Montana Tech of the University of Montana
Butte, MT, United States

Montana Tech is a university located in Butte, in the U.S. state of Montana. It was founded in 1900, originally as Montana State School of Mines with two degrees, mining engineering and electrical engineering. The "M" on the Big Butte overlooking the city stands for "Miners", and it was built in 1910. A statue of Marcus Daly stands at the entrance to Montana Tech. The statue originally stood by the Butte post office in 1906, but it was moved to Montana Tech in 1941. On January 25, 1965, the Montana School of Mines became the Montana College of Mineral Science and Technology. In 1994, Montana consolidated the university system and the school joined the University of Montana and was renamed the Montana Tech of The University of Montana.Montana Tech offers degree programs in four colleges and schools. The School of Mines and Engineering offers courses in engineering and industrial hygiene. The College of Letters science and Professional Studies offers liberal arts curricula including Technical Communication and Computer Science. The Graduate School offers post-graduate education complementary with the undergraduate programs. Highlands College offers two-year programs in occupational training and education. Total enrollment in 2009 was 2794 students, and this included 2660 undergraduate and 134 graduate students. Wikipedia.

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News Article | April 17, 2017
Site:, a leading resource provider for higher education and career information, has determined its picks for the best colleges in Montana for 2017. Of the 10 four-year schools who made the list, Carroll College, Rocky Mountain College, Montana Tech of the University of Montana, The University of Montana and Montana State University were the top five. Of the 11 two-year schools that were recognized, Miles Community College, Helena College University of Montana, Fort Peck Community College, Great Falls College Montana State University and Flathead Valley Community College came in as the top. A full list of schools is included below. “A certificate or degree can go a long way when it comes to advancing a career, and these Montana schools offer both the programs and additional employment and career-building resources that help students succeed,” said Wes Ricketts, senior vice president of To be included on the “Best Colleges in Montana” list, schools must be regionally accredited, not-for-profit institutions. Each college is also evaluated on additional metrics including the number of degree programs offered, career resources, academic counseling, financial aid availability, graduation rates and annual alumni earnings 10 years after entering college. Complete details on each college, their individual scores and the data and methodology used to determine the “Best Colleges in Montana” list, visit: Montana’s Best Four-Year Colleges for 2017 include: Carroll College Montana State University Montana State University-Billings Montana State University-Northern Montana Tech of the University of Montana Rocky Mountain College Salish Kootenai College The University of Montana The University of Montana-Western University of Great Falls Montana’s Best Two-Year Colleges for 2017 include: Aaniiih Nakoda College Blackfeet Community College Chief Dull Knife College Dawson Community College Flathead Valley Community College Fort Peck Community College Great Falls College Montana State University Helena College University of Montana Little Big Horn College Miles Community College Stone Child College About Us: was founded in 2013 to provide data and expert driven information about employment opportunities and the education needed to land the perfect career. Our materials cover a wide range of professions, industries and degree programs, and are designed for people who want to choose, change or advance their careers. We also provide helpful resources and guides that address social issues, financial aid and other special interest in higher education. Information from has proudly been featured by more than 700 educational institutions.

The analytic solution of the gravity anomaly caused by a 2D irregular mass body with the density contrast varying as a polynomial function in the horizontal and vertical directions is extrapolated from a historical version in which the analytic solution for the gravity anomaly was given only at the origin of the coordinate system to any point for the density function in terms of variables relative to that origin. To calculate the gravity anomaly at stations that are not at origins, a coordinate transformation is performed, in which case the polynomial density contrast function must also be expressed in the transformed coordinates, or a transformed solution must be obtained. These analytic solutions can be obtained at any station using (1) a solution transformation method, in which the density function and boundary of a mass body are kept intact, or (2) a coordinate transformation method, in which polynomial coefficient and boundary of a mass body are transformed accordingly. The issue of singularity and instability of the analytic methods has been related to case studies. Caution should be exercised in modeling or interpreting the gravity survey data using the analytic methods for large target-distance-to-target-size ratios outside the range of numerical stability. Compared with other published methods, the analytic solution results agree very well with other numerical or seminumerical methods, indicating the solution is correct and can be applied for any gravity anomaly calculation caused by an irregular 2D mass body with the density-contrast approximated as a polynomial function of horizontal position and/or vertical position when the observation is within the range of numerical stability. © 2010 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

The principal aim of this research is to provide a new model for investigating myopia in humans, and contribute to an understanding of the degree to which modern variation and evolutionary change in orbital and overall craniofacial morphology may help explain the common eye form association with this condition. Recent research into long and short-term evolution of the human orbit reveals a number of changes in this feature, and particularly since the Upper Paleolithic. These include a reduction in orbital depth, a decrease in anterior projection of the upper and lower orbital margins, and most notably, a reduction in orbital volume since the Holocene in East Asia. Reduced orbital volume in this geographic region could exacerbate an existing trend in recent hominin evolution toward larger eyes in smaller orbits, and may help explain the unusually high frequency of myopia in East Asian populations. The objective of the current study is to test a null hypothesis of no relationship between a ratio of orbit to eye volume and spherical equivalent refractive error (SER) in a sample of Chinese adults, and examine how relative size of the eye within the orbit relates to SER between the sexes and across the sample population.Analysis of the orbit, eye, and SER reveals a strong relationship between relative size of the eye within the orbit and the severity of myopic refractive error. An orbit/eye ratio of 3 for females and 3.5 for males (or an eye that occupies approximately 34% and 29% of the orbit, respectively), designates a clear threshold at which myopia develops, and becomes progressively worse as the eye continues to occupy a greater proportion of the orbital cavity. These results indicate that relative size of the eye within the orbit is an important factor in the development of myopia, and suggests that individuals with large eyes in small orbits lack space for adequate development of ocular tissues, leading to compression and distortion of the lithesome globe within the confines of the orbital walls. The results of this study indicate that future research examining the etiology of juvenile-onset myopia, and particularly its correlation with ancestry, sex, age, and intelligence, should consider how the eye interacts with the matrix of structural and functional components of the skull during both ontogenetic and evolutionary morphogenesis. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Based on the line integral (LI) and maximum difference reduction (MDR) methods, an automated iterative forward modelling scheme (LI-MDR algorithm) is developed for the inversion of 2D bedrock topography from a gravity anomaly profile for heterogeneous sedimentary basins. The unknown basin topography can be smooth as for intracratonic basins or discontinuous as for rift and strike-slip basins. In case studies using synthetic data, the new algorithm can invert the sedimentary basins bedrock depth within a mean accuracy better than 5% when the gravity anomaly data have an accuracy of better than 0.5 mGal. The main characteristics of the inversion algorithm include: (1) the density contrast of sedimentary basins can be constant or vary horizontally and/or vertically in a very broad but a priori known manner; (2) three inputs are required: the measured gravity anomaly, accuracy level and the density contrast function, (3) the simplification that each gravity station has only one bedrock depth leads to an approach to perform rapid inversions using the forward modelling calculated by LI. The inversion process stops when the residual anomalies (the observed minus the calculated) falls within an 'error envelope' whose amplitude is the input accuracy level. The inversion algorithm offers in many cases the possibility of performing an agile 2D gravity inversion on basins with heterogeneous sediments. Both smooth and discontinuous bedrock topography with steep spatial gradients can be well recovered. Limitations include: (1) for each station position, there is only one corresponding point vertically down at the basement; and (2) the largest error in inverting bedrock topography occurs at the deepest points. © 2012 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: MAJOR RESEARCH INSTRUMENTATION | Award Amount: 314.01K | Year: 2014

This Major Research Instrumentation (MRI) award is for the acquisition of a one-ton capacity shake table to be used predominately for research on the stability of rock boulders and slopes during seismic loading. As evidenced by the large number of structures destroyed and the number of people killed and injured during the Christchurch series of earthquakes, rockfalls and rock slides are serious potential dangers during earthquakes. The shake table will be used to investigate the mechanisms causing rock falls and slides with the objectives of identifying potential hazardous areas and developing methods of mitigating these hazards. Additionally, the shake table will be used for research on methods of isolating structures from seismic ground motion through base isolation techniques.

A one-ton shake table will be acquired. The shake table will be delivered with the equipment to allow 1-D shaking, but could be expanded to allow 2-D shaking in the future. A unique feature, designed to allow data collection involving systems of multiple rock blocks, is a high-speed side-view video camera synched to the machine control system. Historically, a significant volume of shake table research has been done in the fields of structural engineering and structural dynamics, and soil mechanics and (soil) slope stability; much less has been done using rock or rock-like materials, as proposed here. Research activities to be enabled by the shake table include: 1) Response of Blocky Rock Systems to Seismic Loads, 2) Use of Precarious Blocks to Provide Estimates of Historic Shaking, and 3) Development/Testing of Inexpensive Infrastructure Base Isolation Systems, among others. The shake table will significantly enhance the research capabilities of Montana Tech, a primarily undergraduate institution. Use of the shake table will be incorporated into labs in two undergraduate engineering courses.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: PETROLOGY AND GEOCHEMISTRY | Award Amount: 115.91K | Year: 2016

As the worlds population continues to expand and become increasingly industrialized, there will be a steady if not increasing need to discover new mineral deposits to provide the raw commodities that humans have come to depend on. In the case of gold, several decades of aggressive exploration by the mining industry in the 1970s and 1980s led to a global boom in the discovery of economically mineable gold deposits. However, the rate of discovery of new gold deposits has greatly declined in the past 10 years, partly because of a downturn in the industry, and partly because most of the deposits that are near surface and that fit conventional exploration models have already been discovered. This project will investigate the causative origins of a newly recognized class of hydrothermal gold deposits, referred to as iron oxide copper gold (IOCG) deposits, that has the potential to generate a new cycle of exploration and discovery in the metal mining industry. Despite the fact that the IOCG class includes one of the largest metal deposits in the world - Olympic Dam, Australia - there is no consensus as to how - in a geologic, geochemical, petrologic, or plate tectonic sense - these deposits form. Part of the reason for this lack of consensus is a gap in our understanding at a fundamental, thermodynamic level of how metals such as iron, gold, and copper dissolve and precipitate in high temperature hydrothermal fluids. This project will help fill in this knowledge gap by performing several sets of hydrothermal experiments under controlled laboratory conditions. This type of study will have direct benefits to the mining industry and to society in general, which demands a steady supply of these mineral commodities. As for any scientific study that generates new, high-quality thermodynamic data, the results will also be useful to scientists in other disciplines to further understand the processes that have shaped the ancient and present-day Earth.

Most researchers agree that the fluids that form IOCG deposits were hot, saline brines that were unusually oxidized: beyond this the ore deposit models diverge. This project will examine the solubility of iron oxide and gold in acidic, oxidized, saline brines at temperatures of 100 to 350 degrees C, and at oxidation states that are buffered near the aqueous ferric (Fe3+)/ferrous (Fe2+) boundary. The project will generate new thermodynamic data on the stability of aqueous ferric-, ferrous-, and gold-chloride complexes. The new data will be used to develop more accurate geochemical models for how IOCG deposits (and other types of Au-Cu-Fe deposits) form.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: | Award Amount: 99.91K | Year: 2013

The PIs have found from preliminary data an increase in the potency of bacteriophages on the inclusion of Fe-doped apatite (commonly, Ca10(PO4)6(OH,F,Cl)2 ) nanoparticles. This EAGER proposal is aimed at exploring these findings to determine the validity and mechanism for this unexpected response. This work is potentially transformative in elucidating innovative ideas about the relation of nanomaterials to virus-bacteria interactions.

Intellectual Merit
This research explores the possibility that engineered nanoparticles could be used to control the infection of bacteria by viruses (bacteriophages). If nanomaterials can be designed to increase viral infection of bacteria, the materials could be used enhance antibiotics in therapeutic applications, or they might possibly cause ecological harm to natural bacteria in soils or water.

To further explore the preliminary results, the proposal will address three research questions:
(1) What is the relationship between increased bacteriophage plaques and the NP?s size, shape,
surface charge, crystal structure, surface functional groups, and solubility? Is the effect
seen with Fe-HA NPs simply a result of generating soluble iron-coordinated complex species?
(2) Can NPs cause dispersion of phage agglomerates resulting in more infectious phage particles
and more plaques?
(3) Does this phenomenon extend to viruses of eukaryotes?

Broader Impacts

The broader impact of this work includes contributions to the training of undergraduate and
graduate students in multidisciplinary skills, including molecular and microbiology, chemistry,
materials science and nanoscience. Montana Tech is well-positioned to address the training
of a historic mining community that lags behind other regions in STEM based education. The
project will include women and students from tribal communities. The ?phage-digging? outreach
associated with this work has been in place for some time and conducted by Dr. Pedulla for
high and middle school students for several years. The PIs will test many of the seventy phages
newly isolated via outreach programs with Fe-HA NPs to determine the breadth of this phenomenon
and its potential impact on regional ecology. The PIs hope to extend this research into a NSF RUI
funded program and will continue to incorporate this research into educational components
in existing graduate and undergraduate courses taught by the PIs.
We are highly inspired by such a cross-disciplinary investigation and believe that it may
pave the way to greater interaction between various groups across our campus, the state, and
even other institutions nationwide

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: | Award Amount: 183.62K | Year: 2013

This NSF award supports the acquisition of a Carbon Stable Isotope Analyzer by Montana Tech, which will allow the investigators to continue and expand their research and monitoring efforts in the area of biogeochemical processes affecting rivers, lakes, groundwater and geothermal waters as well as carbon bearing rocks and minerals. The use of environmental isotopes, in general, provides a tool to help researchers interpret and understand processes in natural systems. Carbon stable isotopes, in particular, provide a unique way to fingerprint sources of carbon in various environmental compartments (e.g., photosynthetic pathway of plants, biologic vs. geologic vs. atmospheric sources), and can also be used to help quantify rates of processes that influence ecosystem changes over a range of scales (e.g., aerobic and anaerobic respiration, photosynthesis, etc). The range of topics that will be investigated using this instrument is extensive and includes tracking effects of climate change through carbon isotope composition changes on watershed scales; quantifying changes in the processing of carbon through surface and groundwater systems; investigating the sources of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in drinking water; determining the origins of carbonate minerals in rocks or mineralized veins; determining biotic vs. abiotic sources of methane in natural gas reservoirs; and water-rock interactions associated with CO2 sequestration. This equipment will: 1) expand the investigative capabilities of Montana Tech, the Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology (MBMG) and collaborating researchers across the Montana University System (MUS); 2) facilitate pure and applied research in the general area of aquatic and terrestrial environmental science at a campus that is a non-PhD-granting RUI institution in an EPSCoR state; 3) provide a relatively easy-to-use educational tool that will be integrated into new and existing courses at Montana Tech; 4) provide research opportunities and technical training for multiple graduate and undergraduate students on the theory and application of stable isotope analysis; 5) promote collaboration with the MBMG to better evaluate biogeochemical processes in groundwater and surface water in Montana; and 6) promote interdisciplinary collaboration between Montana Tech and researchers at other units of the MUS, an important objective of the recent Montana NSF-EPSCoR award.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Continuing grant | Program: | Phase: S-STEM:SCHLR SCI TECH ENG&MATH | Award Amount: 597.18K | Year: 2012

Montana Minds, a scholarship program of Montana Tech, is awarding renewable scholarships to 20 academically prepared but financially challenged students so that they will obtain degrees in the STEM degree disciplines of biology, chemistry, mathematics, computer science, or software engineering. Montana Tech, working with TRiO and GEAR UP staff, will target recruiting at 24 of Montanas impoverished high schools, including all 13 tribal high schools, and 7 tribal colleges.

Strategies being used to support scholarship recipients include:
- enrolling Montana Minds scholars in Learning Communities that will ensure that students take several classes together and interact academically and socially to develop as a cohesive self-sustaining group;
- enrolling Montana Minds scholars, during their first years on campus, in a College Success course designed to instill and sharpen the skills needed to succeed in college;
- advising within a discipline by a single STEM faculty member who will mentor each students progress and catalyze relationships with other STEM faculty;
- assigning carefully selected upper division undergraduate mentor/tutors to assist the Montana Minds scholars with their studies and help build community among these scholars;
- assisting Montana Minds scholars in pursuing faculty mentored undergraduate research.
- visiting, during the Montana Minds scholars freshman and sophomore years, national science and engineering laboratories to witness science and engineering done on a grand scale;
- providing the financial support for each of the scholars to attend a national meeting during their junior year to broaden their acquaintance with the scope of their discipline; and
- encouraging the Montana Minds scholars to become involved with student clubs in their discipline.

Beyond these special features that enable the scholars success, Montana Minds includes outreach activities to ensure broad impacts on a statewide level in both the secondary and post secondary educational systems. Ultimately, this program aims to improve opportunities for students, increase graduation rates, create a more student-focused culture at Montana Tech, and educate faculty on the challenges facing financially disadvantaged students.

Batelle Memorial Institute, Montana Tech of the University of Montana and Qualtech Systems, Inc. | Date: 2014-06-04

Real-time battery impedance spectra are acquired by stimulating a battery or battery system with a signal generated as a sum of sine signals at related frequencies. An impedance measurement device can be used to interface between the battery system and a host computer for generating the signals. The impedance measurement device may be calibrated to adapt the response signal to more closely match other impedance measurement techniques. The impedance measurement device may be adapted to operate at mid-range voltages of about 50 volts and high-range voltages up to about 300 volts.

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