Monsanto Company is a publicly traded American multinational agrochemical and agricultural biotechnology corporation headquartered in Creve Coeur, Greater St. Louis, Missouri. It is a leading producer of genetically engineered seed and of the herbicide glyphosate, which it markets under the Roundup brand.Founded in 1901 by John Francis Queeny, by the 1940s Monsanto was a major producer of plastics, including polystyrene and synthetic fibers. Notable achievements by Monsanto and its scientists as a chemical company included breakthrough research on catalytic asymmetric hydrogenation and being the first company to mass-produce light emitting diodes . The company also formerly manufactured controversial products such as the insecticide DDT, PCBs, Agent Orange, and recombinant bovine somatotropin .Monsanto was among the first to genetically modify a plant cell, along with three academic teams, which was announced in 1983, and was among the first to conduct field trials of genetically modified crops, which it did in 1987. It remained one of the top 10 U.S. chemical companies until it divested most of its chemical businesses between 1997 and 2002, through a process of mergers and spin-offs that focused the company on biotechnology. For its production of genetically modified crops, Monsanto's chief technology officer Robert Fraley won the World Food Prize for "breakthrough achievements in founding, developing, and applying modern agricultural biotechnology".Monsanto was a pioneer in applying the biotechnology industry business model to agriculture, using techniques developed by Genentech and other biotech drug companies in the late 1970s in California. In this business model, companies invest heavily in research and development, and recoup the expenses through the use and enforcement of biological patents. Monsanto's application of this model to agriculture, along with a growing movement to create a global, uniform system of plant breeders' rights in the 1980s, came into direct conflict with customary practices of farmers to save, reuse, share and develop plant varieties. Its seed patenting model has also been criticized as biopiracy and a threat to biodiversity. Monsanto's role in these changes in agriculture , its current and former biotechnology products, its lobbying of government agencies, and its history as a chemical company have made Monsanto controversial. Wikipedia.
Michelmore R.W.,University of California at Davis |
Christopoulou M.,University of California at Davis |
Caldwell K.S.,Monsanto Corporation
Annual Review of Phytopathology | Year: 2013
Studies on resistance gene function and evolution lie at the confluence of structural and molecular biology, genetics, and plant breeding. However, knowledge from these disparate fields has yet to be extensively integrated. This review draws on ideas and information from these different fields to elucidate the influences driving the evolution of different types of resistance genes in plants and the concurrent evolution of virulence in pathogens. It provides an overview of the factors shaping the evolution of recognition, signaling, and response genes in the context of emerging functional information along with a consideration of the new opportunities for durable resistance enabled by high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies. © Copyright ©2013 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.
Head G.P.,Monsanto Corporation
GM crops & food | Year: 2012
Cotton and corn plants with insect resistance traits introduced through biotechnological methods and derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been widely adopted since they were first introduced in 1996. Because of concerns about resistance evolving to these Bt crops, they have been released with associated IRM programs that employ multiple components and reflect the input of academic, industrial and regulatory experts. This paper summarizes the current status of Bt crop technologies in cotton and corn, the principles of IRM for Bt crops and what they mean for the design of IRM programs. It describes how these IRM programs have been implemented and some of the key factors affecting successful implementation. Finally, it suggests how they may evolve to properly steward these traits in different geographies around the world. The limited number of reported cases of resistance after more than 15 years of intensive global use of Bt crops suggest that this exercise has been broadly successful. Where resistance issues have been observed, they have been associated with first generation technologies and incomplete or compromised IRM programs (i.e., inadequate structured refuge). Next generation technologies with multiple pyramided modes of action, together with the implementation of IRM strategies that are more dependent upon manufacturing and less dependent upon grower behavior, such as seed mixes, should further enhance IRM programs for Bt crops.
Sammons R.D.,Monsanto Corporation |
Gaines T.A.,Colorado State University
Pest Management Science | Year: 2014
Studies of mechanisms of resistance to glyphosate have increased current understanding of herbicide resistance mechanisms. Thus far, single-codon non-synonymous mutations of EPSPS (5-enolypyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase) have been rare and, relative to other herbicide mode of action target-site mutations, unconventionally weak in magnitude for resistance to glyphosate. However, it is possible that weeds will emerge with non-synonymous mutations of two codons of EPSPS to produce an enzyme endowing greater resistance to glyphosate. Today, target-gene duplication is a common glyphosate resistance mechanism and could become a fundamental process for developing any resistance trait. Based on competition and substrate selectivity studies in several species, rapid vacuole sequestration of glyphosate occurs via a transporter mechanism. Conversely, as the chloroplast requires transporters for uptake of important metabolites, transporters associated with the two plastid membranes may separately, or together, successfully block glyphosate delivery. A model based on finite glyphosate dose and limiting time required for chloroplast loading sets the stage for understanding how uniquely different mechanisms can contribute to overall glyphosate resistance. © 2014 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.
Boss W.F.,North Carolina State University |
Im Y.J.,North Carolina State University |
Im Y.J.,Monsanto Corporation
Annual Review of Plant Biology | Year: 2012
All things flow and change even in the stillest matter there is unseen flux and movement. Attributed to Heraclitus (530-470 BC) From The Story of Philosophy by Will Durant (28) Heraclitus, a Greek philosopher, was thinking on a much larger scale than molecular signaling; however, his visionary comments are an important reminder for those studying signaling today. Even in unstimulated cells, signaling pathways are in constant metabolic flux and provide basal signals that travel throughout the organism. In addition, negatively charged phospholipids, such as the polyphosphorylated inositol phospholipids, provide a circuit board of on/off switches for attracting or repelling proteins that define the membranes of the cell. This template of charged phospholipids is sensitive to discrete changes and metabolic fluxes e.g., in pH and cations which contribute to the oscillating signals in the cell. The inherent complexities of a constantly fluctuating system make understanding how plants integrate and process signals challenging. In this review we discuss one aspect of lipid signaling: the inositol family of negatively charged phospholipids and their functions as molecular sensors and regulators of metabolic flux in plants. © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.
Monsanto Corporation and Flamel Technologies | Date: 2015-12-11
The present invention provides guanidine compounds and salts thereof that may be useful, for example, in the preparation of herbicidal compositions. The compounds may be used, for example, to prepare N-phosphonomethylglycine guanidine salts having improved herbicidal efficacy over glyphosate alone.