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Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

Knappskog S.,University of Bergen | Gansmo L.B.,University of Bergen | Dibirova K.,Russian Academy of Medical Sciences | Metspalu A.,University of Tartu | And 34 more authors.
Oncotarget | Year: 2014

The MDM2 promoter SNP285C is located on the SNP309G allele. While SNP309G enhances Sp1 transcription factor binding and MDM2 transcription, SNP285C antagonizes Sp1 binding and reduces the risk of breast-, ovary- and endometrial cancer. Assessing SNP285 and 309 genotypes across 25 different ethnic populations (>10.000 individuals), the incidence of SNP285C was 6-8% across European populations except for Finns (1.2%) and Saami (0.3%). The incidence decreased towards the Middle-East and Eastern Russia, and SNP285C was absent among Han Chinese, Mongolians and African Americans. Interhaplotype variation analyses estimated SNP285C to have originated about 14,700 years ago (95% CI: 8,300 - 33,300). Both this estimate and the geographical distribution suggest SNP285C to have arisen after the separation between Caucasians and modern day East Asians (17,000 - 40,000 years ago). We observed a strong inverse correlation (r = -0.805; p < 0.001) between the percentage of SNP309G alleles harboring SNP285C and the MAF for SNP309G itself across different populations suggesting selection and environmental adaptation with respect to MDM2 expression in recent human evolution. In conclusion, we found SNP285C to be a pan-Caucasian variant. Ethnic variation regarding distribution of SNP285C needs to be taken into account when assessing the impact of MDM2 SNPs on cancer risk. Source


Picot V.S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Benet T.,Infection Control and Epidemiology Unit | Benet T.,University of Lyon | Messaoudi M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 28 more authors.
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014

Background: Data on the etiologies of pneumonia among children are inadequate, especially in developing countries. The principal objective is to undertake a multicenter incident case-control study of <5-year-old children hospitalized with pneumonia in developing and emerging countries, aiming to identify the causative agents involved in pneumonia while assessing individual and microbial factors associated with the risk of severe pneumonia. Methods/design: A multicenter case-control study, based on the GABRIEL network, is ongoing. Ten study sites are located in 9 countries over 3 continents: Brazil, Cambodia, China, Haiti, India, Madagascar, Mali, Mongolia, and Paraguay. At least 1,000 incident cases and 1,000 controls will be enrolled and matched for age and date. Cases are hospitalized children <5 years with radiologically confirmed pneumonia, and the controls are children without any features suggestive of pneumonia. Respiratory specimens are collected from all enrolled subjects to identify 19 viruses and 5 bacteria. Whole blood from pneumonia cases is being tested for 3 major bacteria. S. pneumoniae-positive specimens are serotyped. Urine samples from cases only are tested for detection of antimicrobial activity. The association between procalcitonin, C-reactive protein and pathogens is being evaluated. A discovery platform will enable pathogen identification in undiagnosed samples. Discussion: This multicenter study will provide descriptive results for better understanding of pathogens responsible for pneumonia among children in developing countries. The identification of determinants related to microorganisms associated with pneumonia and its severity should facilitate treatment and prevention. © 2014 Picot et al. Source


Yunusbayev B.,Evolutionary Biology groupn Biocentre | Yunusbayev B.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Metspalu M.,Evolutionary Biology groupn Biocentre | Metspalu M.,University of Tartu | And 32 more authors.
PLoS Genetics | Year: 2015

The Turkic peoples represent a diverse collection of ethnic groups defined by the Turkic languages. These groups have dispersed across a vast area, including Siberia, Northwest China, Central Asia, East Europe, the Caucasus, Anatolia, the Middle East, and Afghanistan. The origin and early dispersal history of the Turkic peoples is disputed, with candidates for their ancient homeland ranging from the Transcaspian steppe to Manchuria in Northeast Asia. Previous genetic studies have not identified a clear-cut unifying genetic signal for the Turkic peoples, which lends support for language replacement rather than demic diffusion as the model for the Turkic language’s expansion. We addressed the genetic origin of 373 individuals from 22 Turkic-speaking populations, representing their current geographic range, by analyzing genome-wide high-density genotype data. In agreement with the elite dominance model of language expansion most of the Turkic peoples studied genetically resemble their geographic neighbors. However, western Turkic peoples sampled across West Eurasia shared an excess of long chromosomal tracts that are identical by descent (IBD) with populations from present-day South Siberia and Mongolia (SSM), an area where historians center a series of early Turkic and non-Turkic steppe polities. While SSM matching IBD tracts (> 1cM) are also observed in non-Turkic populations, Turkic peoples demonstrate a higher percentage of such tracts (p-values ≤ 0.01) compared to their non-Turkic neighbors. Finally, we used the ALDER method and inferred admixture dates (~9th–17th centuries) that overlap with the Turkic migrations of the 5th–16th centuries. Thus, our results indicate historical admixture among Turkic peoples, and the recent shared ancestry with modern populations in SSM supports one of the hypothesized homelands for their nomadic Turkic and related Mongolic ancestors. © 2015 Yunusbayev et al. Source


Burmaa A.,National Influenza Center | Kamigaki T.,Tohoku University | Darmaa B.,National Influenza Center | Nymadawa P.,National Influenza Center | And 2 more authors.
Influenza and other Respiratory Viruses | Year: 2014

Background: Mongolia's Health Service began to conduct surveillance for influenza in the 1970s. This surveillance has become more comprehensive over time and now includes 155 sentinel sites in Mongolia. In this study, we analyzed the epidemiological characteristics and impact of influenza using data from influenza surveillance in Mongolia. Materials and methods: The data were collected by the National Influenza Center, Mongolia (NIC). Incidence rates of influenza-like illness (ILI) and severe acute respiratory infections (sARI) were calculated as the proportion of the number of ILI and sARI cases to the total population in the studied areas. Nasopharyngeal samples were collected and tested using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction [(rt)-RT-PCR]. Selected samples negative for influenza were tested for other respiratory pathogens by multiplex rt-RT-PCR. Results: Averages of 14·0 ILI and 0·8 sARI episodes per 100 population per year were observed during the five influenza seasons. The highest incidences of influenza associated with ILI and sARI were observed among children 0-4 years old. The number of ILI cases showed a clear seasonality, generally peaking between December and February. In contrast, sARI incidence peaked twice during each season. Influenza B was most prevalent during 2007-2008 and 2011-2012, influenza A (H3N2) during 2010-2011, seasonal A (H1N1) during 2008-2009, and A (H1N1) pdm09 during 2009-2010. Conclusions: Additional data on the epidemiology and impact of influenza including socioeconomic impact and vaccine effectiveness are required to develop a national influenza control policy, including a vaccination strategy. Our results provide useful data for developing such a policy. © 2014 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source


Xiang Z.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Fuji N.,Tohoku University | Khulan J.,National University of Mongolia | Oshitani H.,Tohoku University | And 2 more authors.
Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2015

Rhinovirus infections are common in all age groups world-wide, and they occur throughout the year. In this study, we examined 2,689 nasopharyngeal swabs collected in Mongolia during 2008–2013. Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) were detected in 295 (11.0z) samples, and 85 (28.8z) patients were co-infected with other respiratory viruses. HRV was co-detected with bocavirus, human coronavirus, and respiratory syncytial virus in 21 (24.7z), 17 (20.0z), and 14 (16.5z), respectively. We tested 170 (57.6z) of the 295 HRV-positive samples: 117 HRV strains were typed by using the VP4/VP2 method and 53 by using 5'UTR method. We found HVR-A, HVR-C, and HVR-B infections in 80 (47.1z), 76 (44.7z), and 14 (8.2z) samples, respectively. © 2015, National Institute of Health. All rights reserved. Source

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