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Dragoman M.V.,Montefiore Medical Center
Best Practice and Research: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynaecology | Year: 2014

The introduction of the birth control pill as an effective, coitally-independent method of contraception was a public health milestone of the last century. Over time, combined oral contraception (COC) formulations and pill-taking regimens have evolved with improved safety and tolerability while maintaining contraceptive efficacy. In addition to protection against pregnancy, use of combined oral contraception confers a number of significant non-contraceptive benefits to users. COC use is also associated with well-studied risks. Common side effects are generally self-limiting and improve with increasing duration of use while serious adverse events, including venous thromboembolism, are rare among healthy COC users. Contraceptive decision-making should include consideration of both the risks and benefits of a given method versus the real consequences of unintended pregnancy. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Sambaziotis C.,Montefiore Medical Center
The Journal of arthroplasty | Year: 2012

Porous tantalum (Zimmer, Inc, Warsaw, Ind) has the theoretical advantage of improved biologic fixation because of its high porosity, interconnected pore space, and modulus of elasticity. We present a case report documenting the retrieval and bone ingrowth analysis of a porous tantalum tibial component in an infected total knee arthroplasty. Results demonstrated a significantly larger amount of bone ingrowth present in the tibial posts (36.7%) when compared with the bone ingrowth into the tibial baseplate (4.9%) (P < .001). The data suggest that bone ingrowth seen in the plugs as well as baseplate was suggestive of viable bone tissue with healthy bone marrow, osteocytes, and lamella, resulting in a well-fixed tibial implant even at revision surgery for an infected total knee arthroplasty. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Travin M.I.,Montefiore Medical Center
Seminars in Nuclear Medicine | Year: 2014

Heart failure (HF) is a major problem, with a high prevalence, morbidity, mortality, and cost, and is expected to become more widespread. Radionuclide imaging currently plays an important role in evaluating these patients, with much potential for increased utility. Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with radiotracers is commonly used to differentiate an ischemic from a nonischemic etiology of HF and cardiomyopathy. In some instances, MPI effectively distinguishes among these, but often, standard MPI is deficient in that a nonischemic cardiomyopathy can have focal defects in tracer uptake and coronary artery disease with global balanced ischemia can result in a normal-appearing perfusion pattern. Developments in measuring quantitative blood flow promise to provide a more accurate determination of HF etiology. If coronary artery disease is established, MPI has long established use for assessment of myocardial viability and identification of patients likely to benefit from revascularization. Although a recent multicenter trial substudy has questioned the benefits of viability imaging, specific limitations of this study must be balanced against previously demonstrated utility. At the same time, viability imaging may need to be directed more skillfully toward carefully selected patients. In patients with HF who are not candidates for revascularization, myocardial remodeling often leads to poor patient outcome. Newer nuclear analyses of myocardial shape and of dyssynchronous contraction or relaxation can risk stratify patients and may help guide therapy. Investigative molecular imaging techniques promise to better understand underlying pathophysiology and guide therapy on an individual basis. Finally, recent approval of a tracer for cardiac autonomic innervation imaging should greatly expand the use of radionuclide imaging in HF, potentially guiding proper use of life saving but expensive and high-risk mechanical therapies. Given the molecular basis of much of the pathophysiology of HF, the contribution of cardiac radionuclide imaging to improve patient care should increase. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Klampfer L.,Montefiore Medical Center
Current Cancer Drug Targets | Year: 2011

Patients with inflammatory bowel diseases, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, are at increased risk of developing colon cancer, confirming that chronic inflammation predisposes to development of tumors. Moreover, it appears that colon cancers that do not develop as a complication of inflammatory bowel disease are also driven by inflammation, because it has been shown that regular use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) lowers the mortality from sporadic colon cancer and results in regression of adenomas in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patients, who inherit a mutation in the Apc gene. Colorectal cancer therefore represents a paradigm for the link between inflammation and cancer. Inflammation is driven by soluble factors, cytokines and chemokines, which can be produced by tumor cells themselves or, more often, by the cells recruited to the tumor microenvironment. Inflammatory cytokines and chemokines promote growth of tumor cells, perturb their differentiation, and support the survival of cancer cells. Tumor cells become addicted to inflammatory stroma, suggesting that the tumor microenvironment represents an attractive target for preventive and therapeutic strategies. Proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNFα, IL-6 and IL-1β, or transcription factors that are required for signaling by these cytokines, including NF-κB and STATs, are indeed emerging as potential targets for anticancer therapy. TNFα antagonists are in phase I/II clinical trials and have been shown to be well tolerated in patients with solid tumors, and IL-1β antagonists that ameliorate several inflammatory disorders characterized by excessive IL-1β production, will likely follow. Therefore, development of drugs that normalize the tumor microenvironment or interrupt the crosstalk between tumor and the tumor microenvironment is an important approach to the management of cancer. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. Source

Gartrell B.A.,Montefiore Medical Center | Saad F.,Center Hospitalier Of Iuniversite Of Montreal
Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology | Year: 2014

Advanced-stage prostate cancer is associated with skeletal complications related to metastatic disease and its treatment. On the one hand, metastatic disease to bone is commonly associated with skeletal-related events (SREs); on the other hand, treatment with androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) leads to loss in bone mineral density (BMD) and increased risk of fracture. Despite osteoblastic appearance on radiography, bone metastases from prostate cancer are associated with increased osteoblast and osteoclast activity providing the rationale for treatment with osteoclast-targeted agents. The bisphosphonate zoledronic acid and the monoclonal antibody denosumab reduce the incidence of SREs in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). A number of agents prevent loss of BMD associated with ADT, but only denosumab is approved to reduce fractures in patients with non-metastatic prostate cancer. Another recently approved agent-radium-223-improves survival and delays SREs in mCRPC. The inhibitors of androgen receptor signalling, abiraterone and enzalutamide, improve survival in mCRPC and delay SREs, although the latter is likely related to control of disease rather than a direct effect on bone. Finally, the tyrosine kinase inhibitor cabozantinib shows promising activity in bone metastases from mCRPC. This Review addresses the skeletal morbidity associated with prostate cancer and the therapeutic options that exist to treat it. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

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