Mongolian University of Life science
Mongolian University of Life science
Khansaritoreh E.,University of Gottingen |
Eldarov M.,University of Gottingen |
Eldarov M.,Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences |
Ganbaatar K.,Mongolian University of Life science |
And 4 more authors.
Trees - Structure and Function | Year: 2017
Key message: Selective logging affects climate sensitivity ofLarix sibiricain the Mongolian forest–steppe mediated by changes in age and stand structure.Abstract: Climate warming increasingly limits the productivity of boreal forests via increased drought stress, especially at the southern fringe of the biome. The southernmost boreal forests are exposed to more intensive human disturbance than most forests at more northern latitudes. We asked the question of how forest use through logging and moderate forest grazing interferes with the climate response of the annual radial stem increment. We conducted a case study in Larix sibirica stands of the Mongolian forest–steppe involving two neighboring forest regions (20 km distance) differing in logging and grazing intensity. One site was subjected to heavy logging until 25 years ago and low intensity of livestock grazing; another site was exposed to moderate selective logging and higher, but still moderate livestock numbers. While the differences in grazing had no detectable effect, former heavy logging led to younger and more even-aged forest stands. Forests at both sites showed recent increases in missing-ring frequency, which probably indicated increased drought vulnerability. Climate-response analysis indicated that heavy logging 25 years ago was associated with high sensitivity of stemwood formation to high summer (especially June) temperatures. These findings suggest that: (1) recent logging under the conditions of climate warming has increased the sensitivity of tree growth to temperature in these southern boreal forests; (2) high replication at the stand level is needed to avoid bias in dendrochronological analyses in regions exposed to spatially heterogeneous logging intensities. © 2017 Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany
Gradel A.,University of Gottingen |
Ammer C.,University of Gottingen |
Ganbaatar B.,Mongolian Academy of science |
Nadaldorj O.,Mongolian University of Life science |
And 2 more authors.
Forests | Year: 2017
The forests of North Mongolia are largely dominated either by larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb.) or birch (Betula platyphylla Sukaczev). The increasing demand for timber and firewood is currently met by removal of wood from these forest stands. Therefore, silvicultural approaches that account for both utilization and protection are needed. Thinning trials were established in the research area Altansumber, in the mountain forest steppe west of the town of Darkhan. We analyzed the response of non-spatial and spatial structure and growth of birch and larch stands on thinning. Before thinning, spatial tree distribution was largely clumped. Thinning promoted regular tree distribution. Ingrowth of new stems after thinning tended to redirect stand structure towards clumping. Both relative and absolute tree growth and competition were evaluated before, directly after, and three years after the thinning. Competition played a significant role in tree growth before thinning. A reduction in competition after thinning triggered significantly increased growth of both birch and larch. The observed positive growth response was valid in absolute and relative terms. A methodically based forest management strategy, including thinning operations and selective cuttings, could be established, even under the harsh Mongolian conditions. Our findings could initiate the development of broader forest management guidelines for the light-taiga dominated stands. © 2017 by the authors.
Suganuma K.,Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine |
Yamasaki S.,Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine |
Molefe N.I.,Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine |
Musinguzi P.S.,Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine |
And 8 more authors.
International Journal for Parasitology: Drugs and Drug Resistance | Year: 2017
Dourine is caused by Trypanosoma equiperdum via coitus with an infected horse. Although dourine is distributed in Equidae worldwide and is listed as an internationally important animal disease by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), no effective treatment strategies have been established. In addition, there are no reports on drug discovery, because no drug screening system exists for this parasite. A new T. equiperdum strain was recently isolated from the genital organ of a stallion that showed typical symptoms of dourine. In the present study, we adapted T. equiperdum IVM-t1 from soft agarose media to HMI-9 liquid media to develop a drug screening assay for T. equiperdum. An intracellular ATP-based luciferase assay using CellTiter-Glo reagent and an intracellular dehydrogenase activity-based colorimetric assay using WTS-8 tetrazolium salt (CCK-8 reagent) were used in order to examine the trypanocidal effects of each compound. In addition, the IC50 values of 4 reference trypanocidal compounds (pentamidine, diminazene, suramin and melarsomine) were evaluated and compared using established assays. The IC50 values of these reference compounds corresponded well to previous studies involving other strains of T. equiperdum. The luciferase assay would be suitable for the mass screening of chemical libraries against T. equiperdum because it allows for the simple and rapid-evaluation of the trypanocidal activities of test compounds, while a simple, inexpensive colorimetric assay will be applicable in developing countries for the evaluation of the drug sensitivity of epidemic trypanosome strains. © 2017 The Authors
Togtokhbayar N.,Mongolian University of Life Science |
Urankhaich C.,Research Institute of Animal Husbandry |
Ayushjav O.,Mongolian University of Life Science |
Tsevegmed M.,Khogjliin Onison Tulkhuur Agricultural Information and Training Center |
Odongo N.E.,Pwani University
Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics | Year: 2017
In a completely randomised design, twenty four 12-months old Mongolian breed male lambs averaging 21.6 ± 0.48 kg of body weight (BW) were used to evaluate the effects of exogenous cellulase and xylanase enzyme preparations on feed intake, digestibility of nutrients, growth and economics of rearing lambs. The lambs were randomly assigned to six treatment groups with four animals per treatment. The treatment combinations comprised: i) two enzyme preparations, i.e. cellulase vs. xylanase (ENZc, ENZx), ii) two ration types, i.e. wheat straw + wheat bran (diet W) vs. barley straw + wheat bran (diet B) and iii) two control diets (diet W and diet B without enzyme preparations, -ENZ). Lambs were fed the cellulase and xylanase treated wheat and barley straws ad libitum whereas the wheat bran was offered at 400 g DM per day. Significant effects were observed for nutrient intake of diet B +ENZc, and for crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) digestibility of diet W +ENZc. The average daily gain (ADG) increased in all enzyme treated groups with highest values found in diet B +ENZc, but without significant differences found between the two enzyme preparations. Both enzyme preparations had positive effects on feed conversion ratio (FCR) of both diets, where by the highest values were found for diet B +ENZc. Enzyme preparation had no effect on the total feed cost for both diet types and showed positive effects on other economic parameters, where by cellulase yielded better results than xylanase. These results suggest that cellulase addition is effective for improving digestibility of nutrients, growth performance and net revenue ingrowing lambs. © 2017, Kassel University Press GmbH. All rights reserved.
de la Cruz J.F.,University of the Philippines at Los Baños |
Vergara E.J.S.,Hankyong National University |
Cho Y.,Hankyong National University |
Hong H.O.,Konkuk University |
And 2 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2016
Glehnia littoralis (GL) is widely used as an oriental medicine for cough, fever, stroke and other disease conditions. However, the anti-cancer properties of GL on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells have not been investigated. In order to elucidate anti-cancer properties and underlying cell death mechanisms, MCF-7cells (5 × 104/well) were treated with Glehnia littoralis root extract at 0-400 ug/ml. A hot water extract of GL root inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Analysis of the cell cycle after treatment of MCF-7 cells with increasing concentrations of GL root extract for 24 hours showed significant cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis both revealed that GL root extract significantly increased the expression of p21 and p27 with an accompanyingdecrease in both CDK4 and cyclin D1. Our reuslts indicated that GL root extract arrested the proliferation of MCF-7 cells in G1 phase through inhibition of CDK4 and cyclin D1 via increased induction of p21 and p27. In summary, the current study showed that GL could serve as a potential source of chemotherapeutic or chemopreventative agents against human breast cancer.
Wang L.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna |
Otgonsuren B.,Mongolian University of Life Science |
Godbold D.L.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna |
Godbold D.L.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic
Plant and Soil | Year: 2016
Background and aims: Picea abies, Pinus mugo and Rhododendron ferrugineum co-exist at the alpine tree line, and can have different mycorrhizal communities. The activity and diversity of mycorrhizal fungi are considered to be important factors in regulation of soil function. Methods: At a tree line site and a lower elevation site in the Austrian Alps, the community structure of ectomycorrhiza on Picea abies and Pinus mugo was determined. The activity of surface enzymes was determined on ectomycorrhizal and ericoid mycorrhizal roots. In soils, the activity of a range of enzymes, nitrogen (N) mineralization and biomass decomposition were determined. Results: The community structure of the ectomycorrhizal community of Picea abies and Pinus mugo differed strongly, but the average activity of surface enzymes of the ectomycorrhizal communities was similar. A lower root surface enzyme activity was determined on Rhododendron ferrugineum. Soil N-mineralization under Rhododendron ferrugineum was significantly lower than under Picea abies and Pinus mugo. In soil, the activity of a range of enzymes did not differ at the tree line but differed between the tree line and the lower elevation sites. Conclusion: The different ectomycorrhizal communities on Picea abies and Pinus mugo and ericoid mycorrhizas on Rhododendron ferrugineum support similar ecosystem functions in soil. © 2016 The Author(s)
Dulamsuren C.,University of Gottingen |
Klinge M.,University of Gottingen |
Degener J.,University of Gottingen |
Khishigjargal M.,University of Gottingen |
And 12 more authors.
Global Change Biology | Year: 2016
The boreal forest biome represents one of the most important terrestrial carbon stores, which gave reason to intensive research on carbon stock densities. However, such an analysis does not yet exist for the southernmost Eurosiberian boreal forests in Inner Asia. Most of these forests are located in the Mongolian forest-steppe, which is largely dominated by Larix sibirica. We quantified the carbon stock density and total carbon pool of Mongolia's boreal forests and adjacent grasslands and draw conclusions on possible future change. Mean aboveground carbon stock density in the interior of L. sibirica forests was 66 Mg C ha-1, which is in the upper range of values reported from boreal forests and probably due to the comparably long growing season. The density of soil organic carbon (SOC, 108 Mg C ha-1) and total belowground carbon density (149 Mg C ha-1) are at the lower end of the range known from boreal forests, which might be the result of higher soil temperatures and a thinner permafrost layer than in the central and northern boreal forest belt. Land use effects are especially relevant at forest edges, where mean carbon stock density was 188 Mg C ha-1, compared with 215 Mg C ha-1 in the forest interior. Carbon stock density in grasslands was 144 Mg C ha-1. Analysis of satellite imagery of the highly fragmented forest area in the forest-steppe zone showed that Mongolia's total boreal forest area is currently 73 818 km2, and 22% of this area refers to forest edges (defined as the first 30 m from the edge). The total forest carbon pool of Mongolia was estimated at ~ 1.5-1.7 Pg C, a value which is likely to decrease in future with increasing deforestation and fire frequency, and global warming. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
PubMed | Mongolian Academy of science, Mongolian University of Life science and University of Gottingen
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Global change biology | Year: 2016
The boreal forest biome represents one of the most important terrestrial carbon stores, which gave reason to intensive research on carbon stock densities. However, such an analysis does not yet exist for the southernmost Eurosiberian boreal forests in Inner Asia. Most of these forests are located in the Mongolian forest-steppe, which is largely dominated by Larixsibirica. We quantified the carbon stock density and total carbon pool of Mongolias boreal forests and adjacent grasslands and draw conclusions on possible future change. Mean aboveground carbon stock density in the interior of L.sibirica forests was 66MgCha(-1) , which is in the upper range of values reported from boreal forests and probably due to the comparably long growing season. The density of soil organic carbon (SOC, 108MgCha(-1) ) and total belowground carbon density (149MgCha(-1) ) are at the lower end of the range known from boreal forests, which might be the result of higher soil temperatures and a thinner permafrost layer than in the central and northern boreal forest belt. Land use effects are especially relevant at forest edges, where mean carbon stock density was 188MgCha(-1) , compared with 215MgCha(-1) in the forest interior. Carbon stock density in grasslands was 144MgCha(-1) . Analysis of satellite imagery of the highly fragmented forest area in the forest-steppe zone showed that Mongolias total boreal forest area is currently 73818km(2) , and 22% of this area refers to forest edges (defined as the first 30m from the edge). The total forest carbon pool of Mongolia was estimated at ~1.5-1.7Pg C, a value which is likely to decrease in future with increasing deforestation and fire frequency, and global warming.
Gradel A.,University of Gottingen |
Gradel A.,Public Enterprise Sachsenforst |
Hansch C.,TU Dresden |
Ganbaatar B.,Mongolian Academy of science |
And 3 more authors.
Dendrochronologia | Year: 2016
The mountain forest steppe and taiga in northern Mongolia have experienced a forest decline in area and quality since the end of the last century. Changes in land use, climate, fire frequency and pest occurrence are considered to be the main drivers of this vegetation shift and desertification. Because this region is the source for major rivers, is home to a unique flora and fauna and represents an important source of timber for Mongolia, the ability of different tree species to respond to these changes and regenerate is of increasing interest. Our contribution focuses on the climate-growth relationship of old and young birch trees from two valleys in the Mongolian province of Selenge Aimag.The research site Bugant, located in the Western Khentey Mountains, was the most important logging centre in Mongolia during socialist times. Today, the vegetation is dominated by succession forests of light taiga. The research site Altansumber, on the border of the Sant and Khushat soum, is dominated by light taiga and mountain forest steppe. Traditional nomads who depend on these forests for different reasons inhabit this area.Wood cores were sampled and chronologies of young and old birch trees at Bugant and Altansumber were created. Climate data were obtained from the Eroo station, which is known in the region for its long and reliable climate record. We analysed the climate-growth relationships of the chronologies from 1962 to 2009. At both sites and in both age classes, correlations with temperature were predominantly negative, particularly in April (Bugant, south- and east-facing slopes) and May (Altansumber, north-facing slopes). Precipitation of the late summer of the previous year (August/September) positively correlated with the growth of birch at Altansumber. We assume that the significant negative correlation between winter precipitation (December/January) and the growth of old birches at both sites is due to positive effects of snow cover on the survival rate of herbivorous insect populations. Our results indicate that during the early vegetation period, younger birch trees are more dependent on water availability than older ones. Negative pointer years were characterized by below-average precipitation during the current summer period and above-average spring temperatures. For the old trees, positive pointer years were characterized by above-average summer precipitation. We conclude that water availability is the most crucial factor for the growth of white birch in northern Mongolia. © 2016 Elsevier GmbH.
Tuulaikhuu B.-A.,University of Girona |
Tuulaikhuu B.-A.,Mongolian University of Life science |
Bonet B.,University of Girona |
Guasch H.,University of Girona
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2016
Arsenic (As) is a highly toxic element and its carcinogenic effect on living organisms is well known. However, predicting real effects in the environment requires an ecological approach since toxicity is influenced by many environmental and biological factors. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate if environmentally-realistic arsenic exposure causes toxicity to fish. An experiment with four different treatments (control (C), biofilm (B), arsenic (+ As) and biofilm with arsenic (B + As)) was conducted and each one included sediment to enhance environmental realism, allowing the testing of the interactive effects of biofilm and arsenic on the toxicity to fish. Average arsenic exposure to Eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) was 40.5. ±. 7.5 μg/L for + As treatment and 34.4. ±. 1.4. μg/L for B + As treatment for 56 days. Fish were affected directly and indirectly by this low arsenic concentration since exposure did not only affect fish but also the function of periphytic biofilms. Arsenic effects on the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities in the liver of mosquitofish were ameliorated in the presence of biofilms at the beginning of exposure (day 9). Moreover, fish weight gaining was only affected in the treatment without biofilm. After longer exposure (56 days), effects of exposure were clearly seen. Fish showed a marked increase in the catalase (CAT) activity in the liver but the interactive influence of biofilms was not further observed since the arsenic-affected biofilm had lost its role in water purification. Our results highlight the interest and application of incorporating some of the complexity of natural systems in ecotoxicology and support the use of criterion continuous concentration (CCC) for arsenic lower than 150. μg/L and closer to the water quality criteria to protect aquatic life recommended by the Canadian government which is 5. μg As/L. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.