Mongolian State University of Education
Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

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Bazha S.N.,RAS Severtsov Institute of Ecology | Gunin P.D.,RAS Severtsov Institute of Ecology | Danzhalova E.V.,RAS Severtsov Institute of Ecology | Drobyshev Y.I.,RAS Severtsov Institute of Ecology | And 5 more authors.
Russian Journal of Biological Invasions | Year: 2015

The studies of the steppe ecosystems in Central Mongolia have showed that the simplification of steppe communities has taken place over recent decades. This occurred by reduction of species diversity and abundance of indigenous dominants—tussock grasses—as a result of sharp rise in pasture loads and a long dry period. We have identified two types of introduction of invasive species from different landscapes: (a) extraand intrazonal and (b) zonal. The first type of succession is characterized by focal distribution of Ephedra sinica from ecosystems of low mountains to the surrounding mountain plains. The second type of succession in dry steppes is associated with the expansion of Allium polyrrhizum, whose distribution has largely a frontal character and is caused by weakening of the competitiveness of indigenous species of grass communities because of their significant digression. A further factor in ensuring the conditions for invasion is the aeolian alkalization of the upper horizons of zonal chestnut soils. The ecological and biological features of these two species, widespread in the desert-steppe and desert landscapes and penetrating into the steppe ecosystems, make it possible to speak about biological desertification. The wide area of Ephedra sinica and Allium polyrrhizum indicates a progressive character of the studied types of succession, and as a result of this, the borders of these areas have reached at present the southern periphery of the Baikal Lake basin. The paper describes the processes which lead to the reduction of the fodder value of pastures and jeopardize the maintenance of cattle breeding in Central Mongolia. © 2015, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

Tateishi R.,Chiba University | Uriyangqai B.,Inner Mongolia Normal University | Al-Bilbisi H.,University of Jordan | Ghar M.A.,National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space science NARSS | And 9 more authors.
International Journal of Digital Earth | Year: 2011

Global land cover is one of the fundamental contents of Digital Earth. The Global Mapping project coordinated by the International Steering Committee for Global Mapping has produced a 1-km global land cover dataset - Global Land Cover by National Mapping Organizations. It has 20 land cover classes defined using the Land Cover Classification System. Of them, 14 classes were derived using supervised classification. The remaining six were classified independently: urban, tree open, mangrove, wetland, snow/ice, andwater. Primary source data of this land cover mapping were eight periods of 16-day composite 7-band 1-km MODIS data of 2003. Training data for supervised classification were collected using Landsat images, MODIS NDVI seasonal change patterns, Google Earth, Virtual Earth, existing regional maps, and expert's comments. The overall accuracy is 76.5% and the overall accuracy with the weight of the mapped area coverage is 81.2%. The data are available from the Global Mapping project website ( TheMODISdata used, land cover training data, and a list of existing regional maps are also available from the CEReS website. This mapping attempt demonstrates that training/validation data accumulation from different mapping projects must be promoted to support future global land cover mapping. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.

Ch. Das K.,Sungkyunkwan University | Gutman I.,University of Kragujevac | Horoldagva B.,Mongolian State University of Education
Match | Year: 2012

The first (M1) and the second (M2) Zagreb indices, as well as the first (M̄1) and the second (M̄2) Zagreb coindices, and the relations between them are examined. An upper bound on M1(T) and a lower bound on 2M2(T) + 1/2M1(T) of trees is obtained, in terms of the number of vertices (n) and maximum degree (Δ). Moreover, we compare the Zagreb indices and the Zagreb coindices of trees.

Hasumi M.,Niigata University | Hongorzul T.,Mongolian State University of Education | Terbish K.,National University of Mongolia
Limnology | Year: 2011

The biodiversity of wetland ecosystems has received scant attention in Mongolia. We measured amphibian and macroinvertebrate species diversity at a complicated land-water ecotone of a pond within a wetland complex in Shaamar during July 2005. From our study area (0.5-ha grassland and an adjacent pond), we sampled 4,926 animals including 1 mammal, 4 amphibian, and 26 aquatic macroinvertebrate (>2 mm) species with a biomass of 4,444 g. Among these, a backswimmer (Notonectidae sp. 1) was a dominant species, representing 65% of the total number of animals collected (3,209) and 22% of the mass (999 g). Our study area was small but contained 4 amphibian species (Hyla japonica, Rana amurensis, Bufo raddei, and Salamandrella keyserlingii) in a mixed community with Shannon Diversity Index (H′) of 1.678 and Pielou's Evenness Index (J′) of 1.211. No larvae or tadpoles of any amphibian species were found in the pond, indicating their early metamorphosis. H′ and J′ with 26 macroinvertebrate species were estimated to be 1.828 and 0.561, respectively. This suggests that low macroinvertebrate species diversity relative to high species richness is due to low evenness resulting from considerable numbers of a backswimmer. In 6 sites sampled in the pond, mean water pH revealed high alkalinity (range 9.01-10.45). The presence of our taxa in a highly alkaline environment indicates that they may be alkaliphilic. © 2010 The Japanese Society of Limnology.

Narantsogt N.,Mongolian State University of Education | Burmaa G.,Institute of Chemical Technology | Perlee-Oidov A.,Mongolian State University of Education | Shurkhuu N.,National University of Mongolia | Javkhlantugs N.,National University of Mongolia
International Journal of Polymer Science | Year: 2014

The synthesized poly[N,N′-bis(3-silsesquioxanilpropyl)-thiocarbamide] (PSTM-3T) was used and the surface morphology and microstructure of it were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM/EDS). The molecular structure change of the PSTM-3T polymer of the PSTM-3T after treatment by acidic solution with different pHs was revealed using FT-IR experiments and ab initio calculations with density functional theory method. The sorption efficiency of the heavy metal ions depends on the molecular structure change of PSTM-3T after treatment of different pH aqueous solutions. After the treatment of acidic solution (pH = 2) of PSTM-3T, the polymer formed the tautomer state to increase the sorption efficiency for chromate ion. For the increment of pH value for acidic solution, the PSTM-3T polymer was dissociated to increase the sorption efficiency for copper ion. © 2014 Natsagdorj Narantsogt et al.

Hasumi M.,Niigata University | Hongorzul T.,Mongolian State University of Education | Nakagawa M.,Kinki University
Polar Biology | Year: 2014

Darhadyn Wetland, Mongolia, is located in a subarctic steppe-tundra climate, where salamanders are exposed to both extremely hot and cold environments. We hypothesized that log refugia provide an adaptive advantage to salamanders in these environments because the habitat availability hypothesis predicts that restricted habitat availability can cause aggregation that plays a role in the initial stages of the evolution of complex sociality. To test this hypothesis, we assessed whether a rare salamander species aggregated under a limited shelter resource. Many small vertebrates use terrestrial burrow refuges. While many salamander species also use burrows, Salamandrella keyserlingii at Darhadyn used only downed log refuges (i.e., restricted habitat availability). Some individuals displayed site tenacity to remain under a specific log, and one or more of the same individuals were located continually or frequently under the same logs. The majority of recapture events (96.8 %, 121/125) did not show any movements of salamanders between logs. Of the 300 capture events, 66 % were aggregating. The maximum number of individuals sharing a log refuge on the same day (i.e., sharing group size) ranged from 2 to 9. Individuals were resident nonrandomly in downed log refuges, i.e., an aggregation pattern was nonrandom. Based on these findings, we provided conservation measures such that total number of individuals captured per log over the course of the study (maximum number = 32) had a positive relationship to 1 of 7 explanatory variables (i.e., log decaying class in ascending order). Thus, the retention of decaying downed logs is important for the conservation of this species. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Shagdar D.,Mongolian State University of Education | Yadamsuren O.,Mongolian State University of Education
Journal of Asia-Pacific Biodiversity | Year: 2016

The Kherlen Toono Mountain Natural Reserve has a unique natural formation that makes its flora and vegetation cover unique. This study aimed to prepare a species inventory of flora and conduct make visual assessments of the vegetation cover of Kherlen Toono Mountain. A total of 202 species belonging to 115 genera, 46 families, and 4 phyla (Equisetophyta, Polypodiophyta, Pinophyta, and Magnoliophyta) were recorded. During this study, a species [. Vincetoxicum lanceolatum (Grubov) Grubov] was newly recorded in the vegetation of the Dundad Khalkh district. An endemic species, 7 subendemic species (4.9%), and 10 rare species (3.9%) were recorded in the study area, which comprised 8.9% of the total species. These species recordings indicated the unique flora of the Kherlen Toono Mountain region. Forb-khargana and needle grass-forb communities of 10 different communities were commonly recorded in the study area. © 2016 National Science Museum of Korea (NSMK) and Korea National Arboretum (KNA).

Amarsaikhan D.,Mongolian Academy of science | Bat-Erdene Ts.,Mongolian State University of Education
34th Asian Conference on Remote Sensing 2013, ACRS 2013 | Year: 2013

The aim of this study is to conduct urban mapping and analyze the land use changes of Ulaanbaatar city, Mongolia using very high resolution remote sensing (RS) and geographical information system (GIS) data sets. For the study, the changes that occurred before 1990 are compared with the changes that occurred after 1990 and the socio-economic reasons for the changes are described. For the development of the primary digital database, a large scale topographic map and historical description of the land use elements are used. To generate land use information from the fused RS images, a visual interpretation is applied. Overall, the study demonstrates that during the market economy the central part of the capital city is urbanized very rapidly and became very dense. Copyright © (2013) by the Asian Association on Remote Sensing.

Amarsaikhan E.,Mongolian Academy of science | Erdene T.B.,Mongolian State University of Education | Damdinsuren A.,Mongolian Academy of science
33rd Asian Conference on Remote Sensing 2012, ACRS 2012 | Year: 2012

The aim of this study is to investigate the city management in Ulaanbaatar, specifically in the district-13 area, using modern game theory and a GIS. Initially, a primary digital database is developed using available (spatial and attribute) data sets, and then updated through processing of a very high resolution satellite image. Applying "The Tragedy of the Commons" framework we have found that the private incentives among the construction companies drove the supply of apartments higher. We estimated that if the construction companies cooperated instead of competed with each other, it would have been socially optimal.

Kuznetsov D.N.,RAS Severtsov Institute of Ecology | Khrustalev A.V.,All Russian K I Skryabin Institute For Helminthology | Batchimeg M.,Mongolian State University of Education | Danzan G.,Mongolian State University of Education
Helminthologia (Poland) | Year: 2014

The species composition of nematodes found at autopsy of abomasa and small intestines of 24 Mongolian gazelles in Eastern Mongolia is studied. Orloffia bisonis, Marshallagia mongolica, Nematodirus archari, N. andreevi, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, T. probolurus were registered. N. archari and N. andreevi were detected in Mongolian gazelle for the first time. All species of gastrointestinal nematodes found in Mongolian gazelles have already been registered in domestic ruminants of Mongolia. The validity of Orloffia genus is confirmed based on our own observations and literature data. Orloffia is monotypic genus with the only species O. bisonis represented by two morphs where "O. bisonis" is major and "O. kasakhstanica" is minor. © 2014 Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Wien.

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