we consider the main insights obtained to date from studies of invasion routes. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Guillaume S.,IRSTEA | Charnomordic B.,Montpellier SupAgro
Information Sciences | Year: 2011

Fuzzy inference systems (FIS) are likely to play a significant part in system modeling, provided that they remain interpretable following learning from data. The aim of this paper is to set up some guidelines for interpretable FIS learning, based on practical experience with fuzzy modeling in various fields. An open source software system called FisPro has been specifically designed to provide generic tools for interpretable FIS design and learning. It can then be extended with the addition of new contributions. This work presents a global approach to design data-driven FIS that satisfy certain interpretability and accuracy criteria. It includes fuzzy partition generation, rule learning, input space reduction and rule base simplification. The FisPro implementation is discussed and illustrated through several detailed case studies. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Rossi J.-P.,Montpellier SupAgro
Diversity | Year: 2011

The paper describes rich, a new R package to perform species richness estimation and comparison. Species richness is the simplest surrogate for the more complex concept of species biodiversity. It is relatively easy to assess although estimations strongly depend on sampling intensity with the consequence that richness estimations should be standardized to perform valid comparisons. The R package rich allows such corrections as well as the computation of various statistics and implements different randomization tests to compare cumulative and average species richness of two communities. These tests are useful for ranking sites or communities which is a classical goal in restoration ecology and conservation biology. © 2011 by the authors.


Chapuis E.,Montpellier SupAgro
Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society | Year: 2012

Our current understanding on how pathogens evolve relies on the hypothesis that pathogens' transmission is traded off against host exploitation. In this study, we surveyed the possibility that trade-offs determine the evolution of the bacterial insect pathogen, Xenorhabdus nematophila. This bacterium rapidly kills the hosts it infects and is transmitted from host cadavers to new insects by a nematode vector, Steinernema carpocapsae. In order to detect trade-offs in this biological system, we produced 20 bacterial lineages using an experimental evolution protocol. These lineages differ, among other things, in their virulence towards the insect host. We found that nematode parasitic success increases with bacteria virulence, but their survival during dispersal decreases with the number of bacteria they carry. Other bacterial traits, such as production of the haemolytic protein XaxAB, have a strong impact on nematode reproduction. We then combined the result of our measurements with an estimate of bacteria fitness, which was divided into a parasitic component and a dispersal component. Contrary to what was expected in the trade-off hypothesis, we found no significant negative correlation between the two components of bacteria fitness. Still, we found that bacteria fitness is maximized when nematodes carry an intermediate number of cells. Our results therefore demonstrate the existence of a trade-off in X. nematophila, which is caused, in part, by the reduction in survival this bacterium causes to its nematode vectors.


Meynard C.N.,Montpellier SupAgro | Kaplan D.M.,Montpellier University
Ecography | Year: 2012

Species distribution models (SDMs) have been widely used in ecology, biogeography, and conservation. Although ecological theory predicts that species occupancy is dynamic, the outputs of SDMs are generally converted into a single occurrence map, and model performance is evaluated in terms of success to predict presences and absences. The aim of this study was to characterize the effects of a gradual response in species occupancy to environmental gradients into the performance of SDMs. First we outline guidelines for the appropriate simulation of artificial species that allows controlling for gradualism and prevalence in the occupancy patterns over an environmental gradient. Second, we derive theoretical expected values for success measures based on presence-absence predictions (AUC, Kappa, sensitivity and specificity). And finally we used artificial species to exemplify and test the effect of a gradual probabilistic occupancy response to environmental gradients on SDM performance. Our results show that when a species responds gradually to an environmental gradient, conventional measures of SDM predictive success based on presence-absence cannot be expected to attain currently accepted performance values considered as good, even for a model that recovers perfectly well the true probability of occurrence. A gradual response imposes a theoretical expected value for these measures of performance that can be calculated from the species properties. However, irrespective of the statistical modeling strategy used and of how gradual the species response is, one can recover the true probability of occurrence as a function of environmental variables provided that species and sample prevalence are similar. Therefore, model performance based on presence-absence should be judged against the theoretical expected value rather than to absolute values currently in use such as AUC > 0.8. Overall, we advocate for a wider use of the probability of occurrence and emphasize the need for further technical developments in this sense. © 2011 The Authors. Ecography © 2011 Nordic Society Oikos.

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