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Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

Lkhagvadorj D.,Mongolian State University of Agriculture | Hauck M.,University of Gottingen | Dulamsuren C.,University of Gottingen | Tsogtbaatar J.,Mongolian Academy of science
Journal of Arid Environments

The population structure, educational level and the livelihoods of 82 households of pastoral nomads, the organization of livestock husbandry and its impact on the grassland and forest ecosystems of the Dayan high valley (>2000 m a.s.l.) in the Mongolian Altai, western Mongolia, were surveyed using interviews and secondary information from official sources. Changes following the transition from centrally planned (before 1990) to market economy were analyzed. Two thirds of the monthly mean income of ca. 310 USD per nomad household is cash (ca. 55 USD) or non-cash (ca. 165 USD) income from livestock husbandry. Cashmere sale accounts for 70% of the cash income from livestock husbandry, which has led to a strong increase of goat numbers after 1990. Forests are used for livestock grazing, fuel wood collection, logging, and fruit collection. Livestock breeding and the seasonal migration of the nomad households are no longer organized by the government. To avoid transportation costs, two thirds of the families have reduced their seasonal migrations. This trend was favored by rising temperatures and earlier snowmelt during the last few decades, but resulted in a shortage of fodder and intensified forest use. Therefore, the use of grasslands and forests in the Mongolian Altai is no longer considered to be sustainable. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Enkhbat T.,Mongolian Academy of science | Enkhbat T.,National Taiwan University
Journal of High Energy Physics

The presence of colored particles can affect both the single and the pair Higgs productions substantially. For scalar particles, this happens if their portal couplings to the Standard Model Higgs are large and their masses are not too high. In the present work these processes are studied in the case of several leptoquarks which may appear in many beyond Standard Model theories. It is found that the constraints on the portal couplings from the single Higgs production and the decays to various channels measured by the LHC experiments still allow increased Higgs pair production rate. For the masses in the range from 180 GeV to 300 GeV, depending on the strength of such portal couplings, the Higgs pair production may reach an order to several hundred in magnitude larger rate than the Standard Model case for the 8 TeV run. Therefore, combined with the on going searches for leptoquarks by both the CMS and ATLAS, this is one of the possible scenarios to be probed directly by the current data. The current study demonstrates that if colored scalars modify scalar potentials through portal couplings, which has been studied for variety of motivations such as playing a potentially important role in electroweak phase transition, composite models or radiative neutrino masses, this fact may appear as the modified Higgs pair production. © 2014 The Author(s). Source

Zhao L.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Wu Q.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Marchenko S.S.,University of Alaska Fairbanks | Sharkhuu N.,Mongolian Academy of science
Permafrost and Periglacial Processes

Permafrost in Central Asian is present in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China, the Tien Shan Mountain regions in China, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, the Pamirs in Tajikistan, and in Mongolia. Monitoring of the ground thermal regime in these regions over the past several decades has shown that the permafrost has been undergoing significant changes caused by climate warming and increasing human activities. During the International Polar Year, measured mean annual ground temperature (MAGT) at a depth of 6 m ranged from -3.2°C to 0.2°C on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the active-layer thickness (ALT) varied between 105 and 322 cm at different sites. Ground temperatures at the bottom of the active layer (TTOP) warmed on average by 0.06°C yr-1 over the past decade. In Mongolia, MAGT at 10-15 m depth increased by up to 0.02-0.03°C yr-1 in the Hovsgol Mountain region, but by 0.01-0.02°C yr-1 in the Hangai and Hentei Mountain regions. The increase in permafrost temperatures in the northern Tien Shan from 1974 to 2009 ranged from 0.3°C to 0.6°C At present measured permafrost temperatures vary from -0.5°C to -0.1°C. The ALT increased from 3.2 to 4 m in the 1970s to a maximum of 5.2 m between 1995 and 2009. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Arbour V.M.,University of Alberta | Currie P.J.,University of Alberta | Badamgarav D.,Mongolian Academy of science
Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society

The discovery of a new ankylosaurid skull with some unusual features from the Baruungoyot Formation of Mongolia prompted a systematic review of ankylosaurid specimens from the Baruungoyot and Nemegt formations. Dyoplosaurus giganteus was found to possess no diagnostic features and is regarded as a nomen dubium. The holotype of Tarchia kielanae (previously synonymized with Tarchia gigantea) has one autapomorphy, an accessory postorbital ossification with surrounding furrow, and Tar.kielanae is here considered a valid species, making the combination Tar.gigantea unnecessary. An accessory postorbital ossification is also found in the holotype of Minotaurasaurus ramachandrani, and this species is here considered a junior synonym of Tar.kielanae. The newly described skull from the Baruungoyot Formation forms the holotype of a new genus and species, Zaraapelta nomadis gen. et sp. nov., diagnosed by unusual bilayered ornamentation on the squamosal horn and extensive postocular ornamentation. Two distinct tail club handle morphotypes are present in the Nemegt Formation and probably represent two different species. However, it is impossible to assign either tail club morphotype to the single valid species from the formation, Saichania chulsanensis, because of a lack of overlapping material. A revised phylogenetic analysis including newly identified characters found Zaraapelta nomadis to be most closely related to Tar.kielanae. © 2014 The Linnean Society of London. Source

Fanti F.,University of Bologna | Currie P.J.,University of Alberta | Badamgarav D.,Mongolian Academy of science

Two new specimens of the oviraptorid theropod Nemegtomaia barsboldi from the Nemegt Basin of southern Mongolia are described. Specimen MPC-D 107/15 was collected from the upper beds of the Baruungoyot Formation (Campanian-Maastrichtian), and is a nest of eggs with the skeleton of the assumed parent of Nemegtomaia on top in brooding position. Much of the skeleton was damaged by colonies of dermestid coleopterans prior to its complete burial. However, diagnostic characters are recovered from the parts preserved, including the skull, partial forelimbs (including the left hand), legs, and distal portions of both feet. Nemegtomaia represents the fourth known genus of oviraptorid for which individuals have been found on nests of eggs. The second new specimen, MPC-D 107/16, was collected a few kilometers to the east in basal deposits of the Nemegt Formation, and includes both hands and femora of a smaller Nemegtomaia individual. The two formations and their diverse fossil assemblages have been considered to represent sequential time periods and different environments, but data presented here indicate partial overlap across the Baruungoyot-Nemegt transition. All other known oviraptorids from Mongolia and China are known exclusively from xeric or semi-arid environments. However, this study documents that Nemegtomaia is found in both arid/aeolian (Baruungoyot Formation) and more humid/fluvial (Nemegt Formation) facies. © 2012 Fanti et al. Source

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