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Murviel-lès-Montpellier, France

Martelotto L.G.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | De Filippo M.R.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Ng C.K.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Natrajan R.,Institute of Cancer Research | And 17 more authors.
Journal of Pathology | Year: 2015

Adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC) is a rare type of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) characterized by the presence of the MYB-NFIB fusion gene. The molecular underpinning of breast AdCCs other than the MYB-NFIB fusion gene remains largely unexplored. Here we sought to define the repertoire of somatic genetic alterations of breast AdCCs. We performed whole-exome sequencing, followed by orthogonal validation, of 12 breast AdCCs to determine the landscape of somatic mutations and gene copy number alterations. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and reverse-transcription PCR were used to define the presence of MYB gene rearrangements and MYB-NFIB chimeric transcripts. Unlike common forms of TNBC, we found that AdCCs have a low mutation rate (0.27 non-silent mutations/Mb), lack mutations in TP53 and PIK3CA and display a heterogeneous constellation of known cancer genes affected by somatic mutations, including MYB, BRAF, FBXW7, SMARCA5, SF3B1 and FGFR2. MYB and TLN2 were affected by somatic mutations in two cases each. Akin to salivary gland AdCCs, breast AdCCs were found to harbour mutations targeting chromatin remodelling, cell adhesion, RNA biology, ubiquitination and canonical signalling pathway genes. We observed that, although breast AdCCs had rather simple genomes, they likely display intra-tumour genetic heterogeneity at diagnosis. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that the mutational burden and mutational repertoire of breast AdCCs are more similar to those of salivary gland AdCCs than to those of other types of TNBCs, emphasizing the importance of histological subtyping of TNBCs. Furthermore, our data provide direct evidence that AdCCs harbour a distinctive mutational landscape and genomic structure, irrespective of the disease site of origin. © 2015 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Mazel M.,Montpellier University | Jacot W.,Montpellier Cancer Institute ICM | Pantel K.,University of Hamburg | Bartkowiak K.,University of Hamburg | And 8 more authors.
Molecular Oncology | Year: 2015

Immune checkpoint regulators such as PD-L1 have become exciting new therapeutic targets leading to long lasting remissions in patients with advanced malignancies. However, in view of the remarkable costs and the toxicity profiles of these therapies, predictive biomarkers able to discriminate responders from non-responders are urgently needed. In the present paper, we provide evidence that PD-L1 is frequently expressed on metastatic cells circulating in the blood of hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer patients. We performed western blot, flow cytometry and immunocytochemical analyses to demonstrate the specificity of the PDL1 antibody used in our study and established immunoscores for PDL1 expression on single tumor cells. We then selected sixteen patients with circulating tumor cells (CTCs) using the CellSearch® system and found PD-L1(+) CTCs in 11 patients (68.8%). The fraction of PD-L1(+) CTCs varied from 0.2 to 100% in individual patients. This is the first report demonstrating the expression of PD-L1 on CTCs. The established CTC/PD-L1 assay can be used for liquid biopsy in future clinical trials for stratification and monitoring of cancer patients undergoing immune checkpoint blockade. © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Source

Frouin E.,Montpellier University Hospital Center | Frouin E.,Montpellier University | Guillot B.,Montpellier University | Guillot B.,Montpellier University Hospital Center | And 13 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

The inhibitors of mutant BRAF that are used to treat metastatic melanoma induce squamoproliferative lesions. We conducted a prospective histopathological and molecular study on 27 skin lesions from 12 patients treated with vemurafenib. Mutation hot spots in HRAS, NRAS, KRAS, BRAF, and Pi3KCA were screened. HPV and HPyV infection status were also determined. The lesions consisted of 19 verrucal papillomas, 1 keratoacanthoma and 7 squamous cell carcinomas. No mutations were found within BRAF and NRAS. KRAS, HRAS, and Pi3KCA oncogenic mutations were found in 10 (83.3%), 7 (58.3%), and 4 (33.3%) patients respectively; however, these mutations were not consistent within all tumors of a given patient. Pi3KCA mutation was always associated with a mutation in HRAS. Finally, no correlation was found between the mutated gene or type of mutation and the type of cutaneous tumor or clinical response to vemurafenib. P16 protein level was not indicative of HPV infection. HPV was detected in only two lesions. Two cases had MCPyV, and one had HPyV7. In conclusion, neither HPV nor HPyV seem to be involved in the development of squamoproliferative lesions induced by verumafenib. By contrast, HRAS and KRAS play a predominant role in the physiopathology of these tumors. © 2014 Frouin et al. Source

Fusco N.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Fusco N.,University of Milan | Colombo P.-E.,Montpellier Cancer Institute ICM | Martelotto L.G.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | And 8 more authors.
Histopathology | Year: 2016

Aims: The aims of this study were to perform a whole-exome sequencing analysis of a breast cylindroma and to investigate the role of molecular analyses in the differentiation between breast cylindroma, a benign tumour that displays MYB expression, and CYLD gene mutations, and its main differential diagnosis, the breast solid-basaloid adenoid cystic carcinoma, a malignant tumour that is characterized by the presence of the MYB-NFIB fusion gene and MYB overexpression. Methods and results: A 66-year-old female underwent quadrantectomy after an irregular dense shadow was discovered in the right breast at the screening mammogram. Histologically, the tumour displayed features suggestive of a solid-basaloid variant of adenoid cystic carcinoma with a differential diagnosis of cylindroma. Fluorescence in situ hybridization, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry and whole-exome sequencing revealed absence of the MYB-NFIB fusion gene, low levels of MYB protein expression and a clonal somatic CYLD splice site mutation associated with loss of heterozygosity of the wild-type allele. Conclusions: The results of the histological, immunohistochemical and molecular analyses were consistent with a diagnosis of breast cylindroma, providing a proof-of-principle that the integration of histopathological and molecular approaches can help to differentiate between a low-malignant potential and a benign breast tumour of triple-negative phenotype. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Lacombe J.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Mange A.,Montpellier University Hospital Center | Mange A.,Montpellier University | Mange A.,Montpellier Cancer Institute ICM | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Immunology Research | Year: 2014

The widespread use of screening mammography has resulted in increased detection of early-stage breast disease, particularly for in situ carcinoma and early-stage breast cancer. However, the majority of women with abnormalities noted on screening mammograms are not diagnosed with cancer because of several factors, including radiologist assessment, patient age, breast density, malpractice concerns, and quality control procedures. Although magnetic resonance imaging is a highly sensitive detection tool that has become standard for women at very high risk of developing breast cancer, it lacks sufficient specificity and costeffectiveness for use as a general screening tool. Therefore, there is an important need to improve screening and diagnosis of early-invasive and noninvasive tumors, that is, in situ carcinoma. The great potential for molecular tools to improve breast cancer outcomes based on early diagnosis has driven the search for diagnostic biomarkers. Identification of tumor-specific markers capable of eliciting an immune response in the early stages of tumor development seems to provide an effective approach for early diagnosis. The aim of this review is to describe several autoantibodies identified during breast cancer diagnosis. We will focus on these molecules highlighted in the past two years and discuss the potential future use of autoantibodies as biomarkers of early-stage breast cancer. © 2014 Jérôme Lacombe et al. Source

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