The Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey is located in Monterey, California, USA. Founded in 1955, the Institute specializes in international policy, environmental policy, international business, language teaching, and translation and interpretation.The Institute has two graduate professional schools, the Graduate School of Translation, Interpretation, and Language Education and the Graduate School of International Policy and Management, and five research centers. The Institute awards Masters of Arts , Master of Business Administration , Masters of Public Administration , and numerous certificates across a variety of disciplines. The Institute's mission is to create an academic community committed to preparing the next generation of leaders in cross-cultural, multilingual environments. In 2011, the Institute produced more Fulbright Fellows per capita than any other graduate school in the US. Wikipedia.
Langholz J.A.,Monterey Institute of International Studies |
Michele T. Jay-Russell,University of California at Davis
Human-Wildlife Interactions | Year: 2013
The safety of fresh produce is an important concern in the United States, especially in the wake of recent national foodborne illness outbreaks. The agricultural industry has implemented steps to enhance food safety along the entire farm-to-fork supply chain. This includes on-farm measures to exclude wildlife and to remove its habitat in and around fields. Farmers and others from across the United States have expressed concern about the ecological consequences and uncertain food safety benefits of such practices. This article reviews the scientific rationale behind management of wildlife and its habitat as part of good agriculture practices for enhancing food safety. The review concludes that, although pathogen prevalence has been documented in wildlife at overall low levels, the potential role that wildlife and its habitat play in pathogenic contamination remains unclear and is interwoven with pathogenic risk from human and domesticated animal sources. The characterization and disruption of potential links between livestock and wildlife is highlighted as a research priority. The findings underscore the importance of appropriate wildlife research and management in the context of food safety and to human-wildlife interactions in general, and they have implications wherever fresh produce is grown in the United States.
Kahrl F.,University of California at Berkeley |
Kahrl F.,Energy and Environmental Economics Inc. |
Williams J.H.,Energy and Environmental Economics Inc. |
Williams J.H.,Monterey Institute of International Studies |
Hu J.,North China Electrical Power University
Energy Policy | Year: 2013
The transition to a cleaner and more cost-efficient electricity system in China is political-economic as well as technological. An example is the reform of China's method of dispatching power plants, which potentially affects the economic relationships between consumers and producers, between grid and generating companies, and between central and provincial governments. Historically, coal-fired power plants in China all received roughly the same number of operating hours, regardless of efficiency or cost. In 2007, Chinese government agencies began to pilot "energy efficient dispatch," which requires that generators be dispatched on the basis of thermal efficiency. Using a case study of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in southern China, we evaluated potential energy and cost savings from a change to energy efficient dispatch. We found that the savings are at best relatively small, because large, efficient generators already account for a significant share of total generation. Moreover, as an administrative policy that does not change economic incentives, energy efficient dispatch exacerbates imbalances and center-provincial tensions in the current system. We argue that incentive-based dispatch reform is likely to produce better outcomes, and that the keys to this reform are empowering an independent regulator with pricing authority and establishing a formal, transparent ratemaking process. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Kahrl F.,University of California at Berkeley |
Williams J.,Energy and Environmental Economics Inc. |
Williams J.,Monterey Institute of International Studies |
Jianhua D.,Energy and Environmental Economics Inc. |
Junfeng H.,North China Electrical Power University
Energy Policy | Year: 2011
We examine the challenges to China's transition to a low carbon electricity system, in which renewable energy would play a significant role. China's electricity system currently lacks the flexibility in planning, operations, and pricing to respond to conflicting pressures from demand growth, rising costs, and environmental mandates in a way that simultaneously maintains reliability, decarbonizes the system, and keeps prices within acceptable bounds. Greater flexibility crucially requires the ability to more systematically and transparently manage and allocate costs. This will require re-orientating sector institutions still rooted in central planning, and strengthening independent regulation. Some of the necessary changes require fundamental political and legal reforms beyond the scope of energy policy. However, the system's flexibility can still be increased through the development of traditional planning and regulatory tools and approaches, such as an avoided cost basis for energy efficiency investments, more integrated planning to improve the coordination of generation, transmission, and demand-side investments, and a transparent ratemaking process. The judicious application of OECD electricity sector experience and skills can support these developments. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Gennet S.,Nature Conservancy |
Howard J.,Nature Conservancy |
Langholz J.,Monterey Institute of International Studies |
Andrews K.,Nature Conservancy |
And 2 more authors.
Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment | Year: 2013
Floodplain and riparian ecosystems are noteworthy for their biodiversity conservation value as well as for their widespread conversion to agriculture. Recent evidence indicates that the conversion of remaining habitat may be accelerating because of a new threat: on-farm practices meant to promote food safety. Nationwide, US fruit and vegetable farmers report being pressured by commercial produce buyers to engage in land-use practices that are not conducive to wildlife and habitat conservation, in a scientifically questionable attempt to reduce food-borne illness risk. We measured the extent of impacts from some of these practices in a leading produce-growing region of California. Over a 5-year period following an outbreak of toxic Escherichia coli from spinach, a crop grown extensively in the region, 13.3% of remaining riparian habitat was eliminated or degraded. If these practices were implemented statewide, across all crops, up to 40% of riparian habitat and 45% of wetlands in some counties would be affected. This study highlights the importance of managing farms for both food safety and ecological health through the use of an evidence-based, adaptive management approach. Ongoing biodiversity loss and global integration of the food supply make these findings relevant wherever produce is grown. © The Ecological Society of America.
Shrimali G.,Monterey Institute of International Studies |
Jenner S.,University of Tübingen
Renewable Energy | Year: 2013
Using a panel database for 27 programs in 16 U.S. states over 1998-2009, we assess the impact of 12 state-level policies on the cost and deployment of solar photovoltaic (PV) technologies for two sectors defined by system sizes: residential (<10kW) and commercial (10-100kW). We first examine the impact of policies on the deployment of solar PV. We show that cash incentives increase the deployment of commercial systems. We also show that interconnection standards potentially promote the deployment of residential systems, whereas property tax incentives potentially foster the deployment of commercial systems. We next examine the impact of policies on the cost of solar PV, and show that the key policies have different effects on costs. The cost of residential systems declines faster if there are cash or property tax incentives in place, whereas the presence of interconnection standards potentially accelerates the decline in commercial system costs. Further, states with a renewable portfolio standard see residential system costs potentially declining slower than states without such a policy. As solar PV is at the brink of becoming cost competitive, our findings assist regulators in fine-tuning their set of support tools. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Langholz J.,Monterey Institute of International Studies
Great Plains Research | Year: 2010
Like many parts of the world, the Northern Great Plains laces immense challenges to sustainable land use. Privately owned conservation areas have emerged as a potential solution. This artiele reviews five global trends in so-called private protected areas and discusses their implications lor the Northern Great Plains. The trends point to five recommendations to the Northern Great Plains community: (1) act now to tap rapidly growing policy support; (2) combine many models, including private protected areas that are owned by individuals and groups, formal and informal, large and small, and are dedicated to strict protection as well as sustainable use; (3) cultivate diverse revenue streams with emphasis on carbon payments, hunting, and tourism; (4) connect spatially through private-public or private-private partnerships to generate both ecological and economic benefits; and (5) cultivate a reputation for delivering high-quality products and services. The trends and recommendations should be of interest wherever landowners, policy makers, academics, and others seek to integrate economics with ecology in the Northern Great Plains. © 2010 Copyright by the Center for Great Plains Studies, University of Nebraska-Lincoln.
Sahoo A.,Stanford University |
Shrimali G.,Monterey Institute of International Studies
Energy Policy | Year: 2013
Often, a goal of renewable energy policies is the development of domestic renewable energy technology manufacturing capacity. The Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (NSM) in India is an example; besides targeting an installation of 20. GW of grid-tied solar power capacity, it includes a domestic content requirement (DCR) to strengthen a solar photovoltaic manufacturing base. We ask whether the DCR of the NSM will be effective in ensuring the global competitiveness of the beneficiary sector. Our analysis reveals three observations that indicate this outcome is unlikely: (1) the manufacturing base has become less competitive over time, (2) developers may be favoring thin-film technology, thereby bypassing the DCR, which applies specifically to crystalline silicon cells and modules and (3) gaps in the Indian innovation system are likely to prevent a return to competitiveness by solar photovoltaic manufacturers. In particular, a comparison with the Chinese innovation system indicates shortcomings in the Indian innovation system of R&D capabilities, coordination of resource provision and complementary industrial strengths. Given these observations, we suggest that policymakers remove the solar photovoltaic DCR from the NSM. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Zarsky L.,Monterey Institute of International Studies |
Stanley L.,Center for the Study of State and Society
Journal of Environment and Development | Year: 2013
This article develops a framework to evaluate net benefits from mining and utilizes it to assess the Marlin mine in Guatemala. The framework integrates "weak" and "strong" sustainability principles. Under weak sustainability, a net gain in human welfare can substitute for the loss of nonrenewable resources. Under strong sustainability, nature's life-support systems are not substitutable. We define "net benefits" as the joint generation of net gains to human welfare, defined as local acceptance and high economic benefits, and low risks to the resilience of environmental life-support systems, especially water, evidenced by best practice management standards. We find little evidence that the Marlin mine meets either weak or strong sustainability criteria: there is strong local resistance to the mine and economic benefits are low, while environmental risk is high, especially in terms of potential long-term contamination of life-supporting ground and surface water. © The Author(s) 2013.
Langholz J.A.,Monterey Institute of International Studies |
Abeles A.,Stanford University
Marine Policy | Year: 2014
Postgraduate education for marine conservation has failed to keep up with the field's most pressing needs. A growing body of literature has documented a chasm between the skills being taught at universities and the skills most needed for effective conservation. In addition to traditional disciplinary topics, postgraduate institutions should also deliver priority skills for successful ocean conservation. This paper examines survey responses from 30 marine conservationists who have been publicly recognized for achieving noteworthy success. Respondents provided quantitative rankings of skills that were most instrumental to their success, and which of these skills should be learned at university rather than on the job. Results focused on innovation (e.g., thinking creatively, developing a compelling vision), collaboration (e.g., organizational partnering, building and leading teams), and communication (e.g., the art of persuasion, listening well). The findings suggest a new direction in postgraduate education with potential implications for ocean conservation practitioners as well as university personnel engaged in training future marine leaders. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Gueldry M.,Monterey Institute of International Studies
International Journal of Social Sustainability in Economic, Social and Cultural Context | Year: 2016
Sustainability and culture are elusive concepts whose complex rapport warrants systematic consideration. Therefore, this paper seeks to clarify key meanings and uses of the word “culture/s” for sustainability analyses and practices, uses the United States and France as case studies to illustrate how culture influences sustainability at the national level, and explores how intercultural competence may be mobilized for sustainability. We borrow from the United Nations’ International Institute for Sustainable Development to define sustainability as a linchpin concept and a comprehensive approach that cuts across traditional intellectual and empirical divisions. Then we propose a definition of the concept of “social capital” for sustainability and argue that sustainability has a psychologicalcultural core and entails a substantive cultural shift. Next, our consideration of the connections between sustainability and culture shows that sustainability defined largo sensu entails 1) the right cognitive, scientific, and technological ideas (culture for sustainability); 2) social norms, values, and stories that critique business-and-power-as-usual and inspire better practices (culture of sustainability); 3) a firm grounding in ethics and compassion beyond morality-as-usual (culture toward sustainability); 4) the flourishing of cultural pluralism and of social capital (sociocultural sustainability); and 5) intercultural competence to negotiate sustainability objectives across cultures. Understanding the role of culture for social change and using this knowledge to mobilize stakeholders empowers advocates of sustainability sciences and practices. © Common Ground Publishing, Michel Gueldry, All Rights Reserved.