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Billings, MT, United States

Montana State University Billings is a state university. Its main campus is located on a 110 acres in downtown Billings, Montana, United States. Formerly Eastern Montana Normal School when it was founded in 1927, it was then renamed in 1949 to Eastern Montana College before being renamed to its present name in 1994. Currently, the university offers Associate’s, Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees through the University’s five colleges. The five colleges of Montana State University Billings are Arts and science, Business, Allied Health professions, Education and City College. It has the third largest campus population in the Montana State University System.4,969 students attended MSU-B during the 2013 fall semester. Wikipedia.


Jacobson M.D.,Montana State University Billings
Advances in Space Research | Year: 2010

Speculary reflected signals from the ground can significantly affect the performance of Global Positioning System receivers. For this type of multipath condition, the received powers are primarily the sum of the speculary reflected and direct signals. These reflected signals can provide useful information about the land-surface composition. In this paper, we discuss the special case of a snow-covered frozen lake, with incident energy at 1.57542 GHz with right-hand circularly polarization at elevation angles between 2° and 40°. The relative received powers are computed and measured for various thicknesses of lake ice. The received powers for both theory and measurement have the same behavior throughout a range of elevation angles. The potential for inferring lake ice thickness is explored for a snow-covered lake ice case study. © 2009 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Jacobson M.D.,Montana State University Billings
Remote Sensing | Year: 2010

A nonlinear least squares fitting algorithm is used to estimate both snow depth and snow density for a snow-layer above a flat ground reflector. The product of these two quantities, snow depth and density, provides an estimate of the snow water equivalent. The input to this algorithm is a simple ray model that includes a speculary reflected signal along with a direct signal. These signals are transmitted from the global positioning system satellites at 1.57542 GHz with right-hand circularly polarization. The elevation angles of interest at the GPS receiving antenna are between 5° and 30°. The results from this nonlinear algorithm show potential for inferring snow water equivalent using GPS multipath signals. © 2010 by the authors. Source


Eliason S.L.,Montana State University Billings
Human Dimensions of Wildlife | Year: 2011

Montana is a popular destination for those interested in outdoor recreation activities, including hunting and fishing. Outfitters located throughout the state provide guiding services to hunters and anglers. Empirical research on the outfitting industry in the United States is scant, and little is known about outfitter motivations, including why they entered this occupation. This study took a qualitative approach to data collection and examined outfitter motivations for choosing this line of work. Five main reasons given for becoming an outfitter included love of the outdoors and a desire to help others enjoy it, to engage in a livelihood doing something they enjoy, independence and a desire to operate their own business, to earn extra income and a poor state economy, and the family nature of the business. Findings contribute to a better understanding of what it is like being an outfitter in Montana. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source


Jacobson M.D.,Montana State University Billings
Eurasip Journal on Advances in Signal Processing | Year: 2014

Snow water equivalent (SWE) measurements are necessary for the management of water supply and flood control systems in seasonal snow-covered regions. SWE measurements quantify the amount of water stored in snowpack; it can be estimated by the product of snow depth and density. In this paper, snow depth and density are estimated by a nonlinear least squares fitting algorithm. The inputs to this algorithm are global positioning system (GPS) signals and a simple GPS interferometric reflectometry model (GPS-IR) that incorporates a slightly tilted surface (GPS-IRT). The elevation angles of interest at the GPS receiving antenna are between 5° and 30°. A 1-day experiment with a snow-covered prairie grass field using GPS satellites PRN 15 and PRN 18 shows potential for inferring snow water equivalent using GPS-IRT. For this case study, the average inferred snow depth (12.4 cm) from the two satellite tracks underestimates the in situ measurements (17.6 cm ± 1.5 cm). However, the average inferred snow density (0.085 g. cm-3) from the two satellite tracks is within the in situ measurement range (0.08 g. cm-3 ± 0.02 g. cm-3). Consequently, the average inferred SWE (1.05 g.cm-2) from the two satellite tracks is within the in situ calculation range (1.40 g. cm-2 ± 0.36 g. cm-2). These results are also compared with the GPS-IR model. © 2014 Jacobson; licensee Springer. Source


Eliason S.L.,Montana State University Billings
Wildlife Biology in Practice | Year: 2014

Hunting is a popular recreational activity in many rural regions of the United States. There is a need for information about individuals who hunt, including their attitudes and perceptions of the activity. The objective of this exploratory research was to identify issues affecting hunters in modern society. This study took a qualitative approach to data collection and examined hunting issues in Montana. Data were gathered from a mail survey that used open-ended questions. The survey was sent to a random sample of resident elk hunters. Responses revealed fve central concerns of hunters in Montana. These included the presence of wolves on the landscape, the commercialization of wildlife, nonresident hunters, high license prices, and motorized vehicles and the hunting experience. The fndings of this study enhance our understanding of hunting issues in contemporary society. © 2014 S.L Eliason. Source

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