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Clayton South, Australia

Ahmad Rusmili M.R.,Monash Venom Group | Ahmad Rusmili M.R.,Sunway University | Ahmad Rusmili M.R.,International Islamic University Malaysia | Yee T.T.,Sunway University | And 3 more authors.

Bungarus candidus and Bungarus fasciatus are two species of krait found in Southeast Asia. Envenoming by these snakes is often characterized by neurotoxicity and, without treatment, causes considerable morbidity and mortality. In this study, the in vitro neurotoxicity of each species, and the effectiveness of two monovalent antivenoms and a polyvalent antivenom, against the neurotoxic effects of the venoms, were examined in a skeletal muscle preparation. Both venoms caused concentration-dependent inhibition of indirect twitches, and attenuated responses to exogenous nicotinic receptor agonists, in the chick biventer preparation, with B. candidus venom being more potent than B. fasciatus venom. SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis indicated different profiles between the venoms. Despite these differences, most proteins bands were recognized by all three antivenoms. Antivenom, added prior to the venoms, attenuated the neurotoxic effect of the venoms. Interestingly, the respective monovalent antivenoms did not neutralize the effects of the venom from the other Bungarus species indicating a relative absence of cross-neutralization. Addition of a high concentration of polyvalent antivenom, at the t90 time point after addition of venom, partially reversed the neurotoxicity of B. fasciatus venom but not B. candidus venom. The monovalent antivenoms had no significant effect when added at the t90 time point. This study showed that B. candidus and B. fasciatus venoms display marked in vitro neurotoxicity in the chick biventer preparation and administration of antivenoms at high dose is necessary to prevent or reverse neurotoxicity. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source

Rusmili M.R.A.,Monash Venom Group | Rusmili M.R.A.,Sunway University | Tee T.Y.,Sunway University | Mustafa M.R.,University of Malaya | And 2 more authors.
Biochemical Pharmacology

Bungarus fasciatus is one of three species of krait found in Malaysia. Envenoming by B. fasciatus results in neurotoxicity due to the presence of presynaptic and postsynaptic neurotoxins. Antivenom, either monovalent or polyvalent, is the treatment of choice in systemically envenomed patients. In this study, we have isolated a postsynaptic neurotoxin which we named α-elapitoxin-Bf1b. This toxin has an approximate molecular weight of 6.9 kDa, with LCMS/MS data showing that it is highly homologous with Neurotoxin 3FTx-RI, a toxin identified in the Bungarus fasciatus venom gland transcriptome. α-Elapitoxin-Bf1b also shared similarity with short-chain neurotoxins from Laticauda colubrina and Pseudechis australis. α-Elapitoxin-Bf1b produced concentration- and time-dependent neurotoxicity in the indirectly-stimulated chick biventer cervicis muscle preparation, an effect partially reversible by repetitive washing of the preparation. The pA 2 value for α-elapitoxin-Bf1b of 9.17 ± 0.64, determined by examining the effects of the toxin on cumulative carbacol concentration-response curves, indicated that the toxin is more potent than tubocurarine and α-bungarotoxin. Pre-incubation of Bungarus fasciatus monovalent and neuro polyvalent antivenom failed to prevent the neurotoxic effects of α-elapitoxin-Bf1b in the chick biventer cervicis muscle preparation. In conclusion, the isolation of a postsynaptic neurotoxin that cannot be neutralized by either monovalent and polyvalent antivenoms may indicate the presence of isoforms of postsynaptic neurotoxins in Malaysian B. fasciatus venom. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

Rusmili M.R.A.,Monash Venom Group | Rusmili M.R.A.,Monash University | Rusmili M.R.A.,International Islamic University Malaysia | Yee T.T.,Monash University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Proteomics

Kraits (Bungarus spp.) are highly venomous elapids that are only found in Asia. In the current study, 103 and 86 different proteins were identified from Bungarus candidus and Bungarus fasciatus venoms, respectively. These proteins were classified into 18 different venom protein families. Both venoms were found to contain a high percentage of three finger toxins, phospholipase A2 enzymes and Kunitz-type inhibitors. Smaller number of high molecular weight enzymes such as L-amino acid oxidase, hyaluronidases, and acetylcholinesterase were also detected in the venoms. We also detected some unique proteins that were not known to be present in these venoms. The presence of a natriuretic peptide, vespryn, and serine protease families was detected in B. candidus venom. We also detected the presence of subunit A and B of β-bungarotoxin and α-bungarotoxin which had not been previously found in B. fasciatus venom. Understanding the proteome composition of Malaysian krait species will provide useful information on unique toxins and proteins which are present in the venoms. This knowledge will assist in the management of krait envenoming. In addition, these proteins may have potential use as research tools or as drug-design templates. Biological significance: This study has revealed the proteome composition of Malaysian B. candidus and B. fasciatus venoms, two medically important snake species in Asia. Information on the venom proteome of these species will provide useful information for krait bite management and aid in antivenom selection. Venom proteome profiles of these venoms showed that there are significant differences in the venom protein family compositions. Detection of proteins and peptides that have not been documented in these species such as natriuretic peptides, vespryn and serine proteases provides new knowledge on the composition of these venoms. The roles of these new proteins and peptides in krait envenoming are still unknown. Discovery of these proteins and peptides may also be useful for future research tool and therapeutic development. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

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