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Monash University is a university based in Melbourne, Australia. It was founded in 1958 and is the second oldest university in the State of Victoria. Monash is a member of Australia's Group of Eight and the ASAIHL, and is the only Australian member of the influential M8 Alliance of Academic Health Centers, Universities and National Academies.Monash enrolls approximately 45,000 undergraduate and 17,000 graduate students, making it the university with the largest student body in Australia. It also has more applicants than any university in the state of Victoria.Monash is home to major research facilities, including the Australian Synchrotron, the Monash Science Technology Research and Innovation Precinct , the Australian Stem Cell Centre, 100 research centres and 17 co-operative research centres. In 2011, its total revenue was over $1.5 billion, with external research income around $282 million.The university has seven campuses, five of which are in Victoria , one in Malaysia, and one in South Africa. Monash also has a research and teaching centre in Prato, Italy, a graduate research school in Mumbai, India and a graduate school in Jiangsu Province, China. Since December 2011, Monash has had a global alliance with the University of Warwick in the United Kingdom.The Clayton campus contains the Robert Blackwood Hall, named after the university's founding Chancellor Sir Robert Blackwood and designed by Sir Roy Grounds, which boasts superb acoustics and is considered Melbourne's best music venue outside the CBD.In 2014, the University ceded its Gippsland campus to Federation University. Wikipedia.

Krum H.,Monash University | Schlaich M.P.,Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute | Sobotka P.A.,Ohio State University | Bohm M.,Universitatsklinium des Saarlandes | And 4 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2014

Background: Renal denervation (RDN) with radiofrequency ablation substantially reduces blood pressure in patients with treatment-resistant hypertension. We assessed the long-term antihypertensive effects and safety. Methods: Symplicity HTN-1 is an open-label study that enrolled 153 patients, of whom 111 consented to follow-up for 36 months. Eligible patients had a systolic blood pressure of at least 160 mm Hg and were taking at least three antihypertensive drugs, including a diuretic, at the optimum doses. Changes in office systolic blood pressure and safety were assessed every 6 months and reported every 12 months. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, numbers NCT00483808, NCT00664638, and NCT00753285. Findings: 88 patients had complete data at 36 months. At baseline the mean age was 57 (SD 11) years, 37 (42%) patients were women, 25 (28%) had type 2 diabetes mellitus, the mean estimated glomerular filtration rate was 85 (SD 19) mL/min per 1.73 m 2, and mean blood pressure was 175/98 (SD 16/14) mm Hg. At 36 months signifi-cant changes were seen in systolic (-32.0 mm Hg, 95% CI -35.7 to -28.2) and diastolic blood pressure (-14.4 mm Hg, -16.9 to -11.9). Drops of 10 mm Hg or more in systolic blood pressure were seen in 69% of patients at 1 month, 81% at 6 months, 85% at 12 months, 83% at 24 months, and 93% at 36 months. One new renal artery stenosis requiring stenting and three deaths unrelated to RDN occurred during follow-up. Interpretation: Changes in blood pressure after RDN persist long term in patients with treatment-resistant hypertension, with good safety. Source

Bouazza A.,Monash University
Geotextiles and Geomembranes | Year: 2014

This paper presents a simple test method and analysis based on capillary rise in porous media to assess the wettability of nonwoven geotextiles. The apparent opening pore size and porosity of the nonwoven geotextiles and their fibres' surface condition were found to play a significant role in the extent of the water capillary rise in the geotextiles. Prediction of the maximum capillary rise using a theoretical capillary radius compared well with the measured test results. The methodology presented in this paper should help assess wetting of geotextiles in short period of time and less extensive laboratory testing. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

McIntyre M.J.,Monash University
Australian Health Review | Year: 2012

The Australian government has announced major reforms with the move to a primary maternity care model. The direction of the reforms remains contentious; with the Australian Medical Association warning that the introduction of non-medically led services will compromise current high standards in maternity services and threaten the safety of mothers and babies. The purpose of this paper is to conduct a critical review of the literature to determine whether there is convincing evidence to support the safety of non-medically led models of primary maternity care. Twenty-two non-randomised international studies were included representing midwifery-led care, birth centre care and home birth. Comparative outcome measurements included: perinatal mortality; perinatal morbidity; rates of medical intervention in labour; and antenatal and intrapartum referral and transfer rates. Findings support those of the three Cochrane reviews, that there is sufficient international evidence to support the conclusion of no difference in outcomes associated with low risk women in midwifery-led, birth centre and home birth models compared with standard hospital or obstetric care. These findings are limited to services involving qualified midwives working within rigorous exclusion, assessment and referral guidelines, limiting the number of urgent intrapartum transfers that come with increased risk of perinatal mortality. What is known about the topic? Systematic reviews of maternal and perinatal outcomes associated with midwifery-led care when compared to conventional intrapartum hospital care concluded that these non-medically led models of care are associated with several benefits for low risk women and their babies with no identified adverse effects. What does this paper add? The finding of no difference in outcomes associated with midwifery-led, birth centre and home birth compared with standard hospital or obstetric care is limited to international studies involving women in the care of qualified midwives working within rigorous guidelines for practice involving inter-professionally agreed exclusion, assessment and referral criteria. What are the implications for practitioners? Midwives caring for women in non-medically led models are urged to be vigilant to the need for early detection and prompt action in the event of unforseen complications to avoid an over emphasis on normality. This decreases the likelihood of urgent intrapartum transfers that come with an increased risk of perinatal mortality. © 2012 AHHA. Source

Harding R.,Monash University | Maritz G.,University of the Western Cape
Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine | Year: 2012

This review focuses on genetic and environmental influences that result in long term alterations in lung structure and function. Environmental factors operating during fetal and early postnatal life can have persistent effects on lung development and so influence lung function and respiratory health throughout life. Common factors affecting the quality of the intrauterine environment that can alter lung development include fetal nutrient and oxygen availability leading to intrauterine growth restriction, fetal intrathoracic space, intrauterine infection or inflammation, maternal tobacco smoking and other drug exposures. Similarly, factors that operate during early postnatal life, such as mechanical ventilation and high FiO 2 in the case of preterm birth, undernutrition, exposure to tobacco smoke and respiratory infections, can all lead to persistent alterations in lung structure and function. Greater awareness of the many prenatal and early postnatal factors that can alter lung development will help to improve lung development and hence respiratory health throughout life. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Lynch T.,Monash University
Sport, Education and Society | Year: 2015

The purpose of this study is to explore what the role of a health and physical education (HPE) specialist teacher in the primary school entails. The new Australian Curriculum: HPE Framework requires schools and teachers to implement the HPE key learning area. Many self-perceived physical education (PE) teachers have voiced concern about not knowing how they go about this. This research investigates ‘How PE teachers best become HPE teachers?’ We are reminded by Kirk that this is not the first time teachers have implemented this very change in Australia. Many similarities can be drawn between the recent national Australian Curriculum: HPE and the 1994 HPE National Statement and Profile, which provided a foundation for the construction of the 1999 Queensland HPE (P-10) Syllabus. As recommended by Kirk this study ‘look[s] to the past for lessons about the present and where we might be heading in the future’, by investigating school responses to the 1999 Queensland HPE (P-10) syllabus and curriculum documents. Within the constructionist paradigm, an interpretivist study was conducted. The methodology chosen to construct meanings through capturing the context of each school was ‘evaluative’ and ‘multiple’ case study. The sites for the three case studies involved: one small; one medium; and one large-sized Brisbane Catholic Education primary school. The three case studies were selected as representative of different demographics and the methods engaged so as to enable precision of details were semi-structured interviews, reflective journal, observations and document analysis. Data gathered suggest that enacting the HPE key learning area is very achievable. Implementation is enhanced by HPE leadership, underpinned by clear communication. More so, barriers can be overcome through professional development and support. This study is significant nationally, and the findings may be of wider international interest. It models how school leaders can optimise the health opportunities within their context and models how PE teachers can become HPE teachers. © 2015 Taylor & Francis Source

Climatic cooling and substantial tectonic activity since the late Miocene have had a pronounced influence on the evolutionary history of the fauna of New Zealand's South Island. However, many species have recently experienced dramatic range reductions due to habitat fragmentation and the introduction of mammalian predators and competitors. These anthropogenic impacts have been particularly severe in the tussock grasslands of the Otago region. The Otago skink (Oligosoma otagense), endemic to the region, is one of the most critically endangered vertebrates in New Zealand. We use mitochondrial DNA sequence data to investigate the evolutionary history of the Otago skink, examine its population genetic structure, and assess the level of genetic diversity in the individuals in the captive breeding program. Our data indicate that the Otago skink diverged from its closest relatives in the Miocene, consistent with the commencement of tectonic uplift of the Southern Alps. However, there is evidence for past introgression with the scree skink (O. waimatense) in the northern Otago-southern Canterbury region. The remnant populations in eastern Otago and western Otago are estimated to have diverged in the mid-Pliocene, with no haplotypes shared between these two regions. This divergence accounts for 95% of the genetic diversity in the species. Within both regions there is strong genetic structure among populations, although shared haplotypes are generally evident between adjacent localities. Although substantial genetic diversity is present in the captive population, all individuals originate from the eastern region and the majority had haplotypes that were not evident in the intensively managed populations at Macraes Flat. Our data indicate that eastern and western populations should continue to be regarded as separate management units. Knowledge of the genetic diversity of the breeding stock will act to inform the captive management of the Otago skink and contribute to a key recovery action for the species. Source

Barnard A.S.,CSIRO | Chang L.Y.,Monash University
ACS Catalysis | Year: 2011

The development of the next generation of nanosized heterogeneous catalysts requires precise control of the size, shape, and structure of individual components in a variety of chemical environments. Recent reports show that the density of catalytically active defects on Pt nanoparticles is intrinsically linked to performance, such as edges, corners, steps, and kinks, which may be introduced postsynthesis. To optimize the synthesis of nanoparticles decorated by these defects and to understand the structural stability of the final product, multiscale thermodynamic modeling has been used to predict the size and temperature dependence of these steps and to show how this directly relates to catalytic reactivity. The results show that relatively modest annealing can promote the formations of surface steps and kinks and can more than double the reactivity of particles at industrially relevant sizes. © 2011 American Chemical Society. Source

Link B.,Montana State University | Link B.,Monash University
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2014

Sudden relaxation of the magnetic field in the core of a magnetar produces mechanical energy primarily in the form of shear waves which propagate to the surface and enter the magnetosphere as relativistic Alfvén waves. Due to a strong impedance mismatch, shear waves excited in the star suffer many reflections before exiting the star. If mechanical energy is deposited in the core and is converted directly to radiation upon propagation to the surface, the rise time of the emission is at least seconds to minutes, and probably minutes to hours for a realistic magnetic field geometry, at odds with observed rise times of ≲10 ms for both small and giant flares. Mechanisms for both small and giant flares that rely on the sudden relaxation of the magnetic field of the core are rendered unviable by the impedance mismatch, requiring the energy that drives these events to be stored in the magnetosphere just before the flare. A corollary to this conclusion is that if the quasi-periodic oscillations seen in giant flares represent stellar oscillations, they must be excited by the magnetosphere, not by mechanical energy released inside the star. Excitation of stellar oscillations by relativistic Alfvén waves in the magnetosphere could be quick enough to excite stellar modes well before a giant flare ends, unless the waves are quickly damped. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. Source

Bourne J.A.,Monash University
Journal of Anatomy | Year: 2010

The visual cortex comprises over 50 areas in the human, each with a specified role and distinct physiology, connectivity and cellular morphology. How these individual areas emerge during development still remains something of a mystery and, although much attention has been paid to the initial stages of the development of the visual cortex, especially its lamination, very little is known about the mechanisms responsible for the arealization and functional organization of this region of the brain. In recent years we have started to discover that it is the interplay of intrinsic (molecular) and extrinsic (afferent connections) cues that are responsible for the maturation of individual areas, and that there is a spatiotemporal sequence in the maturation of the primary visual cortex (striate cortex, V1) and the multiple extrastriate/association areas. Studies in both humans and non-human primates have started to highlight the specific neural underpinnings responsible for the maturation of the visual cortex, and how experience-dependent plasticity and perturbations to the visual system can impact upon its normal development. Furthermore, damage to specific nuclei of the visual cortex, such as the primary visual cortex (V1), is a common occurrence as a result of a stroke, neurotrauma, disease or hypoxia in both neonates and adults alike. However, the consequences of a focal injury differ between the immature and adult brain, with the immature brain demonstrating a higher level of functional resilience. With better techniques for examining specific molecular and connectional changes, we are now starting to uncover the mechanisms responsible for the increased neural plasticity that leads to significant recovery following injury during this early phase of life. Further advances in our understanding of postnatal development/maturation and plasticity observed during early life could offer new strategies to improve outcomes by recapitulating aspects of the developmental program in the adult brain. © 2010 The Author. Journal of Anatomy © 2010 Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Source

Catto J.L.,Monash University | Pfahl S.,ETH Zurich
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres | Year: 2013

Extratropical cyclones and their associated frontal systems are well known to be related to heavy precipitation events. Here an objective method is used to directly link extreme precipitation events with atmospheric fronts, identified using European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Interim Reanalysis data, to quantify the importance of fronts for precipitation extremes globally. In some parts of the major midlatitude storm track regions, over 90% of precipitation extremes are associated with fronts, with slightly more events associated with warm fronts than cold fronts. On average, 51% of global precipitation extremes are associated with fronts, with 75% in the midlatitudes and 31% in the tropics. A large proportion of extreme precipitation events occur in the presence of both a cyclone and a front, but remote fronts are responsible for many of the "front-only" events. The fronts producing extreme precipitation events are found to have up to 35% stronger frontal gradients than other fronts, potentially providing some improved forecasting capabilities for extreme precipitation events. Key Points Objectively identified fronts are linked with precipitation extremes. Up to 90% of extreme precipitation events are associated with fronts. Fronts related to extreme precipitation events are much stronger. ©2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Source

Yuce M.R.,Monash University | Dissanayake T.,University of Newcastle
IEEE Microwave Magazine | Year: 2012

Recent attempts made in the design of the wireless telemetry unit for the electronic pill technology are reviewed and some challenges and developments for successful implementation of high-resolution video-based electronic pills are discussed. Recent telemetry systems for the electronic pill technology include a passive wireless link used for wake-up to reduce power consumption. A device was developed by Valdastri et al. with a multichannel feature to cover a few different physiological parameters. Kfouri et al., studied a fluorescence-based electronic pill system that uses UV light with illumination LEDs to obtain clearer images, similar to flash-based digital cameras in widespread use. Companies are continuously developing new sensor nodes and small-size sensor platforms with high data rate capability, will be available to biomedical engineers for use in electronic pill applications. Sayaka, a battery-free capsule by RF System Lab, has both wireless power transfer and localization capabilities. Source

The planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway plays a critical role in diverse developmental processes that require coordinated cellular movement, including neural tube closure and renal tubulogenesis. Recent studies have demonstrated that this pathway also has emerging relevance to the epidermis, as PCP signaling underpins many aspects of skin biology and pathology, including epidermal development, hair orientation, stem cell division and cancer. Coordinated cellular movement required for epidermal repair in mammals is also regulated by PCP signaling, and in this context, a new PCP gene encoding the developmental transcription factor Grainyhead-like 3 (Grhl3) is critical. This review focuses on the role that PCP signaling plays in the skin across a variety of epidermal functions and highlights perturbations that induce epidermal pathologies. Source

We have investigated and compared the reactivity of the phosphinoamide stabilized hydrocarbon-soluble LiH complex [(LLi)4(LiH)4] 1 (L = [Ph2PNDip], Dip = 2,6-iPr2C 6H3) and the lithium phosphinoamide [LLi] 2 towards some unsaturated organic substrates. The complexes [(LSiMe2OLi) 2(HDCCLi)2] 3 (DCC = CyNCNCy, Cy = cyclohexyl) and [(HDCC)6Li8O] 4 were obtained from reactions of 1 with DCC, and the complexes [{LN(Ph)N(Ph)Li}2] 5 and [{PhN(Li)-N(Li)Ph} 4] 7 were obtained from reactions of 1 with azobenzene. Complex 5 was furthermore obtained in good yield from 2 and azobenzene, and was converted to the solvate [LN(Ph)N(Ph)Li(THF)] 6. Complex 7 could be independently synthesized from lithium metal and azobenzene. Complex 1 undergoes hydrolithiation reactions with some substrates, as evidenced by the formation of complexes 3, 4, and indirectly by 7, but also takes part in addition reactions of the stabilizing phosphinoamide ligand onto substrates as shown by the isolation of complexes 3 and 5. The crystal structures of complexes 3, 5, 6, 7 and [LLi(THF)3] are reported. © 2014 the Partner Organisations. Source

Nissen S.,Monash University
New Zealand Geographer | Year: 2014

The question of who is included, or who is excluded, from environmental governance arrangements is at the heart of debates of institutional legitimacy. The recent redefinition of representation as a claim to 'speak for' another provides an opportunity to re-examine the inclusiveness of environmental governance arrangements. This article builds on these developments by empirically evaluating the inclusiveness of three representative claims embedded in freshwater governance in Canterbury since 2002. The contribution argues that accounts of environmental governance must consider implicit forms of representation that can exclude or marginalise and raises some caveats relating to expansion of network governance. © 2014 New Zealand Geographical Society. Source

Awrangjeb M.,Monash University | Fraser C.S.,University of Melbourne
IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing | Year: 2014

Some performance evaluation systems for building extraction techniques are manual in the sense that only visual results are provided or human judgment is employed. Many evaluation systems that employ one or more thresholds to ascertain whether an extracted building or roof plane is correct are subjective and cannot be applied in general. There are only a small number of automatic and threshold-free evaluation systems, but these do not necessarily consider all special cases, e.g., when over- and under-segmentation occurs during the extraction of roof planes. This paper proposes an automatic and threshold-free evaluation system that offers robust object-based evaluation of building extraction techniques. It makes one-to-one correspondences between extracted and reference entities using the maximum overlaps. Its application to the evaluation of a building extraction technique shows that it estimates different performance indicators including segmentation errors. Consequently, it can be employed for bias-free evaluation of other techniques whose outputs consist of polygonal entities. © 2014 IEEE. Source

This paper presents a probabilistic study of the out-plane failure mode of long embankments by first-order reliability method (FORM) and limit equilibrium method (LEM). The uncertainty and longitudinal spatial variability of soils that are deemed the most important factors producing the 3-D failure modes are considered in the probabilistic analysis. The longitudinal (out-plane) spatial variation of undrained shear strength is modeled by both spatial-averaging approach and spatial-autocorrelation approach. Comparisons are made between the two methods. For a long earth embankment, the local 3-D failure with a probabilistic critical width is investigated. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Chatel G.,CNRS Poitiers Institute of Chemistry: Materials and Natural Resources | Macfarlane D.R.,Monash University
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2014

Ionic liquids, as reaction media, and sonochemistry are two recently developing fields of chemistry that present some similarities. Firstly, they constitute separately unconventional approaches to reaction chemistry that, in many cases, generate improvements in yield, rate and selectivity compared to classical chemistry, or even change the mechanisms or products expected. In addition, both are often associated with green chemistry concepts as a result of their properties and their possible eco-friendly uses. A recent trend has been to combine these two technologies in a range of different applications and the results demonstrate very significant and occasionally surprising synergetic effects. Here we critically review the advantages and limitations of the ionic liquid/ultrasound combination in different applications in chemistry, to understand how, and in which respects, it could become an essential tool of sustainable chemistry in the future. Many practical and theoretical aspects associated with this combination of techniques are not understood or resolved and we discus where fundamental studies might further advance this field. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014. Source

Capitanio F.A.,Monash University
Tectonophysics | Year: 2013

Global compilations have revealed a wide range of trench margin motions, from advancing to retreating, a complexity for which there is as yet no single dynamic explanation. While the buoyancy force of the sinking slabs in the mantle can solely account for retreating trench motions, additional forces are required to explain trench advance. Here, the role of gravitational sliding of oceanic lithosphere from the ridge rise to the trench, which is in opposition to the hinge retreat, is considered. Because lithospheric ageing and thickening have a first-order control on the driving forces of slab buoyancy and ridge push, controls on trench migrations should be age-dependent. A force balance model is used to show that gravitational sliding remains smaller than hinge retreat for a young (<30-40 M.years) trench; with predicted trench motions in slow retreat due to the low buoyancy of young lithosphere. Only when older lithosphere is subducted does gravitational sliding become larger than hinge retreat, opposing the natural tendency of the hinge to rollback, and trench advance occurs. This model can explain the range of observed trench motions, from advance to retreat, and their anti-correlation with trench age along most of the convergent margins. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Agnew S.R.,University of Virginia | Nie J.F.,Monash University
Scripta Materialia | Year: 2010

Research papers, which will guide future research aimed in magnesium alloys at improving the properties and broadening the structural applications of the metal, are discussed. Three papers in the viewpoint set are devoted to creep mechanisms and development of creep-resistant alloys. The paper by Saddock and co-researchers demonstrate that there is no significant contribution of grain boundary sliding to creep in alloys based on the Mg-Al-Ca system, at least when tested at 175°C. Spigarelli and El Mehtedi make a comparison of the constitutive response in creep and hot torsion of both cast and wrought magnesium alloys, obtained in the temperature range 100-150°C. The potential to develop high-strength low-cost magnesium wrought alloys through precipitation hardening is discussed in the paper by Hono and co-researchers, with emphasis on microalloying additions to Mg-Zn and Mg-Sn alloys. The paper by Kim and researchers predicts that even twinroll cast material is not free from the concerns associated with strong basal texture that have plagued traditional direct-chill cast and hot-rolled materials. Source

Abuel-Naga H.M.,University of Auckland | Bouazza A.,Monash University
Geotextiles and Geomembranes | Year: 2014

The aim of this study is to develop empirical equations to predict the liquid leakage rate through a composite liner comprising a geomembrane and a geosynthetic clay liner (GM/GCL) underlain by a free draining boundary and having a circular or a longitudinal defect in the geomembrane. For this purpose, an intensive numerical experimental program was conducted where different defect geometries and flow transport characteristics were studied to simulate most of the conditions likely to exist in practice in such type of composite liners. The results are presented in a dimensionless form to generalize the observed behaviour and to give more insight on the factors that control the leakage behaviour. Furthermore, the results are also used to develop empirical equations for predicting the rate of leakage. An artificial intelligent approach referred to as General Method of Data Handling (GMDH) was used for this purpose. The main advantage of the proposed leakage equations is their validity for different flow patterns as the effect of defects geometry and flow characteristics of the composite liner components are already embedded in the development of the equations. However, their validity is limited to the ranges of the dimensionless parameters that were used to develop them. © 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Source

Moran L.J.,Monash University
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2011

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 4% to 18% of reproductive-aged women and is associated with reproductive, metabolic and psychological dysfunction. Obesity worsens the presentation of PCOS and weight management (weight loss, maintenance or prevention of excess weight gain) is proposed as an initial treatment strategy, best achieved through lifestyle changes incorporating diet, exercise and behavioural interventions. To assess the effectiveness of lifestyle treatment in improving reproductive, anthropometric (weight and body composition), metabolic and quality of life factors in PCOS. Electronic databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, AMED), controlled trials register, conference abstracts, relevant journals, reference lists of relevant papers and reviews and grey literature databases, with no language restrictions applied. Randomised controlled trials comparing lifestyle treatment (diet, exercise, behavioural or combined treatments) to minimal or no treatment in women with PCOS. Two authors independently selected trials, assessed methodological quality and risk of bias and extracted data. Six studies were included. Three studies compared physical activity to minimal dietary and behavioural advice or no advice. Three studies compared combined dietary, exercise and behavioural interventions to minimal intervention. There were no studies assessing fertility primary outcomes and no data for meta-analysis on ovulation or menstrual regularity. For secondary outcomes, lifestyle intervention provided benefits when compared to minimal treatment for endpoint values for total testosterone (mean difference (MD) -0.27 nmol/L, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.46 to -0.09, P = 0.004), hirsutism by the Ferriman-Gallwey score (MD -1.19, 95% CI -2.35 to -0.03, P = 0.04), weight (MD -3.47 kg, 95% CI -4.94 to -2.00, P < 0.00001), waist circumference (MD -1.95 cm, 95% CI -3.34 to -0.57, P = 0.006), waist to hip ratio (MD -0.04, 95% CI -0.07 to -0.00, P = 0.02), fasting insulin (MD -2.02 μU/mL, 95% CI -3.28 to -0.77, P = 0.002) and oral glucose tolerance test insulin (standardised mean difference -1.32, 95% CI -1.73 to -0.92, P < 0.00001) and per cent weight change (MD -7.00%, 95% CI -10.1 to -3.90, P < 0.00001). There was no evidence of effect of lifestyle for body mass index, free androgen index, sex hormone binding globulin, glucose or lipids; and no data for quality of life, patient satisfaction or acne. Lifestyle intervention improves body composition, hyperandrogenism (high male hormones and clinical effects) and insulin resistance in women with PCOS. There was no evidence of effect for lifestyle intervention on improving glucose tolerance or lipid profiles and no literature assessing clinical reproductive outcomes, quality of life and treatment satisfaction. Source

Whittaker A.,Monash University
Global Public Health | Year: 2015

In this paper, I describe the experience of ‘outsourced’ patients who are sent by their governments or insurers through contractual arrangements to a hospital in another country for treatment. I present case studies of nine patients and their accompanying families from the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) who were interviewed in a Thai hospital as part of a broader study of medical travel from patients' perspectives. The health systems of the GCC suffer shortages in infrastructure, human resources and management skills, and as a consequence patients with particular needs, especially in neurology, orthopaedics and oncology may be sent overseas for treatment. Patients experience long stays overseas producing a considerable burden to their families supporting them. Such patients complicate notions of medical travel but their status also contrasts markedly from stereotypes held about Gulf patients within Thailand. Despite their appreciation of government sponsoring, for many patients the experience of care in Thailand underscored perceived inadequacies of their home health systems and governments. For some, outsourcing represented a betrayal of the obligations of their states to its citizens. © 2015, © 2015 Taylor & Francis. Source

Rosenfeld J.V.,Monash University
Neurosurgical Focus | Year: 2011

The prognosis for patients with hypothalamic hamartoma has improved dramatically over the last 20 years, for 3 main reasons. First, because of improved understanding of the anatomy and pathophysiology of these varied lesions. Second, due to advances in brain imaging and refinements in microsurgery, including the anterior transcallosal interforniceal approach, endoscopic, and skull-base approaches. And third, because of increasing experience with stereotactic radiosurgery, interstitial radiotherapy, and radiofrequency lesioning. Patients with hypothalamic hamartoma should be managed in comprehensive epilepsy centers where the treatments are individualized and concentrated in the hands of surgeons who can perform the full range of surgery, including approaches to the third ventricle. Total seizure-freedom rates of 52% to 66% have been achieved with surgery. Source

Jones C.,Monash University
Coordination Chemistry Reviews | Year: 2010

This article summarizes the development of a new class of very bulky guanidinate ligands. These have been used to prepare unprecedented examples of heterocycles containing groups 2, 13, 14 or 15 elements in the +1 oxidation state. The ligands have also been harnessed in the preparation of the only examples of guanidinato, and/or closely related amidinato, complexes of iron(I), cobalt(I) and planar four-coordinate lanthanide(II) metals. Preliminary studies of the further chemistry of these very reactive complexes are also reviewed. Throughout, the tendency of the bulky guanidinate ligands to exhibit ligating and stabilizing properties more akin to those of bulky β-diketiminate ligands than less bulky amidinates or guanidinates, will be discussed. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Holland D.P.,Monash University
Journal of Plankton Research | Year: 2010

Measurements of phytoplankton sinking rates are usually performed on samples of randomly oriented cells or colonies and yet the theoretical analyses of results are usually based on formulae restricted to objects oriented either vertically or horizontally. Formulae first published in 1965 but unknown in the phytoplankton literature can be used to calculate sinking rates of prolate ellipsoids and cylinders, shapes commonly encountered in phytoplankton, sinking at a range of angles between vertical and horizontal. The formulae predict a curvilinear decrease in speed from the maximum when oriented at 0° to the vertical, and a horizontal component in the trajectories of cylindrical particles oriented at angles of >0° and <90°, with filaments with an axial ratio of 100 drifting sideways at up to 25 of the speed of vertical drift. All of these predictions were verified with a physical model of graphite cylinders (pencil leads) sinking in an oil-filled sedimentation column, after corrections for column wall effects were applied. The mean vertical sinking rate of a disperse, randomly oriented population of filaments was also calculated, from the probability of orientation at each angle, and the theoretical speed at that angle. © 2010. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Source

A novel method of converting binary-level electrical pulses into multi-level optical pulses using only a conventional traveling-wave optical modulator is presented. The method provides low inter-pulse interference due to the counter-propagating pulses, low amplitude noise, and a timing jitter determined chiefly by the quality of the optical pulse source. The method only requires one electrical drive per modulator and provides lowjitter variable-amplitude optical pulses that are suitable for shaping into a wide variety of modulation formats using a programmable optical filter. © 2014 Optical Society of America. Source

Thompson M.C.,Monash University
Journal of Fluid Mechanics | Year: 2012

Previous experimental studies have shown that the steady recirculation bubble that forms as the flow separates at the leading-edge corner of a long plate, becomes unsteady at relatively low Reynolds numbers of only a few hundreds. The reattaching shear layer irregularly releases two-dimensional vortices, which quickly undergo three-dimensional transition. Similar to the flow over a backward-facing step, this flow is globally stable at such Reynolds numbers, with transition to a steady three-dimensional flow as the first global instability to occur as the Reynolds number is increased to 393. Hence, it appears that the observed flow behaviour is governed by transient growth of optimal two-dimensional transiently growing perturbations (constructed from damped global modes) rather than a single three-dimensional unstable global mode. This paper quantifies the details of the transient growth of two-and three-dimensional optimal perturbations, and compares the predictions to other related cases examined recently. The optimal perturbation modes are shown to be highly concentrated in amplitude in the vicinity of the leading-edge corners and evolve to take the local shape of a Kelvin-Helmholtz shear-layer instability further downstream. However, the dominant mode reaches a maximum amplitude downstream of the position of the reattachment point of the shear layer. The maximum energy growth increases at 2.5 decades for each increment in Reynolds number of 100. Maximum energy growth of the optimal perturbation mode at a Reynolds number of 350 is greater than 10 4, which is typically an upper limit of the Reynolds number range over which it is possible to observe steady flow experimentally. While transient growth analysis concentrates on the evolution of wavepackets rather than continuous forcing, this appears consistent with longitudinal turbulence levels of up to 1 % for some water tunnels, and the fact that the optimal mode is highly concentrated close to the leading-edge corner so that an instantaneous projection of a perturbation field from a noisy inflow onto the optimal mode can be significant. Indeed, direct simulations with inflow noise reveal that a root-mean-square noise level of just 0.1 % is sufficient to trigger some unsteadiness at Re= 350, while a 0.5 % level results in sustained shedding. Three-dimensional optimal perturbation mode analysis was also performed showing that at Re= 350, the optimal mode has a spanwise wavelength of 11.7 plate thicknesses and is amplified 20 % more than the two-dimensional optimal disturbance. The evolved three-dimensional mode shows strong streamwise vortical structures aligned at a shallow angle to the plate top surface. © 2012 Cambridge University Press. Source

Islam A.,Monash University
American Journal of Agricultural Economics | Year: 2011

The objective of this paper is to estimate the impact of medium- and long-term participation in microcredit programs. It utilizes a new, and large, panel dataset collected from treatment and control households from 1997 to 2005. The data enables us to identify continuing participants in the program as well as newcomers and leavers. We employ different estimation strategies including difference-in-difference-in-difference and propensity score matching methods to control for selection bias. The impact estimates indicate that the benefits from microcredit vary more than proportionately with the duration of participation in a program. Larger benefits are realized from longer-term participation, and the benefits continue to accrue beyond departure from the program. The findings indicate the need to observe longer periods of participation to provide a reliable basis for assessing the effectiveness of microcredit lending. © The Author (2011). Source

Brewin L.,Monash University
Classical and Quantum Gravity | Year: 2015

Two lattice based methods for numerical relativity, the Regge calculus and the smooth lattice relativity, will be compared with respect to accuracy and computational speed in a full 3+1 evolution of initial data representing a standard Kasner cosmology. It will be shown that both methods provide convergent approximations to the exact Kasner cosmology. It will also be shown that the Regge calculus is of the order of 110 times slower than the smooth lattice method. © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd. Source

Chang L.Y.,Monash University | Barnard A.S.,CSIRO | Gontard L.C.,Technical University of Denmark | Dunin-Borkowski R.E.,Technical University of Denmark
Nano Letters | Year: 2010

Accurate understanding of the structure of active sites is fundamentally important in predicting catalytic properties of heterogeneous nanocatalysts. We present an accurate determination of both experimental and theoretical atomic structures of surface monatomic steps on industrial platinum nanoparticles. This comparison reveals that the edges of nanoparticles can significantly alter the atomic positions of monatomic steps in their proximity, which can lead to substantial deviations in the catalytic properties compared with the extended surfaces. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source

Gilfillan C.P.,Monash University
ANZ Journal of Surgery | Year: 2010

Background: Thyroid nodules are common, but only a small proportion harbour malignancy. Despite this, the frequency of thyroid cancer is on the increase and thyroid malignancy is the most common endocrine malignancy. Preoperative diagnosis is based on ultrasound and radionucleotide imaging as well as the fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). These biopsies yield a large proportion of indeterminate results due to inadequate material for cytological diagnosis, or due to the cytological similarity of FAs and follicular carcinomas. Recent advances in the understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of thyroid malignancy have led to the detection of characteristic genetic alterations in FNABs. This technology has the potential to increase the specificity of this test, combining cytological with genetic testing to reduce the number of indeterminate results, thereby reducing the number of thyroidectomies performed for benign disease. Methods: This review examines the evidence for the presence of the common genetic alterations in thyroid cancer and outlines the pathological and clinical correlations of these mutations. The practicality and utility of measuring these genetic alterations in FNAB specimens is also outlined as well as the potential for these tests to alter primary management and follow-up of patients with nodular thyroid disease. Conclusion: It is likely that a combination of molecular testing and cytological examination of FNAB specimens will prove to be the most efficient and specific method of diagnosing thyroid cancer preoperatively. © 2010 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons. Source

Miller A.G.,Monash University
Current clinical pharmacology | Year: 2013

Diabetic retinopathy is a major cause of vision impairment and blindness and represents a significant health burden throughout the world. There is considerable interest in developing new treatments that retard the progression of diabetic retinopathy from its early to proliferative stages. It could be argued that the absence of an ideal therapy for diabetic retinopathy comes from an incomplete understanding about the biochemical mechanisms that underlie this disease, and their precise impact on specific retinal cell populations. Findings from pre-clinical and clinical studies indicate that both the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) influence various aspects of diabetic retinopathy. Of interest is growing evidence of cross-talk between the RAS and AGEs pathways. This review will discuss the role of both the RAS and AGEs in diabetic retinopathy, and how the identification of interactions between the two pathways may have implications for the development of new treatment strategies. Source

Al-Shawaf A.,Monash University
International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives | Year: 2011

This paper focuses on predicting the triggering modes of failure and failure loads of CFRPsteel double-strap joints utilizing three different resins, two carbon fiber grades, and mild steel plates under extreme subzero and elevated-temperature environmental exposures encountered in civil infrastructure. Non-linear finite element models, at all currently investigated exposures, have been adopted. The results were compared with those obtained from previous experimental program. The double-strap CFRPsteel bond specimens of the experimental program were fabricated via the wet lay-up method. Therefore, a microstructural discretization approach was opted for the wet lay-up CFRP reinforcements, which incorporated the elasto-plastic behavior of the most vulnerable components, viz. resins, in the analyses. Uniaxial tensile properties of the adhesive material were utilized to describe the stress-based triggering failure mode for the joints. Limiting maximum principal stress and Von Mises yield criteria have been used for joints pre-conditioned below and above their adhesive/matrixs glass transition temperature (T g). A third criterion was utilized to define total interlaminar/localized interlaminar failure patterns in both brittle and ductile material, viz. transverse tensile stress in the CFRP layer. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Hahn Y.,Monash University
Journal of Health Economics | Year: 2013

I investigate how changes in fees paid to Medicaid physicians affect take-up among children in low-income families. The existing literature suggests that the low level of Medicaid fee payments to physicians reduces their willingness to see Medicaid patients, thus creating an access-to-care problem for these patients. For the identical service, current Medicaid reimbursement rates are only about 65 percent of those covered by Medicare. Increasing the relative payments of Medicaid would increase its perceived value, as it would provide better access to health care for Medicaid beneficiaries. Using variation in the timing of the changes in Medicaid payment across states, I find that increasing Medicaid generosity is associated with both an increase in take-up and a reduction in uninsured rate. These results provide a partial answer to the puzzling question of why many low-income children who are eligible for Medicaid remain uninsured. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Barrow S.J.,University of Melbourne | Funston A.M.,Monash University | Gomez D.E.,University of Melbourne | Davis T.J.,CSIRO | Mulvaney P.,University of Melbourne
Nano Letters | Year: 2011

We present experimental data on the light scattering properties of linear chains of gold nanoparticles with up to six nanoparticles and an interparticle spacing of 1 nm. A red shift of the surface plasmon resonance with increasing chain length is observed. An exponential model applied to the experimental data allows determination of an asymptotic maximum resonance at a chain length of 10-12 particles. The optical data are compared with analytical and numerical calculation methods (EEM and BEM). © 2011 American Chemical Society. Source

Bladin C.,Monash University
Internal Medicine Journal | Year: 2011

The endovascular treatment of carotid atherosclerosis with carotid artery stenting (CAS) is controversial. The inter-collegiate Carotid Stenting Guidelines Committee (CSGC) recommends that CAS should not be performed in the majority of patients requiring carotid revascularization. CAS may be considered for specific high risk patients with symptomatic severe carotid stenosis who have contraindications for carotid endarterectomy, or in those under 70years of age where carotid re-vascularization is considered appropriate. Advances in endovascular technologies and the long-term results of randomized controlled trials will guide future revisions of these guidelines. © 2011 The Authors. Internal Medicine Journal © 2011 Royal Australasian College of Physicians. Source

Medcalf R.L.,Monash University
Methods in Enzymology | Year: 2011

Plasminogen activator inhibitor type-2 (PAI-2; SERPINB2) is an atypical member of the Ov-serpin family of serine protease inhibitors. While it is an undisputed inhibitor of urokinase and tissue-type plasminogen activator in the extracellular space and on the cell surface, the weight of circumstantial evidence suggests that PAI-2 also fulfills an intracellular role which is independent of plasminogen activator inhibition and indeed may not even involve protease inhibition at all. More and more data continue to implicate a role for PAI-2 in many settings, the most recent associating it as a modulator of the innate immune response. Further to the debates concerning its physiological role, there are few genes, if any, that display the regulation profile of the PAI-2 gene: PAI-2 protein and mRNA levels can be induced in the order of, not hundred-, but thousand-folds in a process that is controlled at many levels including gene transcription and mRNA stability while an epigenetic component is also likely. The ability of some cells, including monocytes, fibroblasts, and neurons to have the capacity to increase PAI-2 synthesis to such high levels is intriguing enough. So why do these cells have the capacity to synthesize so much of this protein? While tantalizing clues continue to be revealed to the field, an understanding of how this gene is regulated so profoundly has provided insights into the broader mechanics of gene expression and regulation. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source

Funder J.W.,Monash University
Hormone and Metabolic Research | Year: 2015

There have been 2, and possibly 3, major questions for primary aldosteronism (PA) answered at least in principle over the past 5 years. The first is that of somatic mutations underlying the majority of aldosterone producing adenomas. The second is the extension of our knowledge of the genetics of familial hypertension, and the third the role of renal intercalated cells in sodium homeostasis. New questions for the next 5 years include a single accepted confirmatory/exclusion test; standardisation of assays and cut-offs; alternatives to universal adrenal venous sampling; reclassification of 'low renin hypertension'; recognition of the extent of 'occult' PA; inclusion of low-dose mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist in first-line therapy for hypertension; and finally, possible resolution of the aldosterone/inappropriate sodium status enigma at the heart of the cardiovascular damage in PA. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart. Source

Doody J.S.,Monash University
Integrative and Comparative Biology | Year: 2011

Evidence is accumulating for the widespread occurrence of environmentally cued hatching (ECH) in animals, but its diversity and distribution across taxa are unknown. Herein I review three types of ECH in reptiles: early hatching, delayed hatching, and synchronous hatching. ECH is currently known from 43 species, including turtles, crocodilians, lizards, snakes, tuatara, and possibly worm lizards. Early hatching caused by physical disturbance (e.g., vibrations) is the most commonly reported ECH across all groups; although it apparently serves an antipredator function in some species, its adaptive value is unknown in most. Delayed hatching, characterized by metabolic depression or embryonic aestivation, and sometimes followed by a hypoxic cue (flooding), occurs in some turtles and possibly in monitor lizards and crocodilians; in some of these species delayed hatching serves to defer hatching from the dry season until the more favorable conditions of the wet season. Synchronous hatching, whereby sibling eggs hatch synchronously despite vertical thermal gradients in the nest, occurs in some turtles and crocodilians. Although vibrations and vocalizations in hatching-competent embryos can stimulate synchronous hatching, cues promoting developmentally less advanced embryos to catch up with more advanced embryos have not been confirmed. Synchronous hatching may serve to dilute predation risk by promoting synchronous emergence or reduce the period in which smells associated with hatching can attract predators to unhatched eggs. Within species, advancing our understanding of ECH requires three types of studies: (1) experiments identifying hatching cues and the plastic hatching period, (2) experiments disentangling hypotheses about multiple hatching cues, and (3) investigations into the environmental context in which ECH might evolve in different species (major predators or abiotic influences on the egg, embryo, and hatchling). Among species and groups, surveys for ECH are required to understand its evolutionary history in reptiles. The probability of ECH occurring is likely influenced by a species's life history, ecology, behavior, and interrelationships with other species (e.g., sizes of predator and prey). More broadly, the discovery of embryo-embryo communication as a mechanism for synchronous hatching in crocodilians and turtles indicates that the social behavior of (nonavian) reptiles has been underestimated. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. Source

Richardson J.,Monash University
Quality of life research : an international journal of quality of life aspects of treatment, care and rehabilitation | Year: 2014

The objective of this paper is to describe the four-stage methodology used to obtain utility scores for the Assessment of Quality of Life (AQoL)-8D, a 35-item 8 dimension multi-attribute utility instrument, which was created to achieve a high degree of sensitivity to psycho-social health. Data for the analyses were obtained from a representative group of 347 members of the Australian public and from 323 mental health patients each of whom provided VAS and time trade-off valuations of multiple health states. Data were used initially to create multiplicative scoring algorithms for each of the instrument's 8 dimensions and for the overall instrument. Each of the algorithms was then subject to a second-stage econometric 'correction'. Algorithms were successfully created for each of the AQoL-8D's dimensions, for physical and mental 'super-dimensions' and for the overall AQoL-8D instrument. The final AQoL-8D algorithm has good predictive power with respect to the TTO valuations. The AQoL-8D is a suitable instrument for researchers conducting cost utility analyses generally but, in particular, for the analysis of services affecting psycho-social health. Source

Seddon P.B.,University of Melbourne | Calvert C.,Monash University | Yang S.,University of Melbourne
MIS Quarterly: Management Information Systems | Year: 2010

This paper develops a long-term, multi-project model of factors affecting organizational benefits from enterprise systems (ES), then reports a preliminary test of the model. In the shorter-term half of the model, it is hypothesized that once a system has gone live, two factors, namely functional fit and overcoming organizational inertia, drive organizational benefits flowing from each major ES improvement project. The importance of these factors may vary from project to project. In the long-term half of the model, it is hypothesized that four additional factors, namely integration, process optimization, improved access to information, and on-going major ES business improvement projects, drive organizational benefits from ES over the long term. Preliminary tests of the model were conducted using data from 126 customer presentations from SAP's 2003 and 2005 Sapphire U.S. conferences. All six factors were found to be important in explaining variance in organizational benefits from enterprise systems from the perspective of senior management. Source

Almbro M.,University of Western Australia | Dowling D.K.,Monash University | Simmons L.W.,University of Western Australia
Ecology Letters | Year: 2011

Sperm are particularly prone to oxidative damage because they generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), have a high polyunsaturated fat content and a reduced capacity to repair DNA damage. The dietary compounds vitamin E and beta-carotene are argued to have antioxidant properties that help to counter the damaging effects of excess ROS. Here in, we tested the post-copulatory consequences for male crickets (Teleogryllus oceanicus) of dietary intake of these two candidate antioxidants. During competitive fertilisation trials, vitamin E, but not beta-carotene, singularly enhanced sperm competitiveness. However, the diet combining a high vitamin E dose and beta-carotene produced males with the most competitive ejaculates, possibly due to the known ability of beta-carotene to recycle vitamin E. Our results provide support for the idea that these two common dietary compounds have interactive antioxidant properties in vivo, by affecting the outcomes of male reproductive success under competitive conditions. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS. Source

Sunnucks P.,Monash University
Emu | Year: 2011

Assessing how environmental change affects the probability of persistence of organisms requires an understanding of dispersal through, and occupation of, landscapes, and the associated demographic outcomes. Projections of differences in persistence probability can then be made under different scenarios of land-use and global environmental change. Rates and distances of dispersal, and demographic change and trajectories, are difficult to measure accurately, but genetic approaches can make major contributions. For two decades the field of molecular ecology has been providing useful life-history information relevant to population management, including key ecological attributes such as disease-resistance and thermal biology, mobility, dispersal and gene flow, habitat connectivity, the spatial and temporal scales of population processes, and demography. Genetic estimators of these factors could be employed to a much greater extent than they are currently. To facilitate this increased use, genetic estimates of functional connectivity (mobility and gene flow of organisms) and demography need to be integrated directly into decision-making processes. Population genetics is well suited to Bayesian approaches, with associated benefits including the ability to consider many factors, and estimation of error and parameter sensitivities. Genetic estimators based on the mobility and reproductive success of individual organisms and their key ecological traits can make unique contributions alongside other types of data into agent-based, spatially explicit modelling approaches of real landscape scenarios at the range of scales needed by managers. Virtually all the tools to do this exist. It is imperative that genetic samples be collected for contemporary and future analyses. © Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union 2011. Source

Dolan M.C.,Monash University
Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health | Year: 2010

This paper provides an overview of imaging studies in samples of men with personality disorder (PD) who have been violent. Mention is also made of the work of two groups that have looked at the neural correlates of violence across diagnostic categories, including schizophrenia and anti-social PD given their relevance in the fi eld. The paper focuses on the notion that aggressive behaviour can be conceptualised in terms of at least two types, reactive and pro-active, and that few studies separate them. The neuro-anatomical basis of aggression and associated neurobehavioural theories are discussed in relation to clinical disorders (mainly anti-social personality pathology) associated with these different types of aggressive behaviour. Structural (computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging) and functional (positron emission tomography, fMRI, single-photon emission tomography) studies with violent people variously characterised as anti-social or having psychopathy will be critically reviewed. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Lui L.L.,Monash University | Pasternak T.,University of Rochester
Journal of Neurophysiology | Year: 2011

Visually guided behavior often involves decisions that are based on evaluating stimuli in the context of those observed previously. Such decisions are made by monkeys comparing two consecutive stimuli, sample and test, moving in the same or opposite directions. We examined whether responses in the motion processing area MT during the comparison phase of this task (test) are modulated by the direction of the preceding stimulus (sample). This modulation, termed comparison signal, was measured by comparing responses to identical test stimuli on trials when it was preceded by sample moving in the same direction (S-trials) with trials when it was preceded by sample moving in a different direction (D-trials). The test always appeared in the neuron's receptive field (RF), whereas sample could appear in the RF or in the contralateral visual field (remote sample). With sample in-RF, we found three types of modulation carried by different sets of neurons: early suppression on S-trials and late enhancement, one on S-trials, and the other on D-trials. Under these conditions, many neurons with and without comparison effects exhibited significant, choice-related activity. Response modulation was also present following the remote sample, even though the information about its direction could only reach MT indirectly via top-down influences. However, unlike on trials with in-RF sample, these signals were dominated by response suppression, shedding light on the contribution of top-down influences to the comparison effects. These results demonstrate that during the task requiring monkeys to compare two directions of motion, MT responses during the comparison phase of this task reflect similarities and differences between the two stimuli, suggesting participation in sensory comparisons. The nature of these signals provides insights into the operation of bottom-up and top-down influences involved in this process. © 2011 the American Physiological Society. Source

Hawkes E.A.,Monash University | Grigg A.,University of Melbourne
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2015

Cancers can evade the host immune system by inducing upregulation of immune inhibitory signals. Anti-programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) monoclonal antibodies block these inhibitory signals allowing the host to mount an immune response against malignant cells. This class of drugs is active in solid tumours, where upregulation of cell-surface PD-1 ligand proteins is nearly uniform. Because lymphoma is a malignancy of immune system cells, the role of the PD-1 pathway in these neoplasms is more complex. However, early clinical trials using PD-1 inhibitors have shown significant clinical activity in various subtypes of relapsed lymphoma. In this Review, we assess the scientific literature on the role of the PD-1 pathway in lymphoma, the relevant clinical data for PD-1 inhibition, and future strategies for this next generation of anticancer agents. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

The intensity-duration properties of rain have been explored using various approaches, including daily or hourly data, IDF and event-based analyses, and the study of rain properties across intra-event durations such as the widely used I30 indicator of peak event rain rate. This article explores the way in which intra-event rain rates (IERRs) such as I30 vary with the duration of the enclosing event and with the approach used to delineate events. Pluviograph records from two Australian sites are subdivided into events using the minimum inter-event time (MIT) approach, and the duration, depth and rain rate properties of the events determined. The IERRs for intervals from 1 to 60 min are extracted for each event, and generally these rates (including I30) exhibit statistically significant increases in longer enclosing rain events. The mean value of parameters such as I5 and I30 across all rain events also varied in more complex ways with the MIT criterion used to define the enclosing events. Thus, measures of IERR are significantly affected by the data processing protocols used to derive them. Wider exploration of these phenomena from other rainfall climates will assist in the interpretation of hydrologic, soil erosion, agrochemical wash-off and other data that in published literature are interpreted differently in relation to event mean rainfall properties or to selected intra-event properties such as I30. Understanding of these issues is important in the selection of an appropriate rainfall descriptor in event-based hydrologic and erosional research. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Johnston D.W.,Monash University
Journal of Health Economics | Year: 2012

The attitudes of the general British population towards Muslims changed post 2001, and this change led to a significant increase in Anti-Muslim discrimination. We use this exogenous attitude change to estimate the causal impact of increased discrimination on a range of objective and subjective health outcomes. The difference-in-differences estimates indicate that discrimination worsens blood pressure, cholesterol, BMI and self-assessed general health. Thus, discrimination is a potentially important determinant of the large racial and ethnic health gaps observed in many countries. We also investigate the pathways through which discrimination impacts upon health, and find that discrimination has a negative effect on employment, perceived social support, and health-producing behaviours. Crucially, our results hold for different control groups and model specifications. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Mills C.,Monash University
Journal of Medicine and Philosophy (United Kingdom) | Year: 2013

In this article, I consider recent debates on the notion of procreative liberty, to argue that reproductive freedom can be understood as a form of positive freedom-that is, the freedom to make oneself according to various ethical and aesthetic principles or values. To make this argument, I draw on Michel Foucault's later work, on ethics. Both adopting and adapting Foucault's notion of ethics as a practice of the self and of liberty, I argue that reproductive autonomy requires enactment to gain meaning within the life contexts of prospective parents. Thus, I propose a shift away from the standard negative model of freedom that sees it solely as a matter of noninterference or nonimpedance, a view advocated by major commentators such as John Harris and John Robertson. Instead, reproduction should be understood as a deeply personal project of self-making that integrates both negative and positive freedom. © The Author 2013. Source

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly heritable psychiatric condition with negative lifetime outcomes. Uncovering its genetic architecture should yield important insights into the neurobiology of ADHD and assist development of novel treatment strategies. Twenty years of candidate gene investigations and more recently genome-wide association studies have identified an array of potential association signals. In this context, separating the likely true from false associations (‘the wheat’ from ‘the chaff’) will be crucial for uncovering the functional biology of ADHD. Here, we defined a set of 2070 DNA variants that showed evidence of association with ADHD (or were in linkage disequilibrium). More than 97% of these variants were noncoding, and were prioritised for further exploration using two tools—genome-wide annotation of variants (GWAVA) and Combined Annotation-Dependent Depletion (CADD)—that were recently developed to rank variants based upon their likely pathogenicity. Capitalising on recent efforts such as the Encyclopaedia of DNA Elements and US National Institutes of Health Roadmap Epigenomics Projects to improve understanding of the noncoding genome, we subsequently identified 65 variants to which we assigned functional annotations, based upon their likely impact on alternative splicing, transcription factor binding and translational regulation. We propose that these 65 variants, which possess not only a high likelihood of pathogenicity but also readily testable functional hypotheses, represent a tractable shortlist for future experimental validation in ADHD. Taken together, this study brings into sharp focus the likely relevance of noncoding variants for the genetic risk associated with ADHD, and more broadly suggests a bioinformatics approach that should be relevant to other psychiatric disorders.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 26 April 2016; doi:10.1038/mp.2016.2. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited Source

Vincent A.J.,Monash University
Climacteric | Year: 2015

Increasing breast cancer incidence and decreasing mortality have highlighted the importance of survivorship issues related to breast cancer. A consideration of the issues related to menopause is therefore of great importance to both women and clinicians. Menopause/menopausal symptoms, with significant negative effects on quality of life and potential long-term health impacts, may in women with breast cancer be associated with: (1) natural menopause occurring concurrently with a breast cancer diagnosis; (2) recurrence of menopausal symptoms following cessation of hormone replacement therapy; (3) treatment-induced menopause (chemotherapy, ovarian ablation/suppression) and adjuvant endocrine therapy. A variety of non-hormonal pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies have been investigated as therapeutic options for menopausal symptoms with mixed results, and ongoing research is required. This review presents a summary of the causes, common problematic symptoms of menopause (vasomotor, genitourinary and sexual dysfunction), and longer-term consequences (cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis) related to menopause. It proposes an evidenced-based multidisciplinary approach to the management of menopause/menopausal symptoms in women with breast cancer. © 2015 © 2015 International Menopause Society. Source

Rajeev P.,Monash University | Tesfamariam S.,University of British Columbia
Structural Safety | Year: 2012

Poor seismic performance of non-code conforming RC buildings, mainly designed for gravity loads prior to 1970s, highlights the need for reliable vulnerability assessment and retrofitting. The vulnerability is compounded since the RC buildings are subject to different irregularities such as weak storey, soft storey, plan irregularities, and poor construction quality; and interaction of different irregularities. Fragility based seismic vulnerability of structures with consideration of soft storey (SS) and quality of construction (CQ) is demonstrated on three-, five-, and nine-storey RC frames designed prior to 1970s. Probabilistic seismic demand model (PSDM) for those gravity load designed structures is developed, using the nonlinear finite element analysis, considering the interactions between SS and CQ. The response surface method is used to develop a predictive equation for PSDM parameters as a function of SS and CQ. Result of the analysis shows the sensitivity of the model parameter to the interaction of SS and CQ. The accuracy of the predictive equations is checked for randomly selected SS values and three levels of CQ. Further, the fragility curves are developed for the three structures considering SS, CQ and of their interactions. Finally, confidence bounds on the fragilities are also presented as a measure of their accuracy for risk-informed decision-making. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Lim K.,Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute | Burke S.L.,Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute | Head G.A.,Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute | Head G.A.,Monash University
Hypertension | Year: 2013

Feeding a high-fat diet (HFD) to rabbits results in increased blood pressure and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and marked increases in plasma leptin and insulin. We determined the contribution of insulin and leptin signaling in the central nervous system to the increased blood pressure and RSNA during a HFD using specific antagonists. New Zealand White rabbits were implanted with an intracerebroventricular (ICV) catheter and RSNA electrode and placed on a normal or 13.5% HFD for 1 or 3 weeks. Blood pressure, heart rate, and RSNA were recorded before and for 90 minutes after ICV administration of a leptin antagonist (100 μg), insulin antagonist (0.5 U), or vehicle (50 μL) on separate days. Rabbits had higher blood pressure (+8%, +17%) and RSNA (+55%, +71%), at 1 and 3 weeks, respectively, of HFD compared with controls (n=7-11). ICV leptin antagonist reduced blood pressure by 9% and RSNA by 17% (P<0.001) after 3 weeks of HFD but had no effect at week 1. ICV administration of the insulin antagonist reduced blood pressure by ≈5% at both times (P<0.05) but there was no effect on RSNA. Leptin and insulin antagonist doses were confirmed to effectively block the pressor responses to ICV leptin and insulin, respectively. The elevation of blood pressure and RSNA induced by a HFD is predominantly mediated by central actions of leptin. Central actions of insulin contribute a smaller proportion of the hypertension but independently of RSNA. © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc. Source

Bate M.R.,University of Exeter | Bate M.R.,Monash University
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2012

We report the statistical properties of stars, brown dwarfs and multiple systems obtained from the largest radiation hydrodynamical simulation of star cluster formation to date that resolves masses down to the opacity limit for fragmentation (a few Jupiter masses). The initial conditions are identical to those of previous barotropic calculations published by Bate, but this time the calculation is performed using a realistic equation of state and radiation hydrodynamics. The calculation uses sink particles to model 183 stars and brown dwarfs, including 28 binaries and 12 higher-order multiple systems, the properties of which are compared to the results from observational surveys. We find that the radiation hydrodynamical/sink particle simulation reproduces many observed stellar properties very well. In particular, whereas using a barotropic equation of state produces more brown dwarfs than stars, the inclusion of radiative feedback results in a stellar mass function and a ratio of brown dwarfs to stars in good agreement with observations of Galactic star-forming regions. In addition, many of the other statistical properties of the stars and brown dwarfs are in reasonable agreement with observations, including multiplicity as a function of primary mass, the frequency of very low mass binaries, and general trends for the mass ratio and separation distributions of binaries. We also examine the velocity dispersion of the stars, the distributions of disc truncation radii due to dynamical interactions, and coplanarity of orbits and sink particle spins in multiple systems. Overall, the calculation produces a cluster of stars whose statistical properties are difficult to distinguish from observed systems, implying that gravity, hydrodynamics and radiative feedback are the primary ingredients for determining the origin of the statistical properties of low-mass stars. © 2011 The Author Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society © 2011 RAS. Source

Von Muhlen C.,Grande Rio University | Marriott P.J.,Monash University
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2011

The identification of compounds by using gas chromatography (GC) in samples with significant complexity comprising a range of isomeric species, where characterization is based on peak retention times and mass spectra, generates uncertainty for the analyst. This leads to identification errors. The most reliable way to confirm the identification of each compound is based on authentic standard co-injection, which in several cases is economically prohibitive, and often unachievable in the time available for analysis. Retention index procedures are important tools to minimize misidentification of compounds in conventional chromatography. The introduction of comprehensive two-dimensional GC (GC×GC) for analysis of complex samples was a decisive step to increase the analytical capacity of chromatographic techniques. For many samples, the chromatographic resolution increase leads to quantitative expansion in the number of peaks identified, compared with conventional GC analysis. Notwithstanding this improved resolution, limitations still persist in correct peak identification, which suggests the use of retention indices may assist in supporting component identification in this important technique. In this work, approaches to use of the retention index in GC×GC are discussed, based on an evaluation of the literature in this area. Interpretation of effective chain length data for fatty acid methyl esters in the first and second dimensions is presented. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source

Sparrow R.,Monash University
American Journal of Bioethics | Year: 2014

A number of philosophers working in applied ethics and bioethics are now earnestly debating the ethics of what they term "moral bioenhancement." I argue that the society-wide program of biological manipulations required to achieve the purported goals of moral bioenhancement would necessarily implicate the state in a controversial moral perfectionism. Moreover, the prospect of being able to reliably identify some people as, by biological constitution, significantly and consistently more moral than others would seem to pose a profound challenge to egalitarian social and political ideals. Even if moral bioenhancement should ultimately prove to be impossible, there is a chance that a bogus science of bioenhancement would lead to arbitrary inequalities in access to political power or facilitate the unjust rule of authoritarians; in the meantime, the debate about the ethics of moral bioenhancement risks reinvigorating dangerous ideas about the extent of natural inequality in the possession of the moral faculties. © 2014 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Price D.J.,Monash University
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters | Year: 2012

Accounting for the Reynolds number is critical in numerical simulations of turbulence, particularly for subsonic flow. For smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) with constant artificial viscosity coefficient α, it is shown that the effective Reynolds number in the absence of explicit physical viscosity terms scales linearly with the Mach number - compared to mesh schemes, where the effective Reynolds number is largely independent of the flow velocity. As a result, SPH simulations with α = 1 will have low Reynolds numbers in the subsonic regime compared to mesh codes, which may be insufficient to resolve turbulent flow. This explains the failure of Bauer & Springel to find agreement between the moving-mesh code AREPO and the GADGET SPH code on simulations of driven, subsonic (v ~ 0.3c s) turbulence appropriate to the intergalactic/intracluster medium, where it was alleged that SPH is somehow fundamentally incapable of producing a Kolmogorov-like turbulent cascade. We show that turbulent flow with a Kolmogorov spectrum can be easily recovered by employing standard methods for reducing α away from shocks. © 2012 The Author Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society © 2012 RAS. Source

Moore T.,Monash University
Rural and remote health | Year: 2010

The recruitment, retention and training of mental health workers is of major concern in rural Australia, and the Gippsland region of Victoria is no exception. Previous studies have identified a number of common factors in these workforce difficulties, including rurality, difficulties of access to professional development and training, and professional and personal isolation. However, those previous studies have often focused on medicine and been based on the perspectives of practitioners, and have almost ignored the perspectives of managers of rural mental health services. The study reported in this article sought to contribute to the development of a more sustainable and effective regional mental health workforce by complementing earlier insights with those of leading administrators, managers and senior clinicians in the field. The study took a qualitative approach. It conducted semi-structured in-person interviews with 24 managers of health/mental-health services and senior administrators and clinicians working in organisations of varying sizes in the public and private sectors. Thematic content analysis of the transcribed interviews identified core difficulties these managers experienced in the recruitment, retention and training of employees. The study found that some of the issues commonly resulting in difficulties in recruiting, retaining and developing a trained workforce in rural areas, such as rurality (implying personal and professional isolation, distances to deliver service and small organisations) and a general shortage of trained personnel, are significant in Gippsland. Through its focus on the perspectives of leaders in the management of rural mental health services, however, the study found other key issues that contribute to workforce difficulties. Many, including the unattractive nature of mental health work, the fragmented administration of the mental health system, short-term and tied funding, and shortcomings in training are external to organisations. Interviewees indicated that these issues make it difficult for organisations to support personnel in ways that enhance personal and professional satisfaction and so retention and, in turn, the capacity to recruit new employees. Participants also highlighted issues internal to the organisation. The tensions that flow from the systemic forces require highly creative leadership to negotiate the numerous policy changes, diverse sources of funding, training regimens, worker cohorts and models of care. Managers must nurture the capacity of their own organisation to respond flexibly to the demands, by establishing a responsive culture and structure. They must also encourage the collaboration of their other organisations in their sub-regional grouping and the development of a regional sensibility. The approach taken by the study, particularly its focus on a management perspective, revealed that the difficulties experienced are the product of a core tension between a growing demand for mental health care, emerging specialities and technological advances in the field, and a diminished systemic capacity to support organisations in meeting the demand. Resolving this core tension is a key to the maintenance of a sustainable and effective workforce in Gippsland, and the role of management is crucial to that resolution. Source

Dunkerley D.,Monash University
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2010

A new method for quantifying throughfall fractions and depths under vegetation canopies is introduced and evaluated. The method employs the progressive loss of weight of tablets of calcium sulphate hemihydrate ('Plaster of Paris') set out beneath conventional throughfall collecting funnels to form 'throughfall integrating funnels' (TIFs). The tablets are temporarily removed for weighing after any desired sampling period, and can continue to integrate throughfall depths for extended periods (>1 year). The throughfall fraction TFf can be found directly in 'uncalibrated TIF mode' by comparing the weight loss of matched open-field and sub-canopy TIFs, because sub-canopy TIFs lose less weight than open-field TIFs. The diminution in weight loss is in direct proportion to the reduction in throughfall in comparison with open-field rainfall. No other field apparatus is required, and no rainfall measurements are necessary. Alternatively, weight loss can be calibrated in g/mm using a pluviograph record, and throughfall depth TFd found using 'calibrated TIF mode'. Estimates of throughfall made using TIFs are compared with measurements made with 16 conventional throughfall troughs, from an 8-month trial in sub-alpine snowgum woodland and closed shrub heath communities in Victoria, Australia. For the plaster tablets used, the mean open-field weight loss was 0.0096 g/mm for tablets that weighed ∼30 g initially. Average TFd estimates across eight measurement periods from the two independent method differed by <1% (91.6 mm from trough data and 91.9 mm from TIFs). Average TFf was 0.84 using trough data and 0.82 using TIFs, a difference of 2%. These very close agreements, after 871.1 mm of rain, falling in events of varying depth, duration, and rain rate, confirm that TIFs yield results consistent with those from conventional instrumental measurement of throughfall. Under a low and dense shrub heath canopy, where conventional throughfall collectors could not be installed, the TIFs indicated a throughfall fraction of 0.38, providing the first estimate for this plant community. The new method is low in cost, allowing large sampling arrays to be used if required, and is the first method able to determine throughfall fraction directly. It offers several advantages over the use of funnels connected to storage vessels, including elimination of the risk of overflow and loss of data. A particularly important advantage is the small size of TIFs, whose 100 mm height permits throughfall measurement even under low vegetation canopies, where space would not permit the installation of troughs or storage drums. TIFs can also be used to record accumulated open-field rainfall. The method of integrating flow volumes by weight loss would lend itself to the gathering of other kinds of hydrologic data, including the recording of stemflow volumes, output from small runoff plots, or indeed, wherever the recording of integrated weight loss can be substituted for the use of tipping buckets or collecting reservoirs. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Gleadow R.M.,Monash University | Moller B.L.,Copenhagen University | Moller B.L.,Carlsberg Laboratory
Annual Review of Plant Biology | Year: 2014

Cyanogenic glycosides (CNglcs) are bioactive plant products derived from amino acids. Structurally, these specialized plant compounds are characterized as α-hydroxynitriles (cyanohydrins) that are stabilized by glucosylation. In recent years, improved tools within analytical chemistry have greatly increased the number of known CNglcs by enabling the discovery of less abundant CNglcs formed by additional hydroxylation, glycosylation, and acylation reactions. Cyanogenesis - the release of toxic hydrogen cyanide from endogenous CNglcs - is an effective defense against generalist herbivores but less effective against fungal pathogens. In the course of evolution, CNglcs have acquired additional roles to improve plant plasticity, i.e., establishment, robustness, and viability in response to environmental challenges. CNglc concentration is usually higher in young plants, when nitrogen is in ready supply, or when growth is constrained by nonoptimal growth conditions. Efforts are under way to engineer CNglcs into some crops as a pest control measure, whereas in other crops efforts are directed toward their removal to improve food safety. Given that many food crops are cyanogenic, it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms regulating cyanogenesis so that the impact of future environmental challenges can be anticipated. Copyright © 2014 by Annual Reviews. Source

Cutter-Mackenzie A.,Monash University
Journal of Environmental Education | Year: 2010

The Waste Wise Schools program has a longstanding history in Australia. It is an action-based program that encourages schools to move toward zero waste through their curriculum and operating practices. This article provides a review of the program, finding that it has had notable success in reducing schools' waste through a "reduce, reuse, and recycle" (or "three Rs") approach. Since the program's conception, an evaluation process has continually occurred alongside the actual program. This report presents the most recent program evaluation results: a 2007 statewide survey that was administered to 1,015 primary (elementary) and secondary teachers. The article outlines the past, present, and future directions of the Waste Wise Schools program and, in doing so, discusses the broader implications for school-based environmental education programs. In particular and of most significance, the findings reveal a growing sustainability culture in Australian schools and communities. Copyright © 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

The use of 14C to constrain groundwater residence times requires careful correction of 14C activities (a14C) and an assessment of the degree of inter-aquifer mixing. In groundwater of the Campaspe Valley in the southern Murray Basin, Australia, δ13C values of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) range from -18‰ to +2‰. Using these δ13C values to correct 14C ages assuming that dissolution of or exchange with matrix calcite had occurred implies that locally >90% of the DIC is derived from carbonates. In turn, this suggests that low-salinity groundwater in the deeper confined Calivil-Renmark Formation up to 50-60 km from the basin margins in the Campaspe Valley has a component of modern recharge, which would require that widespread leakage from the overlying Shepparton Formation had occurred. However, 87Sr/86Sr ratios and major ion geochemistry of groundwater imply that negligible inter-aquifer mixing has occurred and that calcite dissolution is a very minor process. The variable δ13C values are most probably due to methanogenesis via reduction of CO2 in the groundwater that results in the residual DIC being enriched in 13C. As methanogenesis by this mechanism has only a minor impact on a14C, uncorrected 14C ages are a better estimate of groundwater residence times. Groundwater in the north of the Campaspe Valley has a residence time of 9-13 ka, which agrees with ages calculated from head gradients and hydraulic conductivities. Calivil-Renmark groundwater from the adjacent Pyramid Hill region, in an area where the aquifers contain lower hydraulic conductivity sediments, is substantially older (up to 20-25 ka). The age of groundwater from the Shepparton Formation increases irregularly with depth, with ages of in excess of 25 ka recorded at its base. This study illustrates the need to fully understand hydrogeological processes in order to correct 14C ages, especially in silicate-dominated aquifers where dissolution of carbonates may not be the major process controlling δ13C values. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

The former Rum Jungle uranium-copper project, Australia, is an internationally important case study on environmental pollution from and rehabilitation of mining. The Rum Jungle mining project is briefly reviewed, followed by a critical evaluation of monitoring data and pollution loads prior to and after rehabilitation - leading to the conclusion that rehabilitation has clearly failed the test of time after just two decades. The most critical findings are the need to understand pollution cycles holistically, and designing monitoring regimes to match, explicit inclusion of radiological criteria (lacking in original planning), and finally the need to set targets based on environmental criteria. Two examples include polluted groundwater which was excluded from rehabilitation and the poor design, construction and/or performance of engineered soil covers - both leading to increasing acid drainage impacts on the Finniss River. The critical review therefore presents a valuable case study of the environmental performance of uranium mine site rehabilitation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Prowle J.R.,Adult Critical Care Unit | Kirwan C.J.,Adult Critical Care Unit | Bellomo R.,Monash University
Nature Reviews Nephrology | Year: 2014

In patients with acute kidney injury (AKI), optimization of systemic haemodynamics is central to the clinical management. However, considerable debate exists regarding the efficacy, nature, extent and duration of fluid resuscitation, particularly when the patient has undergone major surgery or is in septic shock. Crucially, volume resuscitation might be required to maintain or restore cardiac output. However, resultant fluid accumulation and tissue oedema can substantially contribute to ongoing organ dysfunction and, particularly in patients developing AKI, serious clinical consequences. In this Review, we discuss the conflict between the desire to achieve adequate resuscitation of shock and the need to mitigate the harmful effects of fluid overload. In patients with AKI, limiting and resolving fluid overload might prompt earlier use of renal replacement therapy. However, rapid or early excessive fluid removal with diuretics or extracorporeal therapy might lead to hypovolaemia and recurrent renal injury. Optimal management might involve a period of guided fluid resuscitation, followed by management of an even fluid balance and, finally, an appropriate rate of fluid removal. To obtain best clinical outcomes, serial fluid status assessment and careful definition of cardiovascular and renal targets will be required during fluid resuscitation and removal. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Source

Liberman J.,Monash University
Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics | Year: 2012

This article examines two spheres of global governance in which the World Health Organization (WHO) has sought to exercise international leadership - combating "counterfeit" medicines and illicit trade in tobacco products. Medicines and tobacco products lie at polar opposite ends of the health spectrum, and are regulated for vastly different reasons and through different tools and approaches. Nevertheless, attempts to govern counterfeit trade in each of these products raise a host of somewhat similar challenges, involving normative and operational conflicts that cut across the crowded intersection of health protection and promotion, intellectual property protection, and activity to combat transnational organized crime. As negotiations of an illicit trade protocol to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control enter their final stages, lessons learned from counterfeit medicines governance need to be applied to ensure that the most appropriate governance arrangements are adopted. © 2012 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc. Source

Schachter L.,Monash University
Respirology | Year: 2012

The prevalence of obesity and overweight is growing in adults and children worldwide. With the failure of diets and lifestyle factors, more people are looking to bariatric surgery to address this significant medical problem. Severe obesity may be associated with significant perioperative respiratory complications. This article reviews potential respiratory and sleep complications, screening, and management of these problems. © 2012 The Author. Respirology © 2012 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology. Source

Mardling R.A.,Monash University | Mardling R.A.,University of Geneva
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2013

Modern applications of celestial mechanics include the study of closely packed systems of exoplanets, circumbinary planetary systems, binary-binary interactions in star clusters and the dynamics of stars near the Galactic centre. While developments have historically been guided by the architecture of the Solar System, the need for more general formulations with as few restrictions on the parameters as possible is obvious. Here, we present clear and concise generalizations of two classic expansions of the three-body disturbing function, simplifying considerably their original form and making them accessible to the non-specialist. Governing the interaction between the inner and outer orbits of a hierarchical triple, the disturbing function in its general form is the conduit for energy and angular momentum exchange and as such, governs the secular and resonant evolution of the system and its stability characteristics. Focusing here on coplanar systems, the first expansion is one in the ratio of inner to outer semimajor axes and is valid for all eccentricities, while the second is an expansion in eccentricity and is valid for all semimajor axis ratios, except for systems in which the orbits cross (this restriction also applies to the first expansion). Our generalizations make both formulations valid for arbitrary mass ratios. The classic versions of these appropriate to the restricted three-body problem are known as Kaula's expansion and the literal expansion, respectively. We demonstrate the equivalence of the new expansions, identifying the role of the spherical harmonic order m in both and its physical significance in the three-body problem, and introducing the concept of principal resonances. Several examples of the accessibility of both expansions are given including resonance widths, and the secular rates of change of the elements. Results in their final form are gathered together at the end of the paper for the reader mainly interested in their application, including a guide for the choice of expansion. © 2013 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. Source

Federrath C.,Monash University
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2013

Compressible turbulence shapes the structure of the interstellar medium of our Galaxy and likely plays an important role also during structure formation in the early Universe. The density probability distribution function (PDF) and the power spectrum of such compressible, supersonic turbulence are the key ingredients for theories of star formation. However, both the PDF and the spectrum are still a matter of debate, because theoretical predictions are limited and simulations of supersonic turbulence require enormous resolutions to capture the inertial-range scaling. To advance our limited knowledge of compressible turbulence, we here present and analyse the world's largest simulations of supersonic turbulence. We compare hydrodynamic models with numerical resolutions of 2563-40963 mesh points and with two distinct driving mechanisms, solenoidal (divergence-free) driving and compressive (curl-free) driving. We find convergence of the density PDF, with compressive driving exhibiting a much wider and more intermittent density distribution than solenoidal driving by fitting to a recent theoretical model for intermittent density PDFs. Analysing the power spectrum of the turbulence, we find a pure velocity scaling close to Burgers turbulence with P(v) α k-2 for both driving modes in our hydrodynamical simulations with Mach number M = 17. The spectrum of the density-weighted velocity p1/3 v, however, does not provide the previously suggested universal scaling for supersonic turbulence. We find that the power spectrum P(p1/3 v) scales with wavenumber as k-1.74 for solenoidal driving, close to incompressible Kolmogorov turbulence (k-5/3), but is significantly steeper with k-210 for compressive driving. We show that this is consistent with a recent theoretical model for compressible turbulence that predicts P(p1/3 v) α k-19/9 in the presence of a strong ∇. v component as is produced by compressive driving and remains remarkably constant throughout the supersonic turbulent cascade. © 2013 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. Source

Federrath C.,Monash University
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2013

Observations of external galaxies and of local star-forming clouds in the Milky Way have suggested a variety of star formation laws, i.e. simple direct relations between the column density of star formation (σSFR: the amount of gas forming stars per unit area and time) and the column density of available gas (σgas). Extending previous studies, we show that these different, sometimes contradictory relations for MilkyWay clouds, nearby galaxies, and high-redshift discs and starbursts can be combined in one universal star formation law in which σSFRis about 1 per cent of the local gas collapse rate, σgas/tff, but a significant scatter remains in this relation. Using computer simulations and theoretical models, we find that the observed scatter may be primarily controlled by physical variations in the Mach number of the turbulence and by differences in the star formation efficiency. Secondary variations can be induced by changes in the virial parameter, turbulent driving and magnetic field. The predictions of our models are testable with observations that constrain both the Mach number and the star formation efficiency in Milky Way clouds, external disc and starburst galaxies at low and high redshift. We also find that reduced telescope resolution does not strongly affect such measurements when σSFR is plotted against σgas/tff © 2013 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. Source

Hesitation and monitoring phenomena (hereafter HMP) are forms that occur in speech such as filled or unfilled pauses, paralinguistic markers such as (nervous) laughter or coughing, or signals which pre-empt or justify other forms in utterances. The functions of these forms have commonly been associated with planning or accessing difficulties. However, HMP can also have a function of signalling clause boundaries, changes of mood or topic, aiding intelligibility for listeners. This paper draws on a large sample of bilingual speech and examines the overall incidence of HMP from two contributing languages, Croatian and English, and their incidence in speech containing code-switching. Analysis of results seeks to establish whether there is disproportionately high frequency of HMP surrounding code-switches, and whether such HMP are indicative of accessing/production difficulties concomitant to the appearance of code-switches, or appear to perform a function that facilitates the intelligibility of code-switches. HMP co-occur disproportionately with code-switches. However, analysis of code-switching examples shows that different types of code-switches attract higher or lower frequencies of HMP, depending on their phonological and/or morphological form. Although not identical to discourse markers, HMP perform a congruent function, that of integrating or facilitating the incorporation of 'other language' text. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Mahmoudifar N.,University of New South Wales | Doran P.M.,Monash University
Trends in Biotechnology | Year: 2012

Joint injury and disease are painful and debilitating conditions affecting a substantial proportion of the population. The idea that damaged cartilage in articulating joints might be replaced seamlessly with tissue-engineered cartilage is of obvious commercial interest because the market for such treatments is large. Recently, a wealth of new information about the complex biology of chondrogenesis and cartilage has emerged from stem cell research, including increasing evidence of the role of physical stimuli in directing differentiation. The challenge for the next generation of tissue engineers is to identify the key elements in this new body of knowledge that can be applied to overcome current limitations affecting cartilage synthesis in vitro. Here we review the status of cartilage tissue engineering and examine the contribution of stem cell research to technology development for cartilage production. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Stasch A.,Monash University
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2014

The synthesis of dimeric magnesium(I) compounds of the general type RMgMgR (R=monoanionic substituent) is still a challenging synthetic task and limited to few examples with sterically demanding ligands with delocalized CN-frameworks that all have been accessed by Na or K metal reduction of magnesium(II) halide precursors. Here we report on the synthesis of a novel diiminophosphinato magnesium(I) compound that has been synthesized by a facile redox reaction using a known magnesium(I) complex. The synthetic strategy may be applicable to other ligand systems and can help expand the class of low oxidation state magnesium complexes even if reductions with Na or K are unsuccessful. The new dimeric magnesium(I) complex has been structurally characterized and undergoes a C-C coupling reaction with tert-butylisocyanate. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

Majumder M.,Monash University | Corry B.,University of Western Australia
Chemical Communications | Year: 2011

Carbon nanotube membranes have been shown to rapidly transport liquids; but progressive hydrophilic modification - contrary to expectations - induces a drastic reduction of water flow. Enhanced electrostatic interaction and the disruption of the mechanically smooth graphitic walls is the determinant of this behavior. These results have critical implications in the design of nanofluidic devices. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

Mansfield J.H.,Barnard College | McGlinn E.,Monash University
Current Topics in Developmental Biology | Year: 2012

Exquisite regulation of Hox protein activity is fundamental to the regionalization of the early embryo across diverse taxa. Highlighting the critical importance of these transcription factors, an astonishing number of different mechanisms have evolved to tightly coordinate their activity both in time and in space. The recent identification of numerous microRNAs that are not only embedded within Hox clusters but also target numerous Hox genes suggests an important role for these regulatory molecules in shaping Hox protein output. Here, we discuss the positioning of these miRNAs within clusters over evolutionary time, the unexpected complexity in miRNA processing and target interactions, and the current understanding of Hox-embedded miRNA function during development. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source

McLachlan R.I.,Monash Institute of Medical Research | O'Bryan M.K.,Monash University
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2010

Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) now provides fertility in many cases of severe idiopathic spermatogenic failure and obstructive azoospermia. Genetic causes must be sought by systematic evaluation of infertile men and affected couples informed about the implications of such diagnoses for assisted reproductive technology outcome and their potential offspring. This review discusses established and emerging genetic disorders related to fertility practice. Chromosomal anomalies are found in about 7% men with idiopathic spermatogenic failure, predominantly numerical/structural in azoospermic men and translocations/inversions in oligospermic men. Routine karyotyping of men with sperm densities less than 10 million/ml, even in the absence of other clinical presentations, is recommended because infertility is associated with higher rates of aneuploidy in ejaculated or testicular sperm and increased chromosomal defects in ICSI offspring. The long arm of the Y chromosome microdeletions are the most common recognized genetic cause of infertility and are found in about 4% men with sperm densities less than 5 million/ml. Routine testing using strict quality assurance procedures is recommended. Azoospermia factor (AZF)-c deletions, the most common form of the long arm of the Y chromosome microdeletions, are usually associated with low levels of sperm in the ejaculate or in testis biopsies, whereas men with AZFa or AZFb+c deletions usually produce no testicular sperm. When AZF-deleted sperm are available and used for ICSI, fertility defects in male offspring seem inevitable. Bilateral congenital absence of the vas is associated with heterozygosity for cystic fibrosis transmembrane receptor mutations making routine gene screening and genetic counseling of the couple essential. Testing for less common genetic associations/defects linked with different reproductive dysfunction may be applicable to specific patients but have not entered routine practice. Copyright © 2010 by The Endocrine Society. Source

Bruce A.I.,Monash University
Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society | Year: 2012

Leaf-cutting ants (Atta spp.) create physical pathways to support the transport of resources on which colony growth and reproduction depend. We determined the scaling relationship between the rate of resource acquisition and the size of the trail system and foraging workforce for 18 colonies of Atta colombica and Atta cephalotes. We examined conventional power-law scaling patterns, but did so in a multivariate analysis that reveals the simultaneous effects of forager number, trail length and trail width. Foraging rate (number of resource-laden ants returning to the nest per unit time) scaled at the 0.93 power of worker numbers, the -1.02 power of total trail length and the 0.65 power of trail width. These scaling exponents indicate that individual performance declines only slightly as more foragers are recruited to the workforce, but that trail length imposes a severe penalty on the foraging rate. A model of mass traffic flow predicts the allometric patterns for workforce and trail length, although the effect of trail width is unexpected and points to the importance of the little-known mechanisms that regulate a colony's investment in trail clearance. These results provide a point of comparison for the role that resource flows may play in allometric scaling patterns in other transport-dependent entities, such as human cities. Source

Usually cited in reference to the potential reach of zoo education, one of the popular figures for global zoo visitation is that 600 million people visit zoos annually. However, this number needs clarification on two fronts. First, there are many zoo visitors who are not included in the calculation because they visited a zoo that was not included in the count. Second, it does not take into consideration the people visit either the same or different zoos more than once annually. Using data collected from several sources, including zoo visitors themselves, this article focuses on one country-Australia-that contributes 15.6 million to the visitation total, and contends that the correct number of unique annual zoo visitors to Australian zoos is likely to be between 8 and 10 million. However, rather than suggesting an overemphasis on the potential of zoos for educating visitors, having regular repeat visitors represents a distinct advantage for zoos, allowing for progressive education opportunities. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Puelles V.G.,Monash University
Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association | Year: 2012

Measurement of individual glomerular volumes (IGV) has allowed the identification of drivers of glomerular hypertrophy in subjects without overt renal pathology. This study aims to highlight the relevance of IGV measurements with possible clinical implications and determine how many profiles must be measured in order to achieve stable size distribution estimates. We re-analysed 2250 IGV estimates obtained using the disector/Cavalieri method in 41 African and 34 Caucasian Americans. Pooled IGV analysis of mean and variance was conducted. Monte-Carlo (Jackknife) simulations determined the effect of the number of sampled glomeruli on mean IGV. Lin's concordance coefficient (R(C)), coefficient of variation (CV) and coefficient of error (CE) measured reliability. IGV mean and variance increased with overweight and hypertensive status. Superficial glomeruli were significantly smaller than juxtamedullary glomeruli in all subjects (P < 0.01), by race (P < 0.05) and in obese individuals (P < 0.01). Subjects with multiple chronic kidney disease (CKD) comorbidities showed significant increases in IGV mean and variability. Overall, mean IGV was particularly reliable with nine or more sampled glomeruli (R(C) > 0.95, <5% difference in CV and CE). These observations were not affected by a reduced sample size and did not disrupt the inverse linear correlation between mean IGV and estimated total glomerular number. Multiple comorbidities for CKD are associated with increased IGV mean and variance within subjects, including overweight, obesity and hypertension. Zonal selection and the number of sampled glomeruli do not represent drawbacks for future longitudinal biopsy-based studies of glomerular size and distribution. Source

Fathi M.,Ferdowsi University of Mashhad | Mozafari M.R.,Monash University | Mohebbi M.,Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
Trends in Food Science and Technology | Year: 2012

Nanoencapsulation allows protection of the sensitive bioactive food ingredients from unfavorable environmental conditions, eradication of incompatibilities, solubilization, or masking of unpleasant taste or odor. This paper reviews the present state of the art of lipid based carriers including nanoemulsions, nanoliposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) and novel generation of encapsulation system namely nanostructure lipid carriers (NLCs) regarding their production method, physicochemical properties, functionalities, stabilization techniques, potential advantages and limitations and delivery mechanisms. In the last section, mathematical models for predication of bioactive release kinetics from lipid based nanocarriers, which can be applied for optimization of encapsulation systems, are presented and some future developments in the area of nanoencapsulation are discussed. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Gold E.,University of Otago | Risbridger G.,Monash University
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology | Year: 2012

Activins are members of the TGF-β super-family. There are 4 mammalian activin subunits (β A, β B, β C and β E) that combine to form functional proteins. The role of activin A (β Aβ A) is well characterized and known to be a potent growth and differentiation factor. Two of the activin subunits (β C and β E) were discovered more recently and little is known about their biological functions. In this review the evidence that activin-β C is a significant regulator of activin A bioactivity is presented and discussed. It is concluded that activin-β C, like other antagonists of activin A, is an important growth regulator in prostate health and disease. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

Webster D.E.,Monash University | Thomas M.C.,Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute
Biotechnology Advances | Year: 2012

The complex and diverse nature of the post-translational modification (PTM) of proteins represents an efficient and cost-effective mechanism for the exponential diversification of the genome. PTMs have been shown to affect almost every aspect of protein activity, including function, localisation, stability, and dynamic interactions with other molecules. Although many PTMs are evolutionarily conserved there are also important kingdom-specific modifications which should be considered when expressing recombinant proteins. Plants are gaining increasing acceptance as an expression system for recombinant proteins, particularly where eukaryotic-like PTMs are required. Glycosylation is the most extensively studied PTM of plant-made recombinant proteins. However, other types of protein processing and modification also occur which are important for the production of high quality recombinant protein, such as hydroxylation and lipidation. Plant and/or protein engineering approaches offer many opportunities to exploit PTM pathways allowing the molecular farmer to produce a humanised product with modifications functionally similar or identical to the native protein. Indeed, plants have demonstrated a high degree of tolerance to changes in PTM pathways allowing recombinant proteins to be modified in a specific and controlled manner, frequently resulting in a homogeneity of product which is currently unrivalled by alternative expression platforms. Whether a recombinant protein is intended for use as a scientific reagent, a cosmetic additive or as a pharmaceutical, PTMs through their presence and complexity, offer an extensive range of options for the rational design of humanised (biosimilar), enhanced (biobetter) or novel products. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source

Lawen A.,Monash University
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - General Subjects | Year: 2015

Background Peptidyl-prolyl-cis/trans-isomerases (PPIases) are ubiquitously expressed and have been implicated in a wide range of biological functions. Their inhibition is beneficial in immunosuppression, cancer treatment, treatment of autoimmune diseases, protozoan and viral infections. Scope of review Three classes of PPIases are known, each class having their own specific inhibitors. This review will cover the present knowledge on the biosynthesis of the natural PPIase inhibitors. These include for the cyclophilins: the cyclosporins, the analogues of peptolide SDZ 214-103 and the sanglifehrins; for the FKBPs: ascomycin, rapamycin and FK506 and for the parvulins the naphtoquinone juglone. Major conclusions Over the last thirty years much progress has been made in understanding PPIase function and the biosynthesis of natural PPIase inhibitors. Non-immunosuppressive analogues were discovered and served as lead compounds for the development of novel antiviral drugs. There are, however, still unsolved questions which deserve further research into this exciting field. General significance As all the major natural inhibitors of the cyclophilins and FKBPs are synthesized by complex non-ribosomal peptide synthetases and/or polyketide synthases, total chemical synthesis is not a viable option. Thus, fully understanding the modular enzyme systems involved in their biosynthesis may help engineering enzymes capable of synthesizing novel PPIase inhibitors with improved functions for a wide range of conditions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Proline-directed Foldases: Cell signaling catalysts and drug targets. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Lewis K.M.,Monash University
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2013

The timing errors for individual planetary transits using the photometric transit timing technique (TTVp) are derived for light curves contaminated with either white additive noise, realistic stellar noise or filtered stellar noise. For the case of white noise, the timing errors are derived analytically, while timing errors for realistic and filtered noise are numerically derived using solar data from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory satellite. These results are then used to explore the conjecture that moons of transiting planets become easier to detect using the TTVp method the farther their planet is from the star. Using transit duration as a proxy for planet-star distance, it is found that in the case of realistic stellar noise, an increase in star-planet distance/transit duration does not necessarily lead to an increase in moon detectability. © 2013 The Author Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. Source

Lazarou M.,Monash University
Immunology and Cell Biology | Year: 2015

Mitochondria play a central role in many facets of cellular function including energy production, control of cell death and immune signaling. Breakdown of any of these pathways because of mitochondrial deficits or excessive reactive oxygen species production has detrimental consequences for immune system function and cell viability. Maintaining the functional integrity of mitochondria is therefore a critical challenge for the cell. Surveillance systems that monitor mitochondrial status enable the cell to identify and either repair or eliminate dysfunctional mitochondria. Mitophagy is a selective form of autophagy that eliminates dysfunctional mitochondria from the population to maintain overall mitochondrial health. This review covers the major players involved in mitophagy and explores the role mitophagy plays to support the immune system. © 2015 Australasian Society for Immunology Inc. Source

The nature of rainfall events is explored through six years of below average rainfall, associated with negative Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), and three years of above average rainfall, associated with positive SOI (and strong La Niña conditions), at arid Fowlers Gap, Australia. There is a greater probability of rainfall in wet years, but the events themselves also change significantly. Rainfall depth per event was 116% larger on average in wet years than dry, and average event rainfall rate was 85% higher. However, these results are influenced by a small number of very large events in the wet years, and events of <2mm occur at about the same rate in dry and wet years. Rainfall event profiles in dry years showed more Huff first quartile events likely to promote partitioning of rain into infiltration. In contrast, larger events in wet years showed a preponderance of Huff third quartile profiles likely to be associated with greater partitioning of rainfall into overland flow. This co-variation in rainfall event profile with annual rainfall, not previously described, is reasoned to increase the amplitude of ecological impacts of the SOI-related rainfall variability at this site. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Lake P.S.,Monash University
Ecological Management and Restoration | Year: 2013

Disturbances (pulse, press and ramp) constitute a major force influencing, even determining, the structure and functions of ecological components - populations, communities and ecosystems. The capacity to weather a disturbance without loss is defined as resistance, whereas resilience is the capacity to recover from a disturbance after incurring losses, which may be considerable. This article seeks to resolve differences in the ecological definition of resistance and of resilience and to examine the importance of resilience as applied to ecological restoration. In restoration, interventions are designed and implemented with the aim of strengthening the resilience, that is, the capacity to recover, of degraded systems. In response to restorative measures, degraded systems may have both resistance and negative resilience to remain in the degraded state. The key aim of restoration is to overcome the resistance and negative resilience of the degraded state by strengthening positive resilience, the capacity to recover to the intact undegraded state. Restoration may be hindered by a lack of knowledge of acting disturbances (both past and present), of the previous intact condition and of appropriate interventions to implement. Resilience to a disturbance is determined after the disturbance has ceased. Thus, for current ongoing press and ramp disturbances, resilience can be hard to determine. © 2012 Ecological Society of Australia. Source

Lazarou M.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Lazarou M.,Monash University | Sliter D.A.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Kane L.A.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | And 6 more authors.
Nature | Year: 2015

Protein aggregates and damaged organelles are tagged with ubiquitin chains to trigger selective autophagy. To initiate mitophagy, the ubiquitin kinase PINK1 phosphorylates ubiquitin to activate the ubiquitin ligase parkin, which builds ubiquitin chains on mitochondrial outer membrane proteins, where they act to recruit autophagy receptors. Using genome editing to knockout five autophagy receptors in HeLa cells, here we show that two receptors previously linked to xenophagy, NDP52 and optineurin, are the primary receptors for PINK1- and parkin-mediated mitophagy. PINK1 recruits NDP52 and optineurin, but not p62, to mitochondria to activate mitophagy directly, independently of parkin. Once recruited to mitochondria, NDP52 and optineurin recruit the autophagy factors ULK1, DFCP1 and WIPI1 to focal spots proximal to mitochondria, revealing a function for these autophagy receptors upstream of LC3. This supports a new model in which PINK1-generated phospho-ubiquitin serves as the autophagy signal on mitochondria, and parkin then acts to amplify this signal. This work also suggests direct and broader roles for ubiquitin phosphorylation in other autophagy pathways. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

Khalil E.L.,Monash University
Behavioral and Brain Sciences | Year: 2011

There are problems with the thesis of von Hippel & Trivers (VH&T): (1) It entails that self-deception arises from interpersonal deception which may not be true; (2) it entails that self-deception is optimal which is not necessarily so; and (3) it entails that interpersonal deception is optimum which may not be true. © 2011 Cambridge University Press. Source

Coats A.J.S.,Monash University
Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle | Year: 2012

Background: The awareness of cardiac cachexia, i.e. involuntary weight loss in patients with underlying cardiovascular disease, has increased over the last two decades. Methods and results: This mini-review looks at recent research in the cardiovascular literature that is relevant to the areas of interest of the Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle. It identifies significant research in the last 3 years on the obesity paradox, the causes and effects of skeletal muscle wasting, animal models of cachexia and emerging treatment ideas in cardiac cachexia. Conclusions: Assuming a similar literature in the fields of cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic renal failure and chronic liver failure, the emergence of cachexia as a vibrant area of clinical and experimental research seems assured. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Price N.S.,Monash University
Journal of vision | Year: 2012

Perception depends on the relative activity of populations of sensory neurons with a range of tunings and response gains. Each neuron's tuning and gain are malleable and can be modified by sustained exposure to an adapting stimulus. Here, we used a combination of human psychophysical testing and models of neuronal population decoding to assess how rapid adaptation to moving stimuli might change neuronal tuning and thereby modulate direction perception. Using a novel motion stimulus in which the direction changed every 10 ms, we demonstrated that 1,500 ms of adaptation to a distribution of directions was capable of modifying human psychophysical direction discrimination performance. Consistent with previous reports, we found perceptual repulsion following adaptation to a single direction. Notably, compared with a uniform adaptation condition in which all motion directions were equiprobable, discrimination was impaired after adaptation to a stimulus comprising only directions ± 30-60° from the discrimination boundary and enhanced after adaptation to the complementary range of directions. Thus, stimulus distributions can be selectively chosen to either impair or improve discrimination performance through adaptation. A neuronal population decoding model incorporating adaptation-induced repulsive shifts in direction tuning curves can account for most aspects of our psychophysical data; however, changes in neuronal gain are sufficient to account for all aspects of our psychophysical data. Source

Background: Placement programmes are essential to medical education but almost invariably take place in clinical settings, even when community based. Australia's Monash University, however, has included in its core MBBS curriculum a non-clinical placement for second-year students, the Community Based Practice (CBP) programme. This involves partnerships with community organisations that are mostly non-medical. The programme includes a health promotion (HP) component where students respond to a HP or support need nominated by their placement organisation. Though inspired by community-based medical education (CBME) programmes in England and South Australia's Flinders University, its non-clinical focus represents a creative development in Australian medical education. Methods: This article describes the programme, explores its place within CBME and outlines the results of its analysis of student responses using SPSS and NVivo. Results: The evidence showed development of students' communication skills; increased understanding and appreciation of the mainly non-medical health support infrastructure in local communities; increased understanding of HP and community health support at the local level; and contributions to the placement organisations through small-scale research or health support projects. Conclusion: Placement programmes such as this can significantly contribute to medical education, especially in supporting health in local communities and understanding the needs of the marginalised. © 2012 Informa UK Ltd. Source

Medcalf R.L.,Monash University
Blood | Year: 2015

In this issue of Blood, Hijazi et al challenge the view that consumptive coagulopathy that accompanies traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in a sequence of events that lead to intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology. Source

Bach L.A.,Monash University
Journal of Molecular Endocrinology | Year: 2015

Endothelial cells line blood vessels and modulate vascular tone, thrombosis, inflammatory responses and new vessel formation. They are implicated in many disease processes including atherosclerosis and cancer. IGFs play a significant role in the physiology of endothelial cells by promoting migration, tube formation and production of the vasodilator nitric oxide. These actions are mediated by the IGF1 and IGF2/mannose 6-phosphate receptors and are modulated by a family of high-affinity IGF binding proteins. IGFs also increase the number and function of endothelial progenitor cells, which may contribute to protection from atherosclerosis. IGFs promote angiogenesis, and dysregulation of the IGF system may contribute to this process in cancer and eye diseases including retinopathy of prematurity and diabetic retinopathy. In some situations, IGF deficiency appears to contribute to endothelial dysfunction, whereas IGF may be deleterious in others. These differences may be due to tissue-specific endothelial cell phenotypes or IGFs having distinct roles in different phases of vascular disease. Further studies are therefore required to delineate the therapeutic potential of IGF system modulation in pathogenic processes. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology. Source

Replacement therapy with immunoglobulin G (IgG) given as intravenous or subcutaneous (SC) infusions is the standard treatment for patients with primary immunodeficiency. Due to the life-long need for replacement, increased flexibility in the administration and dosage regimens would improve patients' quality of life. A population pharmacokinetic model that can predict plasma IgG concentrations for various routes, dosage regimens, and patient groups is a valuable tool to improve patient therapy. Such a model was developed based on IgG concentrations from 151 unique adult and pediatric patients who participated in 4 clinical trials of intravenous and SC IgG replacement therapy. Simulations predicted that the same total IgG dose, delivered SC, either in 1 biweekly dose (once every 2 weeks), or in 2 weekly doses, results in IgG peak and trough concentrations that remain within ± 10% of each other throughout the 14-day period. The developed population pharmacokinetic model predicted that biweekly SC Hizentra dosing offers a viable alternative to weekly SC therapy, allowing more flexible and optimized dosage regimens for patients with primary immunodeficiency. Source

Dowling D.K.,Monash University
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - General Subjects | Year: 2014

Background Disorders of the mitochondrial respiratory chain are heterogeneous in their symptoms and underlying genetics. Simple links between candidate mutations and expression of disease phenotype typically do not exist. It thus remains unclear how the genetic variation in the mitochondrial genome contributes to the phenotypic expression of complex traits and disease phenotypes. Scope of review I summarize the basic genetic processes known to underpin mitochondrial disease. I highlight other plausible processes, drawn from the evolutionary biological literature, whose contribution to mitochondrial disease expression remains largely empirically unexplored. I highlight recent advances to the field, and discuss common-ground and -goals shared by researchers across medical and evolutionary domains. Major conclusions Mitochondrial genetic variance is linked to phenotypic variance across a variety of traits (e.g. reproductive function, life expectancy) fundamental to the upkeep of good health. Evolutionary theory predicts that mitochondrial genomes are destined to accumulate male-harming (but female-friendly) mutations, and this prediction has received proof-of-principle support. Furthermore, mitochondrial effects on the phenotype are typically manifested via interactions between mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Thus, whether a mitochondrial mutation is pathogenic in effect can depend on the nuclear genotype in which is it expressed. General significance Many disease phenotypes associated with OXPHOS malfunction might be determined by the outcomes of mitochondrial-nuclear interactions, and by the evolutionary forces that historically shaped mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences. Concepts and results drawn from the evolutionary sciences can have broad, but currently under-utilized, applicability to the medical sciences and provide new insights into understanding the complex genetics of mitochondrial disease. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Frontiers of Mitochondrial Research. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Gibson P.R.,Monash University
Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology (Australia) | Year: 2011

Background and Aim: Food-related symptoms are commonly described by patients with functional bowel disorders, but dietary change as an evidence-based therapy has not been part of routine management strategies. This reviews aims to discuss strategies commonly applied. Method: Published literature was reviewed. Results: Traditional approaches involve elimination diets followed by placebo-controlled reintroduction of specific foods, which is tedious at best and not applied in routine practice. Pathogenically-based approaches include determining what food components are inducing food hypersensitivity responses using specific biomarkers, but this is probably applicable to a small proportion of patients only and has met with only limited success. Food bioactive chemicals, such as salicylates, have been targeted, but there is a paucity of quality evidence for or against this approach. In contrast, targeting poorly absorbed dietary components that might induce luminal distension via osmotic effects and rapid fermentation (FODMAPs) has been successful and the efficacy of the dietitian-delivered low FODMAP diet is now supported by high quality evidence. Improvement of all symptoms of FBD in three out of four patients has been achieved. The diet may potentially improve stool frequency in patients with an ileal pouch or a high output ileostomy, or functional symptoms in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. FODMAPs in enteral formulas may also be responsible for diarrhoea induced by enteral nutrition. Conclusion: Dietary restriction of FODMAPs is an effective therapy in the majority of patients with functional bowel symptoms and, provided dietitians are trained in the technique, should be first line therapy. © 2011 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd. Source

Psaltis P.J.,University of Adelaide | Psaltis P.J.,Monash University | Simari R.D.,University of Kansas
Circulation Research | Year: 2015

The vasculature plays an indispensible role in organ development and maintenance of tissue homeostasis, such that disturbances to it impact greatly on developmental and postnatal health. Although cell turnover in healthy blood vessels is low, it increases considerably under pathological conditions. The principle sources for this phenomenon have long been considered to be the recruitment of cells from the peripheral circulation and the re-entry of mature cells in the vessel wall back into cell cycle. However, recent discoveries have also uncovered the presence of a range of multipotent and lineage-restricted progenitor cells in the mural layers of postnatal blood vessels, possessing high proliferative capacity and potential to generate endothelial, smooth muscle, hematopoietic or mesenchymal cell progeny. In particular, the tunica adventitia has emerged as a progenitor-rich compartment with niche-like characteristics that support and regulate vascular wall progenitor cells. Preliminary data indicate the involvement of some of these vascular wall progenitor cells in vascular disease states, adding weight to the notion that the adventitia is integral to vascular wall pathogenesis, and raising potential implications for clinical therapies. This review discusses the current body of evidence for the existence of vascular wall progenitor cell subpopulations from development to adulthood and addresses the gains made and significant challenges that lie ahead in trying to accurately delineate their identities, origins, regulatory pathways, and relevance to normal vascular structure and function, as well as disease. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc. Source

Rafferty A.R.,Monash University
Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society | Year: 2012

Arrested embryonic development involves the downregulation or cessation of active cell division and metabolic activity, and the capability of an animal to arrest embryonic development results in temporal plasticity of the duration of embryonic period. Arrested embryonic development is an important reproductive strategy for egg-laying animals that provide no parental care after oviposition. In this review, we discuss each type of embryonic developmental arrest used by oviparous reptiles. Environmental pressures that might have directed the evolution of arrest are addressed and we present previously undiscussed environmentally dependent physiological processes that may occur in the egg to bring about arrest. Areas for future research are proposed to clarify how ecology affects the phenotype of developing embryos. We hypothesize that oviparous reptilian mothers are capable of providing their embryos with a level of phenotypic adaptation to local environmental conditions by incorporating maternal factors into the internal environment of the egg that result in different levels of developmental sensitivity to environmental conditions after they are laid. Source

Toh B.-H.,Monash University
Autoimmunity Reviews | Year: 2014

Autoimmune gastritis is a silent and highly prevalent disease that only becomes clinically manifested with progression to corpus atrophy and development of iron deficient or B12-deficient (pernicious) anaemia. Autoimmune gastritis is associated with autoimmune thyroiditis and type 1 diabetes mellitus. Corpus atrophy may be complicated by gastric carcinoids and gastric cancer. Laboratory diagnosis of autoimmune gastritis rests on serum biomarkers of antibody to parietal cell H/K ATPase and intrinsic factor and corpus atrophy on serum biomarkers of gastrin and pepsinogen levels. Subjects with asymptomatic parietal cell antibody should be regularly assessed for serum biomarkers for progression to corpus atrophy, development of iron and B12 deficiency anaemia and for associated autoimmune thyroiditis and type 1 diabetes mellitus. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Vinuesa C.G.,Australian National University | Linterman M.A.,Babraham Institute | Yu D.,Monash University | Maclennan I.C.M.,University of Birmingham
Annual Review of Immunology | Year: 2016

Although T cell help for B cells was described several decades ago, it was the identification of CXCR5 expression by B follicular helper T (Tfh) cells and the subsequent discovery of their dependence on BCL6 that led to the recognition of Tfh cells as an independent helper subset and accelerated the pace of discovery. More than 20 transcription factors, together with RNA-binding proteins and microRNAs, control the expression of chemotactic receptors and molecules important for the function and homeostasis of Tfh cells. Tfh cells prime B cells to initiate extrafollicular and germinal center antibody responses and are crucial for affinity maturation and maintenance of humoral memory. In addition to the roles that Tfh cells have in antimicrobial defense, in cancer, and as HIV reservoirs, regulation of these cells is critical to prevent autoimmunity. The realization that follicular T cells are heterogeneous, comprising helper and regulatory subsets, has raised questions regarding a possible division of labor in germinal center B cell selection and elimination. Copyright © 2016 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source

Stark R.,Monash University | Kibbey R.G.,Yale University
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - General Subjects | Year: 2014

Background Plasma glucose levels are tightly regulated within a narrow physiologic range. Insulin-mediated glucose uptake by tissues must be balanced by the appearance of glucose from nutritional sources, glycogen stores, or gluconeogenesis. In this regard, a common pathway regulating both glucose clearance and appearance has not been described. The metabolism of glucose to produce ATP is generally considered to be the primary stimulus for insulin release from beta-cells. Similarly, gluconeogenesis from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) is believed to be the primarily pathway via the cytosolic isoform of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-C). These models cannot adequately explain the regulation of insulin secretion or gluconeogenesis. Scope of review A metabolic sensing pathway involving mitochondrial GTP (mtGTP) and PEP synthesis by the mitochondrial isoform of PEPCK (PEPCK-M) is associated with glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells. Here we examine whether there is evidence for a similar mtGTP-dependent pathway involved in gluconeogenesis. In both islets and the liver, mtGTP is produced at the substrate level by the enzyme succinyl CoA synthetase (SCS-GTP) with a rate proportional to the TCA cycle. In the beta-cell PEPCK-M then hydrolyzes mtGTP in the production of PEP that, unlike mtGTP, can escape the mitochondria to generate a signal for insulin release. Similarly, PEPCK-M and mtGTP might also provide a significant source of PEP in gluconeogenic tissues for the production of glucose. This review will focus on the possibility that PEPCK-M, as a sensor for TCA cycle flux, is a key mechanism to regulate both insulin secretion and gluconeogenesis suggesting conservation of this biochemical mechanism in regulating multiple aspects of glucose homeostasis. Moreover, we propose that this mechanism may be important for regulating insulin secretion and gluconeogenesis compared to canonical nutrient sensing pathways. Major conclusions PEPCK-M, initially believed to be absent in islets, carries a substantial metabolic flux in beta-cells. This flux is intimately involved with the coupling of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. PEPCK-M activity may have been similarly underestimated in glucose producing tissues and could potentially be an unappreciated but important source of gluconeogenesis. General significance The generation of PEP via PEPCK-M may occur via a metabolic sensing pathway important for regulating both insulin secretion and gluconeogenesis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Frontiers of Mitochondrial Research. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Ilic D.,Monash University
Recent Results in Cancer Research | Year: 2014

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer are common diseases of the prostate gland. BPH is commonly treated by pharmaceutical products, which commonly improve symptoms but are often off-set by adverse events including erectile dysfunction, which affect quality of life. Similarly, a variety of treatment options exist for the treatment of prostate cancer. The applicability of these prostate cancer treatments is reliant on stage of disease. Whilst effectiveness of prostate cancer treatments may vary, common adverse effects include erectile dysfunction, incontinence and lower quality of life. Early evidence from systematic reviews has suggested that diet and lifestyle factors may be beneficial in reducing the risk of cancer. Lycopene, a member of the carotenoid family, found commonly in red pigmented fruit and vegetables has been established as having strong antioxidant and pro-oxidant properties. This chapter examines the current evidence on the use of lycopene as a preventive agent for prostate disease. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Anko M.-L.,Monash University
Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology | Year: 2014

Serine-arginine rich splicing factors (SR proteins) are a family of RNA binding proteins that are essential for development in various model organisms. Although SR proteins are necessary for pre-mRNA splicing in metazoans, their binding is not limited to pre-RNA. SR proteins associate with various classes of RNAs, including intronless transcripts and non-coding RNAs, and regulate many processes during the gene expression pathway. Recent studies taking advantage of high-throughput sequencing and other genome-wide approaches have started to shed light into the distinct and overlapping roles of SR proteins in the regulation of gene expression in cells and have led to the identification of endogenous gene targets. These studies together with animal models where individual SR proteins have been depleted in specific tissues suggest that SR proteins may regulate distinct gene expression programmes through their interactions with RNAs and provide crosstalk between splicing and other regulatory processes. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

This article is part of a Special Issue "Energy Balance".The interface between metabolic regulators and the reproductive system is reviewed with special reference to the sheep. Even though sheep are ruminants with particular metabolic characteristics, there is a broad consensus across species in the way that the reproductive system is influenced by metabolic state. An update on the neuroendocrinology of reproduction indicates the need to account for the way that kisspeptin provides major drive to gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons and also mediates the feedback effects of gonadal steroids. The way that kisspeptin function is influenced by appetite regulating peptides (ARP) is considered. Another newly recognised factor is gonadotropin inhibitory hormone (GnIH), which has a dual function in that it suppresses reproductive function whilst also acting as an orexigen.Our understanding of the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure has expanded exponentially in the last 3 decades and historical perspective is provided. The function of the regulatory factors and the hypothalamic cellular systems involved is reviewed with special reference to the sheep. Less is known of these systems in the cow, especially the dairy cow, in which a major fertility issue has emerged in parallel with selection for increased milk production.Other endocrine systems - the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, the growth hormone (GH) axis and the thyroid hormones - are influenced by metabolic state and are relevant to the interface between metabolic function and reproduction. Special consideration is given to issues such as season and lactation, where the relationship between metabolic hormones and reproductive function is altered. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

Merson T.D.,Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health | Bourne J.A.,Monash University
International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology | Year: 2014

Ischaemic stroke is among the most common yet most intractable types of central nervous system (CNS) injury in the adult human population. In the acute stages of disease, neurons in the ischaemic lesion rapidly die and other neuronal populations in the ischaemic penumbra are vulnerable to secondary injury. Multiple parallel approaches are being investigated to develop neuroprotective, reparative and regenerative strategies for the treatment of stroke. Accumulating evidence indicates that cerebral ischaemia initiates an endogenous regenerative response within the adult brain that potentiates adult neurogenesis from populations of neural stem and progenitor cells. A major research focus has been to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie the potentiation of adult neurogenesis and to appreciate how interventions designed to modulate these processes could enhance neural regeneration in the post-ischaemic brain. In this review, we highlight recent advances over the last 5 years that help unravel the cellular and molecular mechanisms that potentiate endogenous neurogenesis following cerebral ischaemia and are dissecting the functional importance of this regenerative mechanism following brain injury. This article is part of a Directed Issue entitled: Regenerative Medicine: the challenge of translation. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Dixon J.B.,Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute | Dixon J.B.,Monash University
Clinics in Liver Disease | Year: 2014

Most patients with severe complex obesity presenting for bariatric-metabolic surgery have nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD is associated with central obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and obesity-related dyslipidemia. Weight loss should be a primary therapy for NAFLD. However, evidence supporting intentional weight loss as a therapy for NAFLD is limited. Bariatric-metabolic surgery provides the most reliable method of achieving substantial sustained weight loss and the most commonly used procedures are associated with reduced steatosis and lobular inflammatory changes, but there are mixed reports regarding fibrosis. Surgery should complement treatment of obesity-related comorbidity, but not replace established therapy. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

Rachon D.,Medical University of Gdansk | Teede H.,Monash University
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology | Year: 2010

Insulin resistance (IR) is a consequence of obesity, and in women it is often inextricably linked with ovarian function leading to clinical reproductive manifestations such as early menarche onset, subfertility and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Likewise, the dramatic fall in oestrogen production after menopause may contribute to weight gain and changes in adipose tissue distribution. Overall, women who are obese, especially those with reproductive complications including PCOS, have been identified as specific high risk subgroups for further progression through to prediabetes, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and potentially cardiovascular disease (CVD). This review focuses on the interrelationship between the ovarian function and obesity as well as its treatment strategies. © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Chowdhury M.A.,Monash University
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules | Year: 2014

This article presents the perspectives on the lignin-based controlled release (CR) of bioactive materials which are based on the researches that took place over the last three decades. It encompasses three broad spectra of observations: CR formulations with mixed-matrix of lignin; CR formulations with modified lignin; and the lignin-based CR formulation modelling. The article covers a range of bioactive materials aimed for agricultural utilisations viz. herbicides, pesticides, insecticides and fertilisers for their controlled release studies, which were formulated either with lignin or lignin-based biopolymers. The inherent complexities, structural heterogeneities, and the presence of myriad range of functionalities in the lignin structure make it difficult to understand and explaining the underlying CR behaviour and process. In conjunction to this issue, the fundamental aspects of the synthetic and biocompatible polymer-based drug controlled release process are presented, and correlated with the lignin-based CR research. The articulation of this correlation and the overview presented in this article may be complemented of the future lignin-based CR research gaining better insights, reflections, and understanding. A recommended approach on the lignin depolymerisation is suggested to fragmenting the lignin, which may be tailored further using the re-polymerisation or other synthetic approaches. Thus it may allow more control with flexibilities and improved properties of the modified lignin materials, and help achieve the desired CR outcomes. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Brewin L.,Monash University
Classical and Quantum Gravity | Year: 2011

Any practical attempt to solve the Regge equations, these being a large system of non-linear algebraic equations, will almost certainly employ a Newton-Raphson-like scheme. In such cases, it is essential that efficient algorithms be used when computing the defect angles and their derivatives with respect to the leg lengths. The purpose of this paper is to present details of such an algorithm. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd. Source

Levesque J.-F.,Institute National Of Sante Publique Du Quebec | Harris M.F.,University of New South Wales | Russell G.,Monash University
International Journal for Equity in Health | Year: 2013

Background: Access is central to the performance of health care systems around the world. However, access to health care remains a complex notion as exemplified in the variety of interpretations of the concept across authors. The aim of this paper is to suggest a conceptualisation of access to health care describing broad dimensions and determinants that integrate demand and supply-side-factors and enabling the operationalisation of access to health care all along the process of obtaining care and benefiting from the services. Methods. A synthesis of the published literature on the conceptualisation of access has been performed. The most cited frameworks served as a basis to develop a revised conceptual framework. Results: Here, we view access as the opportunity to identify healthcare needs, to seek healthcare services, to reach, to obtain or use health care services, and to actually have a need for services fulfilled. We conceptualise five dimensions of accessibility: 1) Approachability; 2) Acceptability; 3) Availability and accommodation; 4) Affordability; 5) Appropriateness. In this framework, five corresponding abilities of populations interact with the dimensions of accessibility to generate access. Five corollary dimensions of abilities include: 1) Ability to perceive; 2) Ability to seek; 3) Ability to reach; 4) Ability to pay; and 5) Ability to engage. Conclusions: This paper explains the comprehensiveness and dynamic nature of this conceptualisation of access to care and identifies relevant determinants that can have an impact on access from a multilevel perspective where factors related to health systems, institutions, organisations and providers are considered with factors at the individual, household, community, and population levels. © 2013 Levesque et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

The advancement of microRNA (miRNA) therapies has been hampered by difficulties in delivering miRNA to the injured kidney in a robust and sustainable manner. Using bioluminescence imaging in mice with unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO), we report that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), engineered to overexpress miRNA-let7c (miR-let7c-MSCs), selectively homed to damaged kidneys and upregulated miR-let7c gene expression, compared with nontargeting control (NTC)-MSCs. miR-let7c-MSC therapy attenuated kidney injury and significantly downregulated collagen IVα1, metalloproteinase-9, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, and TGF-β type 1 receptor (TGF-βR1) in UUO kidneys, compared with controls. In vitro analysis confirmed that the transfer of miR-let7c from miR-let7c-MSCs occurred via secreted exosomal uptake, visualized in NRK52E cells using cyc3-labeled pre-miRNA-transfected MSCs with/without the exosomal inhibitor, GW4869. The upregulated expression of fibrotic genes in NRK52E cells induced by TGF-β1 was repressed following the addition of isolated exosomes or indirect coculture of miR-let7c-MSCs, compared with NTC-MSCs. Furthermore, the cotransfection of NRK52E cells using the 3′UTR of TGF-βR1 confirmed that miR-let7c attenuates TGF-β1-driven TGF-βR1 gene expression. Taken together, the effective antifibrotic function of engineered MSCs is able to selectively transfer miR-let7c to damaged kidney cells and will pave the way for the use of MSCs for therapeutic delivery of miRNA targeted at kidney disease.Molecular Therapy (2016); doi:10.1038/mt.2016.90. © 2016 American Society of Gene & Cell Therapy Source

Button B.M.,Monash University | Button B.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine | Year: 2013

In cystic fibrosis (CF), a defect in ion transport results in thick and dehydrated airway mucus, which is difficult to clear, making such patients prone to chronic inflammation and bacterial infections. Physiotherapy using a variety of airway clearance techniques (ACTs) represents a key treatment regime by helping clear the airways of thickened, adhered, mucus and, thus, reducing the impact of lung infections and improving lung function. This article aims to bridge the gap between our understanding of the physiological effects of mechanical stresses elicited by ACTs on airway epithelia and the reported effectiveness of ACTs in CF patients. In the first part of this review, the effects of mechanical stress on airway epithelia are discussed in relation to changes in ion transport and stimulation in airway surface layer hydration. The second half is devoted to detailing the most commonly used ACTsto stimulate the removal of mucus from the airways of patients with CF. © 2013 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved. Source

Catto J.L.,Monash University
Reviews of Geophysics | Year: 2016

Extratropical cyclones have long been known to be important for midlatitude weather. It is therefore important that our current state-of-the-art climate models are able to realistically represent these features, in order that we can have confidence in how they are projected to change in a warming climate. Despite the observation that these cyclones are extremely variable in their structure and features, there have, over the years, been numerous attempts to classify or group them. Such classifications can provide insight into the different cloud structures, airflows, and dynamical forcing mechanisms within the different cyclone types. This review collects and details as many classification techniques as possible, and may therefore act as a reference guide to classifications. These classifications offer the opportunity to improve the way extratropical cyclone evaluation in climate models is currently done by giving more insight into the dynamical and physical processes that occur in climate models (rather than just evaluating the mean state over a broad region as is often done). Examples of where these ideas have been used, or could be used, are reviewed. Finally, the potential impacts of future climate changes on extratropical cyclones are detailed. The ways in which the classification techniques could improve our understanding of future changes in extratropical cyclones and their impacts are given. ©2016. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Source

Falzon B.G.,Monash University | Apruzzese P.,Imperial College London
Composite Structures | Year: 2011

This paper presents a three-dimensional continuum damage mechanics-based material model which was implemented in an implicit finite element code to simulate the progressive intralaminar degradation of fibre reinforced laminates. The damage model is based on ply failure mechanisms and uses seven damage variables assigned to tensile, compressive and shear damage at a ply level. Non-linear behaviour and irreversibility were taken into account and modelled. Some issues on the numerical implementation of the damage model are discussed and solutions proposed. Applications of the methodology are presented in Part II [1]. © 2010. Source

Aljofan M.,Monash University | Aljofan M.,Qassim University
Virus Research | Year: 2013

Since their first emergence in mid 1990s henipaviruses continued to re emerge in Australia and South East Asia almost every year. In total there has been more than 12 Nipah and 48 Hendra virus outbreaks reported in South East Asia and Australia, respectively. These outbreaks are associated with significant economic and health damages that most high risks countries (particularly in South East Asia) cannot bear the burden of such economical threats. Up until recently, there were no actual therapeutics available to treat or prevent these lethal infections. However, an international collaborative research has resulted in the identification of a potential equine Hendra vaccine capable of providing antibody protection against Hendra virus infections. Consequently, with the current findings and after nearly 2 decades since their first detection, are we there yet? This review recaps the chronicle of the henipavirus emergence and briefly evaluates potential anti-henipavirus vaccines and antivirals. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Koplin J.,Monash University
American Journal of Bioethics | Year: 2014

Advocates of paid living kidney donation frequently argue that kidney sellers would benefit from paid donation under a properly regulated kidney market. The poor outcomes experienced by participants in existing markets are often entirely attributed to harmful black-market practices. This article reviews the medical and anthropological literature on the physical, psychological, social, and financial harms experienced by vendors under Iran's regulated system of donor compensation and black markets throughout the world and argues that this body of research not only documents significant harms to vendors, but also provides reasons to believe that such harms would persist under a regulated system. This does not settle the question of whether or not a regulated market should be introduced, but it does strengthen the case against markets in kidneys while suggesting that those advocating such a system cannot appeal to the purported benefits to vendors to support their case. © 2014, Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Objective The study aims to provide information about variance components of psychosocial outcomes: within and between-participant variance, within-participant correlation and for cluster randomised trials, the intra-cluster correlation (ICC) and, also, to demonstrate how estimates of these variance components and ICCs can be used to design randomised trials and cluster randomised trials. Method Data from 15 longitudinal multi-centre psycho-oncology studies were analysed, and variance components including ICCs were estimated. Studies with psychosocial outcomes that had at least one measurement post-baseline including individual randomised controlled trials, cluster randomised trials and observational studies were included. Results Variance components and ICCs from 87 outcome measures were estimated. The unadjusted, single timepoint (first post-baseline) ICCs ranged from 0 to 0.16, with a median value of 0.022 and inter-quartile range 0 to 0.0605. The longitudinal ICCs ranged from 0 to 0.09 with a median value of 0.0007 and inter-quartile range 0 to 0.018. Conclusions Although the magnitude of variance components and ICCs used for sample-size calculation cannot be known in advance of the study, published estimates can help reduce the uncertainty in sample-size calculations. Psycho-oncology researchers should be conservative in their sample-size calculations and use approaches that improve efficiency in their design and analysis. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Ponsford J.,Monash University
NeuroRehabilitation | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury results in some distinctive patterns of cognitive, behavioural and physical impairment which impact significantly on independent living skills and participation in work or study, social and leisure activities and interpersonal relationships. There is, however, still considerable variability in outcome across individuals in each of the reported domains. This has led to a significant body of research examining factors associated with outcome. A range of injury-related, personal and social factors have been shown to influence survival, as well as cognitive, functional and employment outcome. METHODS: This paper reviews the factors associated with each of these aspects of outcome specifically injury-related factors, including neuroimaging findings, GCS and PTA, other injuries, and cognitive and behavioural impairments; demographic factors, including age, gender, genetic status, education, pre-injury IQ and employment status; and social factors including family and other social support, cultural factors, pre-injury psychiatric history and coping style. CONCLUSION: The paper identifies contributions and complex interrelationships of all of these factors to outcome following TBI. It concludes with a brief discussion of the implications of these factors for the rehabilitation process. Source

Sgro C.M.,Monash University | Lowe A.J.,University of Adelaide | Hoffmann A.A.,University of Melbourne
Evolutionary Applications | Year: 2011

Evolution occurs rapidly and is an ongoing process in our environments. Evolutionary principles need to be built into conservation efforts, particularly given the stressful conditions organisms are increasingly likely to experience because of climate change and ongoing habitat fragmentation. The concept of evolutionary resilience is a way of emphasizing evolutionary processes in conservation and landscape planning. From an evolutionary perspective, landscapes need to allow in situ selection and capture high levels of genetic variation essential for responding to the direct and indirect effects of climate change. We summarize ideas that need to be considered in planning for evolutionary resilience and suggest how they might be incorporated into policy and management to ensure that resilience is maintained in the face of environmental degradation. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Dalton C.M.,University College London | Carroll J.,University College London | Carroll J.,Monash University
Journal of Cell Science | Year: 2013

A fundamental rule of cell division is that daughter cells inherit half the DNA complement and an appropriate proportion of cellular organelles. The highly asymmetric cell divisions of female meiosis present a different challenge because one of the daughters, the polar body, is destined to degenerate, putting at risk essential maternally inherited organelles such as mitochondria. We have therefore investigated mitochondrial inheritance during the meiotic divisions of the mouse oocyte. We find that mitochondria are aggregated around the spindle by a dynein-mediated mechanism during meiosis I, and migrate together with the spindle towards the oocyte cortex. However, at cell division they are not equally segregated and move instead towards the oocyte-directed spindle pole and are excluded from the polar body. We show that this asymmetrical inheritance in favour of the oocyte is not caused by bias in the spindle itself but is dependent on an intact actin cytoskeleton, spindle-cortex proximity, and cell cycle progression. Thus, oocyte-biased inheritance of mitochondria is a variation on rules that normally govern organelle segregation at cell division, and ensures that essential maternally inherited mitochondria are retained to provide ATP for early mammalian development. © 2013 Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd. Source

Halmos E.P.,Monash University
Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology (Australia) | Year: 2013

Gastrointestinal symptoms including diarrhea are common complications of enteral nutrition (EN); however, the cause is unclear. Mode of EN delivery that alters digestion and possibly absorption is suggested to contribute to the high incidence of diarrhea; however, enteral formula is frequently blamed. Most research has focused on fiber-supplemented EN, with a meta-analysis showing that fiber reduces the incidence of diarrhea in non-intensive care unit studies. Other hypotheses include formula osmolality and FODMAP (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols) content. FODMAPs are poorly absorbed short-chain carbohydrates that exert an osmotic effect. Dietary FODMAPs have been shown to reduce gastrointestinal symptoms, including diarrhea, in those with irritable bowel syndrome and, given a high-enough dose, will induce a laxative effect in most people. As FODMAPs are commonly added to enteral formula and EN is frequently used as the main source of nutrition, it is reasonable to hypothesize that EN provides more FODMAPs than usual dietary intake and increases risk for developing diarrhea. This hypothesis was assessed through a retrospective study showing that the standard-use enteral formula Isosource 1.5 had a protective effect of developing diarrhea. The only characteristic unique to Isosource 1.5 was the lower FODMAP content as determined through methodologies previously validated for food analysis. Methodologies for application to enteral formulas are currently undergoing formal validation. Once confirmed for application in enteral formula, future directions include FODMAP analysis of specific ingredients to increase understanding of potential problems associated with enteral formula and a randomized, controlled trial investigating the role of formula FODMAP content. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd. Source

Turner S.,University of Melbourne | Rossjohn J.,Monash University
Immunity | Year: 2011

It is unclear how an effective T cell repertoire is built from a limited array of T cell receptor (TCR) genes. In this issue of Immunity, Stadinski et al. (2011) demonstrate that TCR variable (V) α chains can indirectly affect Vβ-mediated recognition of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source

Gapin L.,University of Colorado at Denver | Godfrey D.I.,University of Melbourne | Rossjohn J.,Monash University
Current Opinion in Immunology | Year: 2013

Natural Killer T (NKT) cells are distinct lymphocyte lineages that recognize lipid antigens presented by the non-classical Major Histocompatibility Complex molecule CD1d. Two categories of NKT cells, type I and type II, have been described based on T-cell receptor expression and antigenic specificity. In both cases, increasing evidence suggest that recognition of self-antigens by these cells plays an important role not only in their development but also in their regulation of a broad range of immune responses. Here we review recent advances in our understanding of how and when NKT cell autoreactivity manifests itself, how the NKT T cell receptor engages self-antigens and the nature of these self-antigens. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Von Lueder T.G.,University of Oslo | Krum H.,Monash University
Nature Reviews Cardiology | Year: 2015

Heart failure (HF) can rightfully be called the epidemic of the 21 st century. Historically, the only available medical treatment options for HF have been diuretics and digoxin, but the capacity of these agents to alter outcomes has been brought into question by the scrutiny of modern clinical trials. In the past 4 decades, neurohormonal blockers have been introduced into clinical practice, leading to marked reductions in morbidity and mortality in chronic HF with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Despite these major advances in pharmacotherapy, our understanding of the underlying disease mechanisms of HF from epidemiological, clinical, pathophysiological, molecular, and genetic standpoints remains incomplete. This knowledge gap is particularly evident with respect to acute decompensated HF and HF with normal (preserved) LVEF. For these clinical phenotypes, no drug has been shown to reduce long-term clinical event rates substantially. Ongoing developments in the pharmacotherapy of HF are likely to challenge our current best-practice algorithms. Novel agents for HF therapy include dual-acting neurohormonal modulators, contractility-enhancing agents, vasoactive and anti-inflammatory peptides, and myocardial protectants. These novel compounds have the potential to enhance our armamentarium of HF therapeutics. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Source

Littlejohn G.,Monash University
Nature Reviews Rheumatology | Year: 2015

Although fibromyalgia and complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) have distinct clinical phenotypes, they do share many other features. Pain, allodynia and dysaesthesia occur in each condition and seem to exist on a similar spectrum. Fibromyalgia and CRPS can both be triggered by specific traumatic events, although fibromyalgia is most commonly associated with psychological trauma and CRPS is most often associated with physical trauma, which is frequently deemed routine or minor by the patient. Fibromyalgia and CRPS also seem to share many pathophysiological mechanisms, among which the most important are those involving central effects. Nonetheless, peripheral effects, such as neurogenic neuroinflammation, are also important contributors to the clinical features of each of these disorders. This Review highlights the differing degrees to which neurogenic neuroinflammation might contribute to the multifactorial pathogenesis of both fibromyalgia and CRPS, and discusses the evidence suggesting that this mechanism is an important link between the two disorders, and could offer novel therapeutic targets. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

Gardner J.L.,Australian National University | Peters A.,Max Planck Institute for Ornithology (Radolfzell) | Peters A.,Monash University | Kearney M.R.,University of Melbourne | And 2 more authors.
Trends in Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2011

A recently documented correlate of anthropogenic climate change involves reductions in body size, the nature and scale of the pattern leading to suggestions of a third universal response to climate warming. Because body size affects thermoregulation and energetics, changing body size has implications for resilience in the face of climate change. A review of recent studies shows heterogeneity in the magnitude and direction of size responses, exposing a need for large-scale phylogenetically controlled comparative analyses of temporal size change. Integrative analyses of museum data combined with new theoretical models of size-dependent thermoregulatory and metabolic responses will increase both understanding of the underlying mechanisms and physiological consequences of size shifts and, therefore, the ability to predict the sensitivities of species to climate change. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

The Environments for Healthy Living (EFHL) study is a repeated sample, longitudinal birth cohort in South East Queensland, Australia. We describe the sample characteristics and profile of maternal, household, and antenatal exposures. Variation and data stability over recruitment years were examined. Four months each year from 2006, pregnant women were recruited to EFHL at routine antenatal visits on or after 24 weeks gestation, from three public maternity hospitals. Participating mothers completed a baseline questionnaire on individual, familial, social and community exposure factors. Perinatal data were extracted from hospital birth records. Descriptive statistics and measures of association were calculated comparing the EFHL birth sample with regional and national reference populations. Data stability of antenatal exposure factors was assessed across five recruitment years (2006-2010 inclusive) using the Gamma statistic for ordinal data and chi-squared for nominal data. Across five recruitment years 2,879 pregnant women were recruited which resulted in 2904 live births with 29 sets of twins. EFHL has a lower representation of early gestational babies, fewer still births and a lower percentage of low birth weight babies, when compared to regional data. The majority of women (65%) took a multivitamin supplement during pregnancy, 47% consumed alcohol, and 26% reported having smoked cigarettes. There were no differences in rates of a range of antenatal exposures across five years of recruitment, with the exception of increasing maternal pre-pregnancy weight (p=0.0349), decreasing rates of high maternal distress (p=0.0191) and decreasing alcohol consumption (p<0.0001). The study sample is broadly representative of births in the region and almost all factors showed data stability over time. This study, with repeated sampling of birth cohorts over multiple years, has the potential to make important contributions to population health through evaluating longitudinal follow-up and within cohort temporal effects. Source

Buenzli P.R.,Monash University
Journal of Theoretical Biology | Year: 2015

The formation of new bone involves both the deposition of bone matrix, and the formation of a network of cells embedded within the bone matrix, called osteocytes. Osteocytes derive from bone-synthesising cells (osteoblasts) that become buried in bone matrix during bone deposition. The generation of osteocytes is a complex process that remains incompletely understood. Whilst osteoblast burial determines the density of osteocytes, the expanding network of osteocytes regulates in turn osteoblast activity and osteoblast burial. In this paper, a spatiotemporal continuous model is proposed to investigate the osteoblast-to-osteocyte transition. The aims of the model are (i) to link dynamic properties of osteocyte generation with properties of the osteocyte network imprinted in bone, and (ii) to investigate Marotti's hypothesis that osteocytes prompt the burial of osteoblasts when they become covered with sufficient bone matrix. Osteocyte density is assumed in the model to be generated at the moving bone surface by a combination of osteoblast density, matrix secretory rate, rate of entrapment, and curvature of the bone substrate, but is found to be determined solely by the ratio of the instantaneous burial rate and matrix secretory rate. Osteocyte density does not explicitly depend on osteoblast density nor curvature. Osteocyte apoptosis is also included to distinguish between the density of osteocyte lacuna and the density of live osteocytes. Experimental measurements of osteocyte lacuna densities are used to estimate the rate of burial of osteoblasts in bone matrix. These results suggest that: (i) burial rate decreases during osteonal infilling, and (ii) the control of osteoblast burial by osteocytes is likely to emanate as a collective signal from a large group of osteocytes, rather than from the osteocytes closest to the bone deposition front. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Chiu E.,University of Auckland | Coulibaly F.,Monash University | Metcalf P.,University of Auckland
Current Opinion in Structural Biology | Year: 2012

High-resolution atomic structures have been reported recently for two types of viral polyhedra, intracellular protein crystals produced by ubiquitous insect viruses. Polyhedra contain embedded virus particles and function as the main infectious form for baculoviruses and cypoviruses, two distinct classes of viruses that infect mainly Lepitoptera species (butterflies and moths). Polyhedra are extremely stable and protect the virus particles once released in the environment. The extensive crystal contacts observed in the structures explain the remarkable stability of viral polyhedra and provide hints about how these crystals dissolve in the alkaline midgut, releasing embedded virus particles to infect feeding larvae. The stage is now set to answer intriguing questions about the . in vivo crystallization of polyhedra, how virus particles are incorporated into polyhedra, and what determines the size and shape of the crystals. Large quantities of polyhedra can be obtained from infected larvae and polyhedra can also be produced using insect cell expression systems. Modified polyhedra encapsulating other entities in place of virus particles have potential applications as a means to stabilize proteins such as enzymes or growth factors, and the extremely stable polyhedrin lattice may provide a framework for future engineered micro-crystal devices. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Iturbe-Ormaetxe I.,University of Queensland | Walker T.,University of Queensland | O'Neill S.L.,Monash University
EMBO Reports | Year: 2011

Mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue fever and filariasis cause an enormous health burden to people living in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Despite years of intense effort to control them, many of these diseases are increasing in prevalence, geographical distribution and severity, and options to control them are limited. The transinfection of mosquitos with the maternally inherited, endosymbiotic bacteria Wolbachia is a promising new biocontrol approach. Fruit fly Wolbachia strains can invade and sustain themselves in mosquito populations, reduce adult lifespan, affect mosquito reproduction and interfere with pathogen replication. Wolbachia-infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes have been released in areas of Australia in which outbreaks of dengue fever occur, as a prelude to the application of this technology in dengue-endemic areas of south-east Asia. © 2011 European Molecular Biology Organization. Source

Harris E.,Monash University
Water Resources Management | Year: 2011

Water governance in Australia's irrigation sector has undergone substantial change over the last three decades. In part, this change has been the result of a shift in intellectual thinking regarding the pricing and allocation of irrigation water with a move away from primary reliance on government to undertake these activities and a greater dependence on markets. Institutional change will be impacted on by the existence of institutional path dependence created by previous frameworks. Path dependence arises because actors are unable to predict the exact outcome of decisions made at different junctures in time. Individual decisions may be temporally remote but will impact the subsequent path of change as a result of lock-in. In turn, institutional path dependence may create some rigidity within new institutional arrangements. Evidence of current trading restrictions on Victorian water markets illustrates this outcome. These restrictions may not be permanent, but in the short-run they have limited, to some extent, the gains accruing from water trading. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Leech M.T.,Monash University | Bartold P.M.,University of Adelaide
Best Practice and Research: Clinical Rheumatology | Year: 2015

The relationship between rheumatoid arthritis and poor oral health has been recognised for many decades. The association between periodontal infection and the risk of developing RA has been the subject of epidemiological, clinical and basic science research in recent times. Converging and reproducible evidence now makes a clear case for the role of specific periodontal infective pathogens in initiating, amplifying and perpetuating rheumatoid arthritis. The unique enzymatic properties of the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis and its contribution to the burden of citrullinated peptides is now well established. The impact of localized infection such as periodontitis in shaping specific anti-citrullinated peptide immune responses highlights a key area for treatment, prevention and risk assessment in rheumatoid arthritis. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Sukkar H.,Monash University
Infants and Young Children | Year: 2013

This article uses the developmental systems approach, an approach developed by M., with an aim to assess and evaluate early childhood intervention (ECI) practices in Australia. The author explores the Australian national context of ECI and its complexities and conclude with recommendations to address (a) the possibility of a national policy and practice framework specifically developed for ECI, (b) information and knowledge supports available for families and communities caring for a child with disability or developmental delay, and (c) inclusion strategies that would impact on the quality of children and families' experiences in mainstream settings. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams &Wilkins. Source

Simula T.,Monash University
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2013

We have calculated collective-mode spectra for three-dimensional, rotating Bose-Einstein condensates in oblate harmonic traps using the microscopic Bogoliubov-de Gennes field theory. For condensates with Nv vortices, Nv Kelvin-Tkachenko-mode branches are obtained. The features of these modes are compared with those predicted by a classical point-vortex model. We have created movies to visualize the motion of the vortices corresponding to the Kelvin-Tkachenko waves. © 2013 American Physical Society. Source

Doerig C.,Monash University | Rayner J.C.,Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute | Scherf A.,Institute Pasteur Paris | Tobin A.B.,University of Leicester
Nature Reviews Microbiology | Year: 2015

Post-translational modifications play crucial parts in regulating protein function and thereby control several fundamental aspects of eukaryotic biology, including cell signalling, protein trafficking, epigenetic control of gene expression, cell-cell interactions, and cell proliferation and differentiation. In this Review, we discuss protein modifications that have been shown to have a key role in malaria parasite biology and pathogenesis. We focus on phosphorylation, acetylation, methylation and lipidation. We provide an overview of the biological significance of these modifications and discuss prospects and progress in antimalarial drug discovery based on the inhibition of the enzymes that mediate these modifications. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

Interprofessional education (IPE) is acknowledged as important in producing health care profession graduates able to work collaboratively with colleagues from other health professions. There are, however, a range of obstacles to development of effective IPE programmes. Differing health professional cultures and socialisation processes have been identified as two potential barriers. This article notes considerable alignment between the broad aims and objectives of IPE and those of cultural competency training. It suggests that in the course of acquiring values, attitudes and skills consistent with a culturally competent practitioner, students may simultaneously develop a capacity to apply these same skills and attributes to their relationships with students (and future colleagues) from other health professions. This article draws on the concept of inerprofessional cultural competence (CC; Pecukonis, E., Doyle, O. & Bliss, D.L. (2008). Reducing barriers to interprofessional training: promoting interprofessional cultural competence. J Interprofessional Care, 22(4), 417-428), noting that interdisciplinary CC training delivered early in undergraduate years may be an effective vehicle for meeting IPE aims and objectives, and examining an example of this in practice. This article suggests that interdisciplinary programmes developed to jointly meet CC and IPE aims and objectives may provide a platform for fostering interprofessional tolerance, promoting shared values and discouraging the formation of interprofessional barriers as students are socialised into their professional cultures. © 2011 Informa UK Ltd All rights reserved. Source

Lean H.H.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Smyth R.,Monash University
Applied Energy | Year: 2010

This paper employs annual data from 1971 to 2006 to examine the causal relationship between aggregate output, electricity consumption, exports, labor and capital in a multivariate model for Malaysia. We find that there is bidirectional Granger causality running between aggregate output and electricity consumption. The policy implication of this result is that Malaysia should adopt the dual strategy of increasing investment in electricity infrastructure and stepping up electricity conservation policies to reduce unnecessary wastage of electricity, in order to avoid the negative effect of reducing electricity consumption on aggregate output. We also find support for the export-led hypothesis which states Granger causality runs from exports to aggregate output. This result is consistent with Malaysia pursuing a successful export-orientated strategy. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Lean H.H.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Smyth R.,Monash University
Applied Energy | Year: 2010

This study examines the causal relationship between carbon dioxide emissions, electricity consumption and economic growth within a panel vector error correction model for five ASEAN countries over the period 1980-2006. The long-run estimates indicate that there is a statistically significant positive association between electricity consumption and emissions and a non-linear relationship between emissions and real output, consistent with the environmental Kuznets curve. The long-run estimates, however, do not indicate the direction of causality between the variables. The results from the Granger causality tests suggest that in the long-run there is unidirectional Granger causality running from electricity consumption and emissions to economic growth. The results also point to unidirectional Granger causality running from emissions to electricity consumption in the short-run. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Liaw H.C.,National University of Singapore | Shirinzadeh B.,Monash University
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2011

This paper presents a robust adaptive constrained motion tracking control methodology for piezo-actuated flexure-based micro/nano manipulation mechanisms. This unique control approach is established for the tracking of desired motion trajectories in a constrained environment exhibiting some degree of uncertain stiffness. The control methodology is also formulated to accommodate not only the parametric uncertainties and unknown force conversion function, but also nonlinearities including the hysteresis effect and external disturbances in the motion systems. In this paper, the equations for the dynamic modeling of a flexure-hinged four-bar micro/nano manipulation mechanism operating in a constrained environment are established. A lumped parameter dynamic model that combines the piezoelectric actuator and the micro/nano manipulation mechanism is developed for the formulation of the control methodology. Stability analysis of the proposed closed-loop system is conducted and the convergence of the motion tracking errors is proven theoretically. Furthermore, precise motion tracking ability in following a desired motion trajectory is demonstrated in the experimental study. An important advantage of this control approach is that it does not require the exact values for the system parameters and the force conversion function in the physical realization. This proposed constrained motion tracking control methodology is very useful for applications demanding high-precision motion tracking with force sensing and feedback. © 2011 IEEE. Source

Godfrey P.D.,Monash University
Australian Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2010

Although it had been proposed for several decades as the key transient intermediate in a well studied class of organic reaction, measurement and analysis of the gas-phase microwave absorption spectrum of the extremely reactive species o-benzyne represented a tremendous technical challenge. Initial success came after two decades of sustained technical development in the field of transient species microwave spectroscopy. Two decades later, comparably prodigious advances in microwave spectrometer instrumental sensitivity arising from Fourier transform microwave methods and in new chemical generation methods involving pulsed discharge nozzles have enabled a full isotopic substitution study leading to the determination of a precise molecular structure for gas-phase o-benzyne. © 2010 CSIRO. Source

Chen C.,Monash University
Journal of Mechanical Design, Transactions of the ASME | Year: 2011

An analytical expression for the total efficiency of the Simpson gear train is derived using virtual power analysis. This expression is consistent with intuition when the total efficiency is 100. Power flow analysis shows that there are no internal power circulation and amplification in the Simpson gear train. Analysis based on the derived efficiency formula shows that the total efficiency of the Simpson gear transmission is more sensitive to the individual gear efficiencies when the speed reduction is higher. © 2011 American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Source

Background: Medulloblastomas are 1 of the most common brain tumors in children but can affect individuals of all ages. For this report, the author investigated the impact of medulloblastomas/primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) on the US population with a focus on age differences. Methods: Data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database were used to describe cumulative relative survival (CRS) using crude, period, and longitudinal period approaches for patients diagnosed with all medulloblastoma subtypes and PNETs. CRS estimates were obtained using SEER expected mortality data and the Ederer II method for expected survival estimation. These data were applied to the construction of rational follow-up scheduling protocols. Results: The 5-year period CRS for all patients who were followed between 2001 and 2006 was 69%. Adults had a worse overall prognosis, but this difference in excess hazard rates appeared only after 4 years of follow-up. Furthermore, the 5-year and 10-year CRS has improved a minimum of 11% in children, adolescents, and adults over the past 25 years. Conclusions: The survival difference between children, adolescents, and adults with medulloblastomas and PNETs depended on the length of follow-up, which was described in this report as an age-by-follow-up interaction and observed as a "fork" on Kaplan-Meier curves. Differences in survival between children and adults emerged only 4 years after diagnosis, and adults fared worse. There has been significant improvement in survival from medulloblastomas/PNETs since the late 1970s and early 1980s. © 2011 American Cancer Society. Source

Negnevitsky V.,ETH Zurich | Turner L.D.,Monash University
Optics Express | Year: 2013

We demonstrate that conventional modulated spectroscopy apparatus, used for laser frequency stabilization in many atomic physics laboratories, can be enhanced to provide a wideband lock delivering deep suppression of frequency noise across the acoustic range. Using an acousto-optic modulator driven with an agile oscillator, we show that wideband frequency modulation of the pump laser in modulation transfer spectroscopy produces the unique single lock-point spectrum previously demonstrated with electro-optic phase modulation. We achieve a laser lock with 100 kHz feedback bandwidth, limited by our laser control electronics. This bandwidth is sufficient to reduce frequency noise by 30 dB across the acoustic range and narrows the imputed linewidth by a factor of five. © 2013 Optical Society of America. Source

Mond H.G.,Monash University | Proclemer A.,Cardiology Unit
PACE - Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology | Year: 2011

A worldwide cardiac pacing and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) survey was undertaken for calendar year 2009 and compared to a similar survey conducted in 2005. There were contributions from 61 countries: 25 from Europe, 20 from the Asia Pacific region, seven from the Middle East and Africa, and nine from the Americas. The 2009 survey involved 1,002,664 pacemakers, with 737,840 new implants and 264,824 replacements. The United States of America (USA) had the largest number of cardiac pacemaker implants (225,567) and Germany the highest new implants per million population (927). Virtually all countries showed increases in implant numbers over the 4 years between surveys. High-degree atrioventricular block and sick sinus syndrome remain the major indications for implantation of a cardiac pacemaker. There remains a high percentage of VVI(R) pacing in the developing countries, although compared to the 2005 survey, virtually all countries had increased the percentage of DDDR implants. Pacing leads were predominantly transvenous, bipolar, and active fixation. The survey also involved 328,027 ICDs, with 222,407 new implants and 105,620 replacements. Virtually all countries surveyed showed a significant rise in the use of ICDs with the largest implanter being the USA (133,262) with 434 new implants per million population. This was the largest pacing and ICD survey ever performed, because of mainly a group of loyal enthusiastic survey coordinators. It encompasses more than 80% of all the pacemakers and ICDs implanted worldwide during 2009. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Munn N.J.,Monash University
Ethics and Information Technology | Year: 2012

In this article I examine a recent development in online communication, the immersive virtual worlds of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs). I argue that these environments provide a distinct form of online experience from the experience available through earlier generation forms of online communication such as newsgroups, chat rooms, email and instant messaging. The experience available to participants in MMORPGs is founded on shared activity, while the experience of earlier generation online communication is largely if not wholly dependent on the communication itself. This difference, I argue, makes interaction in immersive virtual worlds such as MMORPGs relevantly similar to interaction in the physical world, and distinguishes both physical world and immersive virtual world interaction from other forms of online communication. I argue that to the extent that shared activity is a core element in the formation of friendships, friendships can form in immersive virtual worlds as they do in the physical world, and that this possibility was unavailable in earlier forms of online interaction. I do, however, note that earlier forms of online interaction are capable of sustaining friendships formed through either physical or immersive virtual world interaction. I conclude that we cannot any longer make a sharp distinction between the physical and the virtual world, as the characteristics of friendship are able to be developed in each. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Weber R.,Monash University
Journal of the Association of Information Systems | Year: 2012

This paper articulates a framework and criteria that can be used to evaluate the quality of theories. While the framework and criteria have general applicability, my focus is the evaluation of theories within the information systems discipline. To illustrate the usefulness of the framework and criteria, I show how they can be employed to pinpoint the strengths and weaknesses of a theory which, based upon citation evidence, has had a significant impact on other researchers within the information systems discipline. Because the evaluation of existing theories often provides the basis for refining existing theories or building new theories, I also show how the framework and criteria can be used to inform the development of high-quality theory. Source

Patterson W.,University of Birmingham | Ambrosini V.,Monash University
Technovation | Year: 2015

Absorptive capacity is a dynamic capability which creates new firm resources by searching, acquiring, assimilating, transforming and exploiting external knowledge with internal resources and act as a process framework for innovation. Despite being one of the most frequently cited strategic management concepts, absorptive capacity as a dynamic capability has limited empirical evidence with unverified assumptions. The concept is at risk of reification. With this study we contribute to the literature by providing empirical evidence for absorptive capacity which challenge the assumptions of how the construct is configured. We follow the strategic factor of intellectual property rights (IPR) in European biopharmaceutical firms using a qualitative process study with temporal bracketing. By tracking IPR, we found evidence for absorptive capacity in all firms we studied, but the process framework in use is different to Zahra and George's (2002. Acad. Manage. Rev. 27, 185-203) and Todorova and Durisin's (2007. Acad. Manage. Rev. 32, 774-786) theoretical models. Based on our evidence and literature review we develop some theoretical insights and propose a modified absorptive capacity model. This new model puts a greater emphasis on assimilating knowledge from outside the firm and provides more clarity on how research intensive firms might use absorptive capacity. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Bacterial vaginosis is a common vaginal infection, causing an abnormal vaginal discharge and/or odour in up to 50% of sufferers. Recurrence is common following recommended treatment. There are limited data on women's experience of bacterial vaginosis, and the impact on their self-esteem, sexual relationships and quality of life. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences and impact of recurrent bacterial vaginosis on women. A social constructionist approach was chosen as the framework for the study. Thirty five women with male and/or female partners participated in semi-structured interviews face-to-face or by telephone about their experience of recurrent bacterial vaginosis. Recurrent bacterial vaginosis impacted on women to varying degrees, with some women reporting it had little impact on their lives but most reporting it had a moderate to severe impact. The degree to which it impacted on women physically, emotionally, sexually and socially often depended on the frequency of episodes and severity of symptoms. Women commonly reported that symptoms of bacterial vaginosis made them feel embarrassed, ashamed, 'dirty' and very concerned others may detect their malodour and abnormal discharge. The biggest impact of recurrent bacterial vaginosis was on women's self-esteem and sex lives, with women regularly avoiding sexual activity, in particular oral sex, as they were too embarrassed and self-conscious of their symptoms to engage in these activities. Women often felt confused about why they were experiencing recurrent bacterial vaginosis and frustrated at their lack of control over recurrence. Women's experience of recurrent bacterial vaginosis varied broadly and significantly in this study. Some women reported little impact on their lives but most reported a moderate to severe impact, mainly on their self-esteem and sex life. Further support and acknowledgement of these impacts are required when managing women with recurrent bacterial vaginosis. Source

Arnott D.,Monash University | Pervan G.,Curtin University Australia
Journal of the Association of Information Systems | Year: 2012

Design science has been an important strategy in decision support systems (DSS) research since the field's inception in the early 1970s. Recent reviews of DSS research have indicated a need to improve its quality and relevance. DSS design-science research has an important role in this improvement because design-science research can engage industry and the profession in intellectually important projects. The Hevner, March, Park, and Ram's (HMPR) guidelines for the conduct and assessment of information systems design-science research, published in MIS Quarterly in 2004, provides a vehicle for assessing DSS design-science research. This paper presents research that used bibliometric content analysis to apply the HMPR guidelines to a representative sample of 362 DSS design-science research papers in 14 journals. The analysis highlights major issues in DSS research that need attention: research design, evaluation, relevance, strategic focus, and theorizing. Source

Elliott R.A.,Monash University
Australian Prescriber | Year: 2014

Dose administration aids can improve medicines management for some people. However, they have a number of limitations and are not suitable for all patients. Patient assessment is required to identify factors contributing to non-adherence or medication errors. Strategies like simplifying the drug regimen, education and counselling, and a medicines reminder chart or alarm, should be considered before using a dose administration aid. The patient's preferences and attitude to medicine-taking, and their suitability for a dose administration aid, should also be explored. When dose administration aids are packed by a third party such as a community pharmacy, interdisciplinary communication and teamwork, patient education, monitoring and regular medicines reconciliation and review are vital to minimise the risk of problems. Source

Leahy D.,Monash University
Critical Public Health | Year: 2014

As a school subject, health education functions as a contemporary apparatus of governmentality by attempting to shape the health[y] conduct of young people. Currently, health education, along with many other institutions and programmes, is heavily shaped by neoliberal logics of risk. This paper is interested in exploring how these tenets shape versions of curriculum and classroom practices. The article draws on ethnographic data and the analytical device of governmental assemblages to consider how governmentalities are brought to life at their point of application; via teacher interviews and classroom practices. Analysis reveals that health education pedagogical assemblages are made up of the usual 'neoliberal suspects': risk discourses and strategies that attempt to individualise and responsibilise. However, accompanying these 'usual suspects' are a raft of melodramatic and affective intensities, including disgust and shame. These affective pedagogical assemblages are significant for scholars interested in understanding the governmental machinery of health education, and public health and health promotion more broadly, and its potential effects. © 2013 Taylor & Francis. Source

Meniscal extrusion is often present in knees with OA, and has been associated with cartilage changes. It is unknown whether meniscal extrusion is related to subchondral bone. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between meniscal extrusion and knee cartilage and subchondral bone, and also changes in these structures over 2 years in a cohort with mild to moderate knee OA. One hundred and seventeen subjects with knee OA entered the study and underwent MRI on their symptomatic knee at baseline and approximately 2 years later. Meniscal extrusion was assessed at baseline; tibial cartilage volume and plateau bone area, subchondral bone marrow lesions (BMLs) and bone cysts were measured at baseline and follow-up. At baseline, meniscal extrusion was associated with reduced tibial cartilage volume, increased tibial plateau area, increased prevalence of BMLs and bone cysts in both medial and lateral tibiofemoral compartments (all P < or = 0.001). Baseline medial meniscal extrusion was associated with increased expansion of tibial plateau bone (P = 0.04), increases in BMLs (P = 0.02) and bone cysts (P = 0.003) in the medial tibiofemoral compartment over 2 years. Meniscal extrusion predicts increases in subchondral bone lesions and tibial plateau bone expansion in patients with knee OA. These data suggest that subchondral bone changes are an early consequence of meniscal extrusion. This may reflect the impaired ability of an extruded meniscus to optimally distribute mechanical loading across the tibial plateau. Source

Dommenget D.,Monash University
Journal of Climate | Year: 2012

Uncertainties in the numerical realization of the physical climate system in coarse-resolution climate models in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (CMIP3) cause large spread in the global mean and regional response amplitude to a given anthropogenic forcing scenario, and they cause the climate models to have mean state climates different from the observed and different from each other. In a series of sensitivity simulations with an atmospheric general circulation model coupled to a Slab Ocean Model, the role of differences in the control mean sea surface temperature (SST) in simulating the global mean and regional response amplitude is explored. The model simulations are forced into the control mean state SST of 24 CMIP3 climate models, and 2xCO 2 forcing experiments are started from the different control states. The differences in the SST mean state cause large differences in other climate variables, but they do not reproduce most of the large spread in the mean state climate over land and ice-covered regions found in the CMIP3 model simulations. The spread in the mean SST climatology leads to a spread in the global mean and regional response amplitude of about 10%, which is about half as much as the spread in the response of the CMIP3 climate models and is therefore of considerable size. Since the SST climatology biases are only a small part of the models' mean state climate biases, it is likely that the climate model's mean state climate biases are accounting for a large part of the model's climate sensitivity spread. © 2012 American Meteorological Society. Source

Storey E.,Monash University
Seminars in Neurology | Year: 2014

This review broadly covers the commoner genetic ataxias, concentrating on their clinical features. Over the last two decades there has been a potentially bewildering profusion of newly described genetic ataxias. However, at least half of dominant ataxias (SCAs) are caused by (CAG)n repeat expansions resulting in expanded polyglutamine tracts (SCAs 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 17, and DRPLA), although of the remainder only SCAs 8, 10, 12, 14, 15/16, and 31 are frequent enough that the described phenotype is probably representative. Though the SCAs can be difficult to separate clinically, variations in prevalence in different populations, together with various clinical and radiological features, at least help to order the pretest probabilities. The X-linked disorder, fragile-X tremor ataxia syndrome occurs in fragile-X permutation carriers, and typically causes a late-onset ataxia-plus syndrome. The recessive ataxias are not named systematically: The most frequent are Friedreich, ataxia telangiectasia, ARSACS, AOA1 and 2, and the various POLG syndromes. Although rare, several other recessive disorders such as AVED are potentially treatable and should not be missed. Another group of genetic ataxias are the dominant episodic ataxias, of which EA1 and EA2 are the most important. Lastly, the neurologist's role in ongoing management, rather than just diagnosis, is addressed. © 2014 by Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc., 333 Seventh Avenue, New York. Source

Maartens G.,University of Cape Town | Celum C.,University of Washington | Lewin S.R.,Monash University | Lewin S.R.,Infectious Diseases Unit | Lewin S.R.,Burnet Institute
The Lancet | Year: 2014

HIV prevalence is increasing worldwide because people on antiretroviral therapy are living longer, although new infections decreased from 3.3 million in 2002, to 2.3 million in 2012. Global AIDS-related deaths peaked at 2.3 million in 2005, and decreased to 1.6 million by 2012. An estimated 9.7 million people in low-income and middle-income countries had started antiretroviral therapy by 2012. New insights into the mechanisms of latent infection and the importance of reservoirs of infection might eventually lead to a cure. The role of immune activation in the pathogenesis of non-AIDS clinical events (major causes of morbidity and mortality in people on antiretroviral therapy) is receiving increased recognition. Breakthroughs in the prevention of HIV important to public health include male medical circumcision, antiretrovirals to prevent mother-to-child transmission, antiretroviral therapy in people with HIV to prevent transmission, and antiretrovirals for pre-exposure prophylaxis. Research into other prevention interventions, notably vaccines and vaginal microbicides, is in progress. Source

The relationship between Doppler measurements, size and growth rate in fetal growth restriction has not been defined. We used functional linear discriminant analysis (FLDA) to investigate these parameters taking account of the difficulties inherent in exploring relationships between repeated observations from a small number of cases. In 40 fetuses with severe growth restriction, serial abdominal circumference (AC), umbilical, middle cerebral artery (MCA) and ductus venosus Doppler pulsatility index measurements were recorded. In 11 singleton fetuses with normal growth, umbilical artery pulsatility index only was measured. Data were expressed as z-scores in relation to gestation and analysed longitudinally using FLDA. In severe growth restriction, the Spearman correlation coefficients between umbilical artery pulsatility index and AC z-score, MCA pulsatility index and AC z-score and ductus venosus pulsatility index z-score and AC z-score were, respectively: -0.36, p = 4.4 × 10(-7); 0.70, p = 1.1 × 10(-17) and -0.50, p = 8.1 × 10(-4). No relationship was seen between Doppler parameters and growth rate. There was no relationship between umbilical artery pulsatility index and AC nor growth rate in normally grown fetuses. In severe fetal growth restriction, Doppler changes are related to absolute fetal AC size, not growth rate. Source

Nicholls N.,Monash University
Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Journal | Year: 2012

Twenty years of additional data confirm a finding from the 1990s that interannual variations in Australian mean annual maximum temperature are closely related to rainfall variations, but that observed warming since about 1970 has been stronger than would be expected from the observed rainfall trends. While droughts exacerbate daily maximum temperatures and strongly influence interannual temperature variations, the long-term warming trend is not caused by any trend to decreased rainfall, or decreased cloudiness. The enhanced greenhouse effect seems the most likely explanation of this apparently inexorable anomalous warming. Source

Forsyth P.,Monash University
Journal of Air Transport Management | Year: 2011

Many would consider that the current reliance on air transport is environmentally unsustainable, especially given its impacts on climate change and its use of non-renewable resources. In addition, financial sustainability is often seen as inconsistent with environmental sustainability. The conclusions here are otherwise. Air transport does contribute to greenhouse gas emissions, but the climate change problem is a general one, and while addressing it has a cost, this cost is minimised when air transport is required to bear the environmental costs that it imposes. The reliance on non-renewable resources does give rise to a sustainability problem. There is not likely to be a problem of lack of financial sustainability of the industry, though addressing environmental objective will lead to a reduction in performance in the short run. Both environmental and financial sustainability of air transport can be achieved, as long as efficient policies are adopted. © 2010. Source

Mudd G.M.,Monash University
Ore Geology Reviews | Year: 2012

Platinum group elements (PGEs) are increasingly used in a variety of environmentally-related technologies, such as chemical process catalysts, catalytic converters for vehicle exhaust control, hydrogen fuel cells, electronic components, and a variety of specialty medical uses, amongst others - almost all of which have strong expected growth to meet environmental and technological challenges this century. Economic geologists have been arguing on the case of abundant geologic resources of PGEs for some time while others still raise concerns about long-term supply - yet there remains no detailed analysis of formally reported mineral resources and key trends in the PGEs sector. This paper presents such a detailed review of the PGEs sector, including detailed mine production statistics and mineral resources by principal ore types, providing an authoritative case study on the resource sustainability for a group of elements which are uniquely concentrated in a select few regions of the earth. The methodology, compiled data sets and trends provide strong assurance on the contribution that PGEs can make to the key sustainability and technology challenges of the 21st century such as energy and pollution control. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

Donaldson A.,Monash University | Poulos R.G.,University of New South Wales
British Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2014

Background: This paper describes the development of a theory-informed and evidence-informed, contextspecific diffusion plan for the Mayday Safety Procedure (MSP) among community rugby coaches in regional New South Wales, Australia. Methods: Step 5 of Intervention Mapping was used to plan strategies to enhance MSP adoption and implementation. Results: Coaches were identified as the primary MSP adopters and implementers within a system including administrators, players and referees. A local advisory group was established to ensure context relevance. Performance objectives (eg, attend MSP training for coaches) and determinants of adoption and implementation behaviour (eg, knowledge, beliefs, skills and environment) were identified, informed by Social Cognitive Theory. Adoption and implementation matrices were developed and change-objectives for coaches were identified (eg, skills to deliver MSP training to players). Finally, intervention methods and specific strategies (eg, coach education, social marketing and policy and by-law development) were identified based on advisory group member experience, evidence of effective coach safety behaviour-change interventions and Diffusion of Innovations theory. Conclusions: This is the first published example of a systematic approach to plan injury prevention programme diffusion in community sports. The key strengths of this approach were an effective researcher-practitioner partnership; actively engaging local sports administrators; targeting specific behaviour determinants, informed by theory and evidence; and taking context-related practical strengths and constraints into consideration. The major challenges were the time involved in using a systematic diffusion planning approach for the first time; and finding a planning language that was acceptable and meaningful to researchers and practitioners. Source

Meng X.-M.,Anhui Medical University | Nikolic-Paterson D.J.,Monash University | Lan H.Y.,Chinese University of Hong Kong
Nature Reviews Nephrology | Year: 2014

Many types of kidney injury induce inflammation as a protective response. However, unresolved inflammation promotes progressive renal fibrosis, which can culminate in end-stage renal disease. Kidney inflammation involves cells of the immune system as well as activation of intrinsic renal cells, with the consequent production and release of profibrotic cytokines and growth factors that drive the fibrotic process. In glomerular diseases, the development of glomerular inflammation precedes interstitial fibrosis; although the mechanisms linking these events are poorly understood, an important role for tubular epithelial cells in mediating this link is gaining support. Data have implicated macrophages in promoting both glomerular and interstitial fibrosis, whereas limited evidence suggests that CD4 + T cells and mast cells are involved in interstitial fibrosis. However, macrophages can also promote renal repair when the cause of renal injury can be resolved, highlighting their plasticity. Understanding the mechanisms by which inflammation drives renal fibrosis is necessary to facilitate the development of therapeutics to halt the progression of chronic kidney disease. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Source

O'Neill A.C.,University of Otago | Ricardo S.D.,Monash University
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology | Year: 2013

The ability to reprogram fully differentiated cells into a pluripotent embryonic state, termed induced pluripotent stemcells (iPSCs), has been met with great excitement. iPSC technology has advanced the fundamental study of disease modeling with the potential for cell-replacement therapy, especially in the neuronal and cardiac fields. However, renalmedicine as of yet has not benefited fromsimilar advancements. This review summarizes the unique characteristics of iPSCs and their potential applications formodeling kidney disease. Pioneering such endeavors could yield constructs that recapitulate disease phenotypes, open avenues for more targeted drug development, and potentially serve as replenishable sources for replacement of kidney cells in the setting of human disease. Copyright © 2013 by the American Society of Nephrology. Source

Sunnerhagen K.S.,Gothenburg University | Olver J.,Monash University | Francisco G.E.,University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston
Neurology | Year: 2013

Poststroke spasticity (PSS) is associated with significant consequences for a patient's functional status and quality of life. Nonetheless, no uniform definition of spasticity exists that can be utilized across clinical research settings, and difficulties in validating proper assessment tools-both clinical and nonclinical-complicate the ability to evaluate and appropriately treat spasticity. Consequently, the current state of defining, assessing, and treating spasticity requires improved consistency and ongoing validation as clinical research efforts advance. When selecting clinical measures for PSS assessment (e.g., the Modified Ashworth, Tone Assessment, Tardieu, Modified Rankin, and Disability Assessment scales, and the Barthel Index), it is critical to understand the levels of impairment or functional limitation each tool assesses as well as their benefits and limitations. The use of quantitative methods-such as electrophysiologic, biomechanical, and imaging techniques-adjunctive to traditional clinical measures also allows for sensitivity in quantifying the abnormal muscle activity associated with spasticity. In addition to accurate evaluation and assessment of PSS, realistic treatment goal setting for patients as well as family members and caregivers is critical, because it promotes motivation and cooperation as well as proper management of expectations and can favorably affect recovery. Goal attainment scaling has been shown to help organize, focus, and clarify the aims of treatment, thereby enhancing the PSS rehabilitative process. Furthermore, integration of therapeutic modalities and treatment strategies, including both nonpharmacologic intervention and pharmacotherapy, is also important for improved outcomes. © 2013 American Academy of Neurology. Source

Au N.,Monash University
Health Services Research | Year: 2012

Objective To investigate whether childhood overweight at age 4-5 increases publicly funded health care costs during childhood, and to explore the role of timing and duration of overweight on health costs. Data Sources The Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (2004-2008) and linked records from Medicare, Australia's public health insurance provider (2004-2009). Study Design The influence of overweight status on non-hospital Medicare costs incurred by children over a 5-year period was estimated using two-part models and one-part generalized linear models (GLM). All models controlled for demographic, socioeconomic, and parental characteristics. Principal Findings Being overweight at age 4-5 is associated with significantly higher pharmaceutical and medical care costs. The results imply that for all children aged 4 and 5 in 2004-2005, those who were overweight had a combined 5-year Medicare bill that was AUD$9.8 million higher than that of normal weight children. Results from dynamic analyses show that costs of childhood overweight occur contemporaneously, and the duration of overweight is positively associated with medical costs for children who became overweight after age 5. Conclusions This study reveals that the financial burden to the public health system of childhood overweight and obesity occurs even during the first 5 years of primary school. © Health Research and Educational Trust. Source

Finch C.F.,Monash University
Injury prevention : journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention | Year: 2011

BACKGROUND: Limited information exists about how best to conduct intervention implementation studies in community sport settings. Research should be directed towards understanding the context within which evidence-based injury prevention interventions are to be implemented, while continuing to build the evidence-base for the effectiveness of sports injury interventions. OBJECTIVES: To identify factors that influence the translation of evidence-based injury prevention interventions into practice in community sport, and to provide specific evidence for the effectiveness of an evidence-based exercise training programme for lower limb injury prevention in community Australian football. SETTING: Community-level Australian football clubs, teams and players. METHODS: An exercise-based lower limb injury prevention programme will be developed and evaluated in terms of the implementation context, infrastructure and resources needed for its effective translation into community sport. Analysis of the community sports safety policy context will be undertaken to understand the barriers and facilitators to policy development and uptake. A randomised group-clustered ecological study will be conducted to compare the reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation and maintenance (RE-AIM) of the intervention over 2 years. OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome will be evidence-based prevention guidelines that are fully supported by a comprehensively evaluated dissemination plan. The plan will detail the support structures and add-ons necessary to ensure sustainability and subsequent national implementation. Research outcomes will include new knowledge about how sports safety policy is set, how consensus is reached among sports safety experts in the community setting and how evidence-based safety guidelines are best developed, packaged and disseminated to community sport. Source

Rajaratnam S.M.,Monash University
The Medical journal of Australia | Year: 2013

About 1.5 million Australians are shift workers. Shift work is associated with adverse health, safety and performance outcomes. Circadian rhythm misalignment, inadequate and poor-quality sleep, and sleep disorders such as sleep apnoea, insomnia and shift work disorder (excessive sleepiness and/or insomnia temporally associated with the work schedule) contribute to these associations. Falling asleep at work at least once a week occurs in 32%-36% of shift workers. Risk of occupational accidents is at least 60% higher for non-day shift workers. Shift workers also have higher rates of cardiometabolic diseases and mood disturbances. Road and workplace accidents related to excessive sleepiness, to which shift work is a significant contributor, are estimated to cost $71-$93 billion per annum in the United States. There is growing evidence that understanding the interindividual variability in sleep-wake responses to shift work will help detect and manage workers vulnerable to the health consequences of shift work. A range of approaches can be used to enhance alertness in shift workers, including screening and treating sleep disorders, melatonin treatment to promote sleep during the daytime, and avoidance of inappropriate use of sedatives and wakefulness-promoters such as modafinil and caffeine. Short naps, which minimise sleep inertia, are generally effective. Shifting the circadian pacemaker with appropriately timed melatonin and/or bright light may be used to facilitate adjustment to a shift work schedule in some situations, such as a long sequence of night work. It is important to manage the health risk of shift workers by minimising vascular risk factors through dietary and other lifestyle approaches. Source

Goold J.,Abdus Salam International Center For Theoretical Physics | Paternostro M.,Queens University of Belfast | Modi K.,Monash University
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2015

Using the operational framework of completely positive, trace preserving operations and thermodynamic fluctuation relations, we derive a lower bound for the heat exchange in a Landauer erasure process on a quantum system. Our bound comes from a nonphenomenological derivation of the Landauer principle which holds for generic nonequilibrium dynamics. Furthermore, the bound depends on the nonunitality of dynamics, giving it a physical significance that differs from other derivations. We apply our framework to the model of a spin-1/2 system coupled to an interacting spin chain at finite temperature. © 2015 American Physical Society. Source

Yu D.,Garvan Institute of Medical Research | Yu D.,Monash University
Trends in Immunology | Year: 2010

Follicular helper T (Tfh) cells provide help to B cells and allow formation of long-lived antibody responses. Despite an improved understanding of the molecular program that drives Tfh cell formation, their definition remains elusive: neither follicular homing ability, Bcl-6 expression nor IL-21 secretion are exclusive properties of T cells that help B cells, and not all follicular T cells are B cell helpers. Indeed some follicular T cells appear to be suppressive. Furthermore, Tfh cells evolve during an immune response and B cells that have recently bound antigen, germinal center (GC) B cells and plasmablasts interact with phenotypically distinct Tfh cells. Here we propose that distinction between non-GC Tfh and GC Tfh cells might reconcile emerging controversies on Tfh cytokine secretion and the requirement of T-B cell interactions and SAP expression for Tfh formation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Trounson A.,Monash University | DeWitt N.D.,Accendo
Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology | Year: 2016

Basic experimental stem cell research has opened up the possibility of many diverse clinical applications; however, translation to clinical trials has been restricted to only a few diseases. To broaden this clinical scope, pluripotent stem cell derivatives provide a uniquely scalable source of functional differentiated cells that can potentially repair damaged or diseased tissues to treat a wide spectrum of diseases and injuries. However, gathering sound data on their distribution, longevity, function and mechanisms of action in host tissues is imperative to realizing their clinical benefit. The large-scale availability of treatments involving pluripotent stem cells remains some years away, because of the long and demanding regulatory pathway that is needed to ensure their safety. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

Lean H.H.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Smyth R.,Monash University
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2014

The objective of this paper is to examine whether energy consumption in Malaysia, disaggregated by sector and type, is stationary or contains a unit root. To realize our objective we apply the Lagrange multiplier (LM) family of unit root tests with up to two structural breaks. Depending on the decision rule for selecting between results in the no-break, one-break and two-break cases, we find that energy consumption is stationary for between 50 per cent and 70 per cent of the disaggregated energy series and between 25 per cent and 50 per cent of sectors. Implications for the Malaysian government's attempts to reduce fossil fuel consumption are discussed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Nie J.-F.,Monash University
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A: Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science | Year: 2012

Magnesium alloys have received an increasing interest in the past 12 years for potential applications in the automotive, aircraft, aerospace, and electronic industries.Many of these alloys are strong because of solid-state precipitates that are produced by an age-hardening process. Although some strength improvements of existing magnesium alloys have been made and some novel alloys with improved strength have been developed, the strength level that has been achieved so far is still substantially lower than that obtained in counterpart aluminum alloys. Further improvements in the alloy strength require a better understanding of the structure, morphology, orientation of precipitates, effects of precipitate morphology, and orientation on the strengthening and microstructural factors that are important in controlling the nucleation and growth of these precipitates. In this review, precipitation in most precipitation-hardenable magnesium alloys is reviewed, and its relationship with strengthening is examined. It is demonstrated that the precipitation phenomena in these alloys, especially in the very early stage of the precipitation process, are still far from being well understood, and many fundamental issues remain unsolved even after some extensive and concerted efforts made in the past 12 years. The challenges associated with precipitation hardening and age hardening are identified and discussed, and guidelines are outlined for the rational design and development of higher strength, and ultimately ultrahigh strength, magnesium alloys via precipitation hardening. © 2012 The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International. Source

Torr J.,Monash University
Journal of Mental Health Research in Intellectual Disabilities | Year: 2013

This general review situates Australian research within a framework that quantifies and describes mental health needs of the population with intellectual disabilities across the life span, surveys service provision, and develops the evidence base to inform clinicians regarding assessment and management of psychopathology and psychiatric disorder in people with intellectual disabilities. In particular, Australian research has examined the prevalence, nature, associated factors, and trajectory of clinically significant psychopathology from childhood to adulthood. The Developmental Behavior Checklist and a suite of versions, including an adult version, have proven to be robust instruments in identifying and describing psychopathology in people with intellectual disabilities. Australian researchers have also examined aspects of psychiatric assessment in a population with cognitive and communication impairments, which has direct relevance to clinical practice. Surveys and audits of policy, real-life practice, and service structure and provision have identified serious deficiencies in the training of health professionals and the provision of mental health care to people of all ages with intellectual disabilities and mental ill health. In light of the weight of the evidence, state and federal governments are developing new service models and there are increasing opportunities for professional education and training. © 2013 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Andrews Z.B.,Monash University
Peptides | Year: 2011

Ghrelin is a stomach hormone, secreted into the bloodstream, that initiates food intake by activating NPY/AgRP neurons in the hypothalamic acruate nucleus. This review focuses on recent evidence that details the mechanisms through which ghrelin activate receptors on NPY neurons and downstream signaling within NPY neurons. The downstream signaling involves a novel CaMKK-AMPK-CPT1-UCP2 pathway that enhances mitochondrial efficiency and buffers reactive oxygen species in order to maintain an appropriate firing response in NPY. Recent evidence that shows metabolic status affects ghrelin signaling in NPY is also described. In particular, ghrelin does not activate NPY neurons in diet-induced obese mice and ghrelin does not increase food intake. The potential mechanisms and implications of ghrelin resistance are discussed. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Dixon J.B.,Monash University | Dixon J.B.,Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology | Year: 2010

The prevalence of obesity has progressively increased globally over the last 30 years. The determinants of this pandemic are many, poorly defined and priorities debated. While public health measures to prevent obesity have largely failed we are presented with a growing burden of disease and disability. Cardiovascular disease, type-2 diabetes, obesity related cancers, osteoarthritis and psychological disturbance generate much of the morbidity and years of life lost associated with increasing levels of obesity. Obesity has a clearly measurable impact on physical and mental health, health related quality of life, and generates considerable direct and indirect costs. The evolving obesity pandemic is exacting a considerable toll on those affected, the treating health services, and on our communities. Weight loss appears to be the most effective therapy for obesity and obesity related comorbidity. As health care researchers and providers we are likely to play a peripheral role in the prevention of obesity, but a central role in effectively treating those afflicted by the obesity pandemic. © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Jackson S.P.,Monash University | Jackson S.P.,Scripps Research Institute
Nature Medicine | Year: 2011

The formation of blood clots-thrombosis-at sites of atherosclerotic plaque rupture is a major clinical problem despite ongoing improvements in antithrombotic therapy. Progress in identifying the pathogenic mechanisms regulating arterial thrombosis has led to the development of newer therapeutics, and there is general anticipation that these treatments will have greater efficacy and improved safety. However, major advances in this field require the identification of specific risk factors for arterial thrombosis in affected individuals and a rethink of the 'one size fits all' approach to antithrombotic therapy. © 2011 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Modi K.,Monash University
Open Systems and Information Dynamics | Year: 2014

Recent measures of nonclassical correlations are motivated by different notions of classicality and operational means. Quantum discord has received a great deal of attention in studies involving quantum computation, metrology, dynamics, many-body physics, and thermodynamics. In this article I show how quantum discord is different from quantum entanglement from a pedagogical point of view. I begin with a pedagogical introduction to quantum entanglement and quantum discord, followed by a historical review of quantum discord. Next, I give a novel definition of quantum discord in terms of any classically extractable information, an approach that is fitting for the current avenues of research. Lastly, I put forth several arguments for why discord is an interesting quantity to study and why it is of interest to so many researchers in the community. © 2014 World Scientific Publishing Company. Source

Stasch A.,Monash University
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2012

LiH-ghtweight: The title complex having a central (LiH) 4 cube has been prepared and structurally characterized (see picture). The compound is stable towards LiH elimination at room temperature in solution, and can be employed for hydrolithiation reactivity as has been demonstrated by its reaction with benzophenone. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

Mardling R.A.,Monash University
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2010

The recent discovery of a transiting short-period planet on a slightly non-circular orbit with a massive highly eccentric companion orbiting the star HAT-P-13 offers the possibility of probing the structure of the short-period planet. The ability to do this relies on the system being in a quasi-equilibrium state in the sense that the eccentricities are constant on the usual secular time-scale (typically, a few thousand years), and decay on a time-scale which is much longer than the age of the system. Since the equilibrium eccentricity is effectively a function only of observable system parameters and the unknown Love number of the short-period planet, the latter can be determined with accurate measurements of the planet's eccentricity and radius.However, this analysis relies on the assumption that the system is coplanar, a situation which seems unlikely given the high eccentricity of the outer planet. Here we generalize our recent analysis of this fixed-point phenomenon to mutually inclined systems in which the outer body dominates the total angular momentum, and show that (1) the fixed point of coplanar systems is replaced by a limit cycle in eb-η space, where eb is the eccentricity of the inner planet and η is the angle between the periapse lines, with the average value of eb, e(av) b, decreasing and its amplitude of variation increasing with increasing mutual inclination. This behaviour significantly reduces the ability to unambiguously determine the Love number of the short-period planet if the mutual inclination is higher than around 10° (2) We show that for Q-values less than 106, the HAT-P-13 system cannot have a mutual inclination between 54° and 126° because Kozai oscillations coupled with tidal dissipation would act to quickly move the inclination outside this range, and (3) that the behaviour of retrograde systems is the mirror image of that for prograde systems in the sense that (almost) identical limit cycles exist for a given mutual inclination and π minus this value. (4) We derive a relationship between e(av) b, the equilibrium radius of the short-period planet, its Q-value and its core mass, and show that given current estimates of eb and the planet radius, as well as the lower bound placed on the Q-value by the decay rate of e(av) b, the HAT-P-13 system is likely to be close to prograde coplanar, or have a mutual inclination between 130° and 135° Lower rather than higher core masses are favoured. (5) An expression for the time-scale for decay of the mutual inclination is derived, revealing that it evolves towards a non-zero value as long as eb > 0 on a time-scale which is much longer than the age of the system. (6) We conclude with a scattering scenario for the origin of the HAT-P-13 system and show that almost identical initial conditions can result in significantly different outer planet eccentricities, stellar obliquities and planet radii. The implications for systems with high stellar obliquities such as HAT-P-7 and WASP-17 are briefly discussed. © 2010 The Author. Journal compilation © 2010 RAS. Source

Li D.,Murdoch University | Wang H.,Monash University
Journal of Materials Chemistry A | Year: 2013

Forward osmosis (FO) membrane technology has attracted rapidly growing research interest because it shows great potential in reducing energy consumption and costs in water desalination and treatment. The lack of a suitable draw agent has been identified as a challenging problem in the commercial implementation of FO technology. Recent years have seen significant advances in the development of smart draw agents with responsive properties, from which water can be recovered under different stimuli. This review highlights the properties and performance of some interesting smart draw agents reported recently, including functionalized magnetic nanoparticles, thermo-responsive polyelectrolytes, and stimuli-responsive polymer hydrogels. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

Kemp-Harper B.K.,Monash University
Antioxidants and Redox Signaling | Year: 2011

Nitroxyl (HNO), the one electron reduced and protonated congener of nitric oxide, is emerging as a novel nitrogen oxide with distinct chemistry and biological actions as compared with its redox sibling. The thiophilic nature of HNO underlies many of its unique properties, and attention has been focused on its regulation of cellular function and therapeutic potential, particularly in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. The present Forum issue summarizes the intriguing chemistry and biology of HNO and highlights its impact in the cardiovascular and central nervous systems. Recent advances in the development of new HNO donors and their potential use as tools to study HNO signaling and therapeutic agents are discussed. Evidence is also provided for a role of HNO as a putative, endogenous regulator of vascular function. However, as highlighted in this Forum issue, the development of sensitive methods for HNO detection in a biological system is needed to conclusively prove its in vivo generation. As research expands in this area, it is likely that new targets and pharmacological applications of HNO will be discovered. © 2011 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source

Falzon B.G.,Monash University | Apruzzese P.,Imperial College London
Composite Structures | Year: 2011

A three-dimensional continuum damage mechanics-based material model was implemented in an implicit Finite Element code to simulate the progressive intralaminar degradation of fibre reinforced laminates based on ply failure mechanisms. This paper presents some structural applications of the progressive failure model implemented. The focus is on the non-linear response of the shear failure mode and its interaction with other failure modes. Structural applications of the damage model show that the proposed model is able to reproduce failure loads and patterns observed experimentally. © 2010. Source

Watt M.J.,Monash University | Spriet L.L.,University of Guelph
American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2010

Fatty acids derived from the hydrolysis of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle triacylglycerol (TG) are an important energy substrate at rest and during physical activity. This review outlines the identification of the new TG lipase, adipose triglyceride lipase, the current understanding of how cellular TG lipases are regulated, and the implications for understanding the integrated control of TG lipolysis. Furthermore, this review outlines recent advances that propose a "revised" role for TG lipases in cellular function, metabolic homeostasis, and disease prevention. Copyright © 2010 the American Physiological Society. Source

Vinogradov A.,Osaka City University | Yasnikov I.S.,Togliatti State University | Estrin Y.,Monash University
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

Based on the irreversible thermodynamics approach to dislocation plasticity of metals, a simple description of the dislocation density evolution and strain hardening was suggested. An analytical expression for the fractal dimension (FD) of a cellular (or tangled) dislocation structure evolving in the course of plastic deformation was obtained on the basis of the dislocation model proposed. This makes it possible to trace the variation of FD of the dislocation cell structure with strain by just measuring the macroscopic stress-strain curve. The FD behavior predicted in this way showed good agreement with the experimentally measured FD evolution at different stages of deformation of a Ni single crystal and a Cu polycrystal. One new result following from the present model is that the FD of the bulk dislocation structure in a deforming metal peaks at a certain strain close to the onset of necking. The significance of fractal analysis as an informative index to follow the spatial evolution of dislocation structures approaching the critical state is highlighted. © 2012 American Physical Society. Source

Rukhlenko I.D.,Monash University
Optics Express | Year: 2013

We develop a comprehensive theory of the nonlinear propagation of optical pulses through silica waveguides doped with highly nonlinear silicon nanocrystals. Our theory describes the dynamics of arbitrarily polarized pump and Stokes fields by a system of four generalized nonlinear Schrodinger equations for the slowly varying field amplitudes, coupled to the rate equation for the number density of free carriers. In deriving these equations, we use an analytic expression for the third-order effective susceptibility of the waveguide with randomly oriented nanocrystals, which takes into account both the weakening of the nonlinear optical response of silicon nanocrystals due to their embedment in fused silica and the change in the tensor properties of the response due to the modification of light interaction with electrons and phonons inside the silicon-nanocrystal waveguide. In order to facilitate the use of our theory by experimentalists, and for reasons of methodology, we provide a great deal of detail on the mathematical treatment throughout the paper, even though the derivation of the coupled-amplitude equations is quite straightforward. The developed theory can be applied for the solving of a wide variety of specific problems that require modeling of nonlinear optical phenomena in silicon-nanocrystal waveguides. © 2013 Optical Society of America. Source

Muller B.,Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics | Janka H.-T.,Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics | Heger A.,University of Minnesota | Heger A.,Monash University
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2012

The neutrino-driven explosion mechanism for core-collapse supernovae in its modern flavor relies on the additional support of hydrodynamical instabilities in achieving shock revival. Two possible candidates, convection and the so-called standing accretion shock instability (SASI), have been proposed for this role. In this paper, we discuss new successful simulations of supernova explosions that shed light on the relative importance of these two instabilities. While convection has so far been observed to grow first in self-consistent hydrodynamical models with multi-group neutrino transport, we here present the first such simulation in which the SASI grows faster while the development of convection is initially inhibited. We illustrate the features of this SASI-dominated regime using an explosion model of a 27 M progenitor, which is contrasted with a convectively dominated model of an 8.1 M progenitor with subsolar metallicity, whose early post-bounce behavior is more in line with previous 11.2 M and 15 M explosion models. We analyze the conditions discriminating between the two different regimes, showing that a high mass-accretion rate and a short advection timescale are conducive for strong SASI activity. We also briefly discuss some important factors for capturing the SASI-driven regime, such as general relativity, the progenitor structure, a nuclear equation of state leading to a compact proto-neutron star, and the neutrino treatment. Finally, we evaluate possible implications of our findings for two-dimensional and three-dimensional supernova simulations. © 2012. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.. Source

Gniel J.,Golder Associates | Bouazza A.,Monash University
Geotextiles and Geomembranes | Year: 2010

Geogrid encasement has recently been investigated to provide an alternative and perhaps stiffer option to the now established method of geotextile encased columns (GECs). To construct geogrid encasement, the geogrid is typically rolled into a sleeve and welded using a specialized welding frame. However, the process is unlikely to be economical for site construction and therefore an alternative method of encasement construction was investigated in this paper. The technique comprises overlapping the geogrid encasement by a nominal amount and relying on interlock between the stone aggregate and section of overlap to provide a level of fixity similar to welding. A series of small-scale tests were initially used to investigate the technique, followed by medium-scale compression tests using different geogrids and typical stone column aggregates. The results of testing indicate that the "method of overlap" provides a simple and effective method of encasement construction, providing a level of fixity similar to welding. A full circumference of overlap should generally be adopted to achieve adequate fixity. Biaxial geogrids are best suited to the technique, with increased encasement stiffness resulting in increased column capacity and column stiffness. Higher strength geogrids are also more robust, providing a greater resistance to cutting from pieces of angular crushed rock. Site trials are recommended for final confirmation of the technique. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Nicholls N.,Monash University
Climate Dynamics | Year: 2010

The 1958-2007 decline in March-August rainfall over southern Australia (south of 30°S) is very closely related to an increase in surface atmospheric pressure over Australia. Sea surface temperatures around northern Australia are strongly correlated with southern Australian rainfall but the recent warming of the ocean should have led to increased rainfall rather than the observed rainfall decline. The relationships between the rainfall and indices of several modes of the atmosphere/ocean system are investigated to determine a cause of the rainfall decline. Indices of the modes that only use data remote from the Australian region are used to avoid the possibility that a relationship between the mode and Australian rainfall is simply reflecting the behaviour of "local" portions of the index. Thus a climate mode index that incorporates Australian pressure would, of course, be related to southern Australian rainfall, even if the remote parts of the mode were unrelated to Australian rainfall. Unless the remote contributions to the mode index were also related to Australian rainfall it seems physically unrealistic to consider that the mode, per se, was affecting Australian rainfall (rather than simply reflecting the influence of the local pressure changes). The rainfall decline does not appear to be explainable by a change in the behaviour of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (remote indices of this phenomenon do not exhibit a trend over this period) or the Indian Ocean Dipole (which is not strongly correlated with Australian rainfall on detrended data). The strong 1958-2007 trend in the southern annular mode (SAM) appears able to explain much of the rainfall decline since its year-to-year variations are correlated with year-to-year variations in southern Australian rainfall, and the sense of the correlation and the SAM trend would lead to a decline in rainfall (and an increase in pressure over Australia). The observed trend in SAM can reproduce over 70% of the observed rainfall trend. All these conclusions also apply to the rainfall declines in the southeast and southwest sub-regions. © Springer-Verlag 2009. Source

Mortimer D.,Monash University
BMC Health Services Research | Year: 2010

Background. Remarkable progress has been made over the past 40 years in developing rational, evidence-based mechanisms for the allocation of health resources. Much of this progress has centred on mechanisms for commissioning new medical devices and pharmaceuticals. The attention of fund-managers and policy-makers is only now turning towards development of mechanisms for decommissioning, disinvesting or redeploying resources from currently funded interventions. While Programme Budgeting and Marginal Analysis would seem well-suited to this purpose, past applications include both successes and failures in achieving disinvestment and resource release. Discussion. Drawing on recent successes/failures in achieving disinvestment and resource release via PBMA, this paper identifies four barriers/enablers to disinvestment via PBMA: (i) specification of the budget constraint, (ii) scope of the programme budget, (iii) composition and role of the advisory group, and (iv) incentives for/against contributing to a 'shift list' of options for disinvestment and resource release. A number of modifications to the PBMA process are then proposed with the aim of reorienting PBMA towards disinvestment. Summary. The reoriented model is differentiated by four features: (i) hard budget constraint with budgetary pressure; (ii) programme budgets with broad scope but specific investment proposals linked to disinvestment proposals with similar input requirements; (iii) advisory/working groups that include equal representation of sectional interests plus additional members with responsibility for advocating in favour of disinvestment, (iv) 'shift lists' populated and developed prior to 'wish lists' and investment proposals linked to disinvestment proposals within a relatively narrow budget area. While the argument and evidence presented here suggest that the reoriented model will facilitate disinvestment and resource release, this remains an empirical question. Likewise, further research will be required to determine whether or not the re-oriented model sacrifices feasibility and acceptability to obtain its hypothesised greater emphasis on disinvestment. © 2010 Mortimer; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Fletcher T.D.,University of Melbourne | Andrieu H.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Hamel P.,Monash University
Advances in Water Resources | Year: 2013

Urban hydrology has evolved to improve the way urban runoff is managed for flood protection, public health and environmental protection. There have been significant recent advances in the measurement and prediction of urban rainfall, with technologies such as radar and microwave networks showing promise. The ability to predict urban hydrology has also evolved, to deliver models suited to the small temporal and spatial scales typical of urban and peri-urban applications. Urban stormwater management increasingly consider the needs of receiving environments as well as those of humans. There is a clear trend towards approaches that attempt to restore pre-development flow-regimes and water quality, with an increasing recognition that restoring a more natural water balance benefits not only the environment, but enhances the liveability of the urban landscape. Once regarded only as a nuisance, stormwater is now increasingly regarded as a resource. Despite the advances, many important challenges in urban hydrology remain. Further research into the spatio-temporal dynamics of urban rainfall is required to improve short-term rainfall prediction. The performance of stormwater technologies in restoring the water balance and in removing emerging priority pollutants remain poorly quantified. All of these challenges are overlaid by the uncertainty of climate change, which imposes a requirement to ensure that stormwater management systems are adaptable and resilient to changes. Urban hydrology will play a critical role in addressing these challenges. © 2012. Source

Vesely M.D.,University of Washington | Kershaw M.H.,Peter MacCallum Cancer Center | Kershaw M.H.,University of Melbourne | Kershaw M.H.,Monash University | And 3 more authors.
Annual Review of Immunology | Year: 2011

The immune system can identify and destroy nascent tumor cells in a process termed cancer immunosurveillance, which functions as an important defense against cancer. Recently, data obtained from numerous investigations in mouse models of cancer and in humans with cancer offer compelling evidence that particular innate and adaptive immune cell types, effector molecules, and pathways can sometimes collectively function as extrinsic tumor-suppressor mechanisms. However, the immune system can also promote tumor progression. Together, the dual host-protective and tumor-promoting actions of immunity are referred to as cancer immunoediting. In this review, we discuss the current experimental and human clinical data supporting a cancer immunoediting process that provide the fundamental basis for further study of immunity to cancer and for the rational design of immunotherapies against cancer. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source

Luo F.,East China Institute of Technology | Batten S.R.,Monash University
Dalton Transactions | Year: 2010

A distinct method, lanthanide(iii)-doped pathway is for the first time utilized to replace lanthanide(iii) MOFs for the access of MOF-based luminescent sensing of metal ions. The research results revealed that this strategy is highly effective and displays several outstanding features. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

The stabilization and isolation of highly reactive species has long been the subject of chemical research. This review will focus on a large and important class of reactive species that has only recently received considerable attention: lowvalence element heterocycles of the group 13 and 14 elements. The availability of lithium boryl complexes as sources of boryl anions has also opened up a new synthetic route to other metal boryl complexes, namely, nucleophilic attack on metal halide complexes, leading to lithium halide elimination. Although in its infancy, the chemistry of nucleophilic five-membered boryl lithium complexes holds much potential in organic and inorganic synthesis. Saying this, the thermal instability and steric bulk of such systems will likely hinder the rapid advancement of their use by a broad range of chemists. Source

Davis M.,Monash University
Culture, Health and Sexuality | Year: 2015

There is great interest in what testing, pharmaceutical, information and social media technology can do for sexual health. Much programmatic and research activity is focused on assessing how these technologies can be used to best effect. Less obvious are analyses that place technology into historical, political and real-world settings. Developing an ‘in-context’ analysis of sexual health technology, this paper draws on interviews with leading community advocates, researchers and clinicians in Australia, Canada and the UK and looks across examples, including social media, rapid HIV testing, pre-Exposure Prophylaxis for HIV and polymerase chain reaction Chlamydia testing. The analysis is framed by studies of techno-society and the dialectics of sex-affirmative advocacy with biomedical authority and attends to: the rationalistic and affective dimensions of the imaginary associated with technology; the role of technology in the re-spatialisation and re-temporalisation of the sexual health clinic; and the re-invention of technology in its real-world contexts. This in-context approach is important for: the effective implementation of new technology; strengthening the social science contribution to the field; and enriching social theory in general on life in techno-societies. © 2014, © 2014 Taylor & Francis. Source

Hangartner S.,Monash University | Hoffmann A.A.,University of Melbourne
Functional Ecology | Year: 2015

Thermal tolerance influences the distribution and abundance of many species, but the adaptive capacity of species to increase upper thermal tolerance is poorly understood. Given that patterns of heat tolerance can strongly depend on assay method, it is crucial to get a better understanding of genetic variances and correlations among different heat tolerance components. This study tests for correlated responses in different heat tolerance assays in Drosophila melanogaster lines selected for increased heat tolerance following exposure to a static high temperature. Traits tested included heat tolerance measured under static (basal and hardened) and ramping assays (using different starting temperatures and ramping rates), with lines exposed to fluctuating conditions (3 days of a cycling temperature regime) and a variable food treatment. Selected lines had higher heat tolerance than control lines in all static and ramping assays. The upper thermal tolerance was up to 0·5 °C higher in the selected compared to control lines after ten generations of strong selection. Selection using a static assay therefore leads to correlated responses in other heat-resistant components, suggesting that traits are genetically correlated and not influenced strongly by assay conditions. While the D. melanogaster population we studied harboured additive genetic variation to evolve increased upper thermal tolerance, the level detected may be insufficient to keep up with temperature increases predicted under climate change. © 2015 British Ecological Society. Source

Alston M.,Monash University
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change | Year: 2013

This article addresses the uneven impacts of climate change on women. To date, there has been a significant emphasis on climate science and technological solutions to aid mitigation and adaptation strategies. This has led to a form of global managerialism that presupposes that all people can adapt with the right resources and knowledge. In this article, it is argued that the differential impacts of climate change on women demand that climate actions and strategies require gender sensitivity and that further research on climate change, adaptations, and actions includes a gendered analysis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Drummer O.H.,Monash University
EXS | Year: 2010

Forensic toxicology has developed as a forensic science in recent years and is now widely used to assist in death investigations, in civil and criminal matters involving drug use, in drugs of abuse testing in correctional settings and custodial medicine, in road and workplace safety, in matters involving environmental pollution, as well as in sports doping. Drugs most commonly targeted include amphetamines, benzodiazepines, cannabis, cocaine and the opiates, but can be any other illicit substance or almost any over-the-counter or prescribed drug, as well as poisons available to the community. The discipline requires high level skills in analytical techniques with a solid knowledge of pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Modern techniques rely heavily on immunoassay screening analyses and mass spectrometry (MS) for confirmatory analyses using either high-performance liquid chromatography or gas chromatography as the separation technique. Tandem MS has become more and more popular compared to single-stage MS. It is essential that analytical systems are fully validated and fit for the purpose and the assay batches are monitored with quality controls. External proficiency programs monitor both the assay and the personnel performing the work. For a laboratory to perform optimally, it is vital that the circumstances and context of the case are known and the laboratory understands the limitations of the analytical systems used, including drug stability. Drugs and poisons can change concentration postmortem due to poor or unequal quality of blood and other specimens, anaerobic metabolism and redistribution. The latter provides the largest handicap in the interpretation of postmortem results. Source

Abramson M.J.,Monash University
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: Allergen specific immunotherapy has long been a controversial treatment for asthma. Although beneficial effects upon clinically relevant outcomes have been demonstrated in randomised controlled trials, there remains a risk of severe and sometimes fatal anaphylaxis. The recommendations of professional bodies have ranged from cautious acceptance to outright dismissal. With increasing interest in new allergen preparations and methods of delivery, we updated the systematic review of allergen specific immunotherapy for asthma. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to assess the effects of allergen specific immunotherapy for asthma. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Trials Register up to 2005, Dissertation Abstracts and Current Contents. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials using various forms of allergen specific immunotherapy to treat asthma and reporting at least one clinical outcome. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Three authors independently assessed eligibility of studies for inclusion. Two authors independently performed quality assessment of studies. MAIN RESULTS: Eighty-eight trials were included (13 new trials). There were 42 trials of immunotherapy for house mite allergy; 27 pollen allergy trials; 10 animal dander allergy trials; two Cladosporium mould allergy, two latex and six trials looking at multiple allergens. Concealment of allocation was assessed as clearly adequate in only 16 of these trials. Significant heterogeneity was present in a number of comparisons. Overall, there was a significant reduction in asthma symptoms and medication, and improvement in bronchial hyper-reactivity following immunotherapy. There was a significant improvement in asthma symptom scores (standardised mean difference -0.59, 95% confidence interval -0.83 to -0.35) and it would have been necessary to treat three patients (95% CI 3 to 5) with immunotherapy to avoid one deterioration in asthma symptoms. Overall it would have been necessary to treat four patients (95% CI 3 to 6) with immunotherapy to avoid one requiring increased medication. Allergen immunotherapy significantly reduced allergen specific bronchial hyper-reactivity, with some reduction in non-specific bronchial hyper-reactivity as well. There was no consistent effect on lung function. If 16 patients were treated with immunotherapy, one would be expected to develop a local adverse reaction. If nine patients were treated with immunotherapy, one would be expected to develop a systemic reaction (of any severity). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Immunotherapy reduces asthma symptoms and use of asthma medications and improves bronchial hyper-reactivity. One trial found that the size of the benefit is possibly comparable to inhaled steroids. The possibility of local or systemic adverse effects (such as anaphylaxis) must be considered. Source

Lenne M.G.,Monash University
Accident Analysis and Prevention | Year: 2013

For over 40 years transport safety researchers have been using methods of vehicle instrumentation to gain greater insights into the factors that contribute to road user crash risk and the associated crash factors. In the previous decade in particular the widespread availability of lower cost and more advanced methods of vehicle instrumentation and recording technologies are supporting the increasing number of on-road research studies worldwide. The design of these studies ranges from multi-method studies using instrumented test vehicles and defined driving routes, to field operational tests, through to much larger and more naturalistic studies. It is timely to assess the utility of these methods for studying the influences of driver characteristics and states, the design and operation of the road system, and the influences of in-vehicle technologies on behaviour and safety for various road user groups. This special issue considers the extent to which on-road studies using vehicle instrumentation have been used to advance knowledge across these areas of road safety research. The papers included in this issue illustrate how research using instrumented test vehicles continues to generate new knowledge, and how the larger scale United States and European naturalistic and field operational test studies are providing a wealth of data about road user behaviour in real traffic. This is balanced with a number of studies that present methodological developments in data collection and analysis methods that, while promising, need further validation. The use of on-road methods to accurately describe the behaviours occurring in everyday real-world conditions, to quantify risks for safety critical events, and an improved understanding of the factors that contribute to risk, clearly has huge potential to promote further road trauma reductions. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Campbell D.G.,Monash University
The Medical journal of Australia | Year: 2011

The concept of "social accountability" has underpinned the development of many medical education programs over the past decade. Success of the regionalisation of the general practice training program in Australia will ultimately be measured by the ability of the program to deliver a sufficient rural general practice workforce to meet the health needs of rural communities. Regionalisation of general practice training in Australia arose from the 1998 recommendations of the Ministerial Review of General Practice Training. The resultant competitive structure adopted by government was not the preferred option of the Review Committee, and may be a negative influence on rural workforce, as the competitive corporate structure of regional training providers has created barriers to meaningful vertical integration. Available data suggest that the regionalised training program is not yet providing a sustainable general practice workforce to rural Australia. The current increase in medical student and general practice training places provides an opportunity to address some of these issues. In particular, it is recommended that changes be made to registrar selection processes, the rural pipeline and vertical integration of training, and training for procedural rural practice. To achieve these goals, perhaps it is time for another comprehensive ministerial review of general practice training in Australia. Source

McKenzie D.P.,Monash University
Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: Although much has been published on the effects of the 1990/1991 Gulf War on the psychological health of veterans, few studies have addressed the pattern and timing of post-war development of psychological disorders. Our study aims to identify the most common psychological disorders that first appeared post-Gulf War, the period of peak prevalence and the sequence of multiple psychological disorders. METHODS: The temporal progression of psychological disorders in male Australian naval Gulf War veterans with no prior psychological disorders was calculated across each year of the post-Gulf War period. DSM-IV diagnoses were obtained using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. RESULTS: Psychological disorder rates peaked in the first 2 years (1991-1992) following the Gulf War. Alcohol use disorders were the most likely to appear first. Classification and regression tree analysis found that risk of disorder was exacerbated if veterans had been exposed to a high number of potential psychological stressors during their military service. Lower military rank was associated with increased risk of alcohol disorders, particularly during the first 2 years post-Gulf War. In veterans with two or more disorders, anxiety disorders and alcohol disorders tended to appear before affective disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Our study found that psychological disorders occur in sequence following Gulf War deployment. Our findings may help clinicians to anticipate, and better manage, multiple symptomatology. The findings may also assist veteran and defence organisations in planning effective mental health screening, management and prevention policy. Source

Georgy S.R.,Monash University
Oncogene | Year: 2016

The outermost layer of the mammalian skin, the epidermis, forms a protective barrier against pathogenic microbes and tissue dehydration. This barrier is formed and maintained by complex genetic networks that connect cellular differentiation processes, enzymatic activities and cellular junctions. Disruption in these networks affects the balance between keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation resulting in barrier function impairment, epidermal hyperproliferation and in some cases, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Recent studies in wound-induced inflammation-mediated cancers in mice have identified dysregulation of core barrier components as tumor drivers. We therefore propose a hypothesis in which loss of key barrier genes, induce barrier dysfunction, and promote inflammation-driven epidermal hyperplasia and carcinogenesis over time. This emerging vision suggests that under specific genetic circumstances, localized barrier impairment could be considered as a hallmark of initiating lesions in epidermal SCC.Oncogene advance online publication, 4 April 2016; doi:10.1038/onc.2016.84. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited Source

Ghojel J.I.,Monash University
International Journal of Engine Research | Year: 2010

Analytical functions approximating the burn rate in internal combustion engines are useful and cost-effective tools for engine cycle simulations. Most functions proposed to date are based on the law of normal distribution of a continuous random variable. The best known of these is the Wiebe function, which is used to predict the burn fraction and burn rate in internal combustion engines operating with different combustion systems and fuels. These include direct injection (DI) and indirect injection (IDI) diesel engines, classical spark ignition (SI) engines and gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines, engines with homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI). This paper is a tribute to the lasting legacy of the Wiebe function and to the man behind it, Ivan Ivanovitch Wiebe. It includes a historical background to the development of the function in the mid 1950s in the Soviet Union, the controversy that surrounded its introduction, a description of the method used to arrive at the final formulation, and an overview of the many applications as prescriptive or predictive single-, double- and multi-function combustion models in engine research. © IMechE 2010. Source

Tian T.,Monash University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Memory is a ubiquitous phenomenon in biological systems in which the present system state is not entirely determined by the current conditions but also depends on the time evolutionary path of the system. Specifically, many memorial phenomena are characterized by chemical memory reactions that may fire under particular system conditions. These conditional chemical reactions contradict to the extant stochastic approaches for modeling chemical kinetics and have increasingly posed significant challenges to mathematical modeling and computer simulation. To tackle the challenge, I proposed a novel theory consisting of the memory chemical master equations and memory stochastic simulation algorithm. A stochastic model for single-gene expression was proposed to illustrate the key function of memory reactions in inducing bursting dynamics of gene expression that has been observed in experiments recently. The importance of memory reactions has been further validated by the stochastic model of the p53-MDM2 core module. Simulations showed that memory reactions is a major mechanism for realizing both sustained oscillations of p53 protein numbers in single cells and damped oscillations over a population of cells. These successful applications of the memory modeling framework suggested that this innovative theory is an effective and powerful tool to study memory process and conditional chemical reactions in a wide range of complex biological systems. © 2013 Tianhai Tian. Source

Bambach M.R.,Monash University
Thin-Walled Structures | Year: 2010

Recent investigations of square hollow section (SHS) metal tubes with externally bonded carbon fibres have shown significant increases in the axial capacity and mean crushing load, compared with the metal SHS. The composite metal-fibre tubes employed carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) matrix layouts of two and four layers of carbon fibres. In this paper the same sized two and four layer CFRP SHS were manufactured independent of the metal SHS, and the axial capacity and crushing behaviour were determined experimentally. Four different tube sizes were tested, resulting in tube width to thickness ratios between 32 and 144. A photogrammetry system was employed to accurately determine the buckling and post-buckling behaviour. It is shown that the capacity and mean crush load of the composite metal-CFRP SHS exceed the sum of those for the individual metal SHS and CFRP SHS, by up to 1.8 times. This composite action results from the bond between the metal and the carbon fibres, and the mechanics with respect to buckling, capacity and crushing is discussed. The strength of metal, composite metal-CFRP and CFRP tube walls are determined using the effective width approach, and are shown to compare well with the experimental results. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Steele M.L.,James Cook University | Steele M.L.,University of Western Sydney | Robinson S.R.,Monash University
Neurobiology of Aging | Year: 2012

Astrocytes become activated in Alzheimer's disease (AD), contributing to and reinforcing an inflammatory cascade. It is proposed that by transforming from a basal to a reactive state, astrocytes neglect their neurosupportive functions, thus rendering neurons vulnerable to excitotoxicity and oxidative stress. This review considers 3 important astrocytic functions, that when disrupted, can affect neuronal metabolism. These are the uptake of glucose and release of lactate; the uptake of glutamate and release of glutamine; and the uptake of glutathione precursors and release of glutathione. Conditions under which these functions can be manipulated in vitro, as well as examples of possible loss of astrocytic function in AD, are discussed. It is proposed that the targeting of astrocytes with pharmacological agents that are specifically designed to return astrocytes to a quiescent phenotype could represent a fruitful new angle for the therapeutic treatment of AD and other neurodegenerative disorders. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source

Fitzgerald P.B.,Monash University | Daskalakis Z.J.,University of Toronto
Brain Stimulation | Year: 2012

Background: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is currently emerging as a new treatment for patients with mood disorders. Research into the use of rTMS for the treatment of patients with depression has been conducted now for a period of greater than 15 years and a considerable body of knowledge has accumulated informing its use. Objective: The aim of this paper was to review the use of various rTMS techniques for the treatment of depression and to provide practical suggestions to address the common issues encountered in the prescribing and administration of rTMS treatment. Methods: These suggestions have been informed both by a review of the relevant literature and the experience of the authors in the treatment of many patients with depression with rTMS over a period of 10 years. Results and Conclusions: High-frequency rTMS applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, using a set of parameters very similar to those originally described in the mid-1990s, is an effective treatment for patients with major depressive disorder. Other forms of stimulation, such as low-frequency stimulation applied to the right prefrontal cortex and bilateral approaches, may prove valuable but require evaluation in larger trials. Significant benefit appears likely to accumulate through the use of methods that involve a more reliable targeting of prefrontal brain regions. Suggestions are also made around the use of rTMS treatment as a maintenance therapy and in specific illness subgroups. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Fan H.,Monash University
Discovery medicine | Year: 2012

Glucocorticoids are among the most widely prescribed drugs used for human diseases, and are especially commonly used in autoimmune diseases. Their use reflects their rapid and broad spectrum actions on immune cells, which in turn reflect the multiple mechanisms of cell activation upon which glucocorticoids impact. While inhibition of pro-inflammatory gene expression is a major effect of glucocorticoids, they also induce the expression of numerous molecules that exert regulatory influences on the immune system. Among these is glucocorticoid induced leucine zipper (GILZ), a recently described, highly glucocorticoid-induced, transcriptional regulatory protein which has important inhibitory effects on immune and inflammatory cell functions. In this review, we summarize knowledge of the actions of glucocorticoids relevant to autoimmune disease, and focus on the potential for greater understanding of the function of GILZ to facilitate discovery of new therapeutic options for these diseases. Source

Price D.J.,Monash University
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2010

In this paper, we investigate the use of the vector potential as a means of maintaining the divergence constraint in the numerical solution to the equations of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) using the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method. We derive a self-consistent formulation of the equations of motion using a variational principle that is constrained by the numerical formulation of both the induction equation and the curl operator used to obtain the magnetic field, which guarantees exact and simultaneous conservation of momentum, energy and entropy in the numerical scheme. This leads to a novel formulation of the MHD force term, unique to the vector potential, which differs from previous formulations. We also demonstrate how dissipative terms can be correctly formulated for the vector potential such that the contribution to the entropy is positive definite and the total energy is conserved. On a standard suite of numerical tests in one, two and three dimensions, we first find that the consistent formulation of the vector potential equations is unstable to the well-known SPH tensile instability, even more so than in the standard Smoothed Particle Magnetohydrodynamics (SPMHD) formulation where the magnetic field is evolved directly. Furthermore, we find that whilst a hybrid approach based on the vector potential evolution equation coupled with a standard force term gives good results for one- and two-dimensional problems (where dAz/dt = 0), such an approach suffers from numerical instability in three dimensions related to the unconstrained evolution of vector potential components. We conclude that use of the vector potential is not a viable approach for SPMHD. © 2009 RAS. Source

Davis S.R.,Monash University
Climacteric | Year: 2013

Objective The aim of this review was to summarize the literature regarding the potential role of testosterone therapy for women. Methods The author conducted a search of the literature using Medline (Ovid, 1946-present) and PubMed (1966-2013) for English-language studies that included the following search terms: 'testosterone' or 'androgen' combined with 'women', 'therapy' or 'treatment'. Results Randomized, placebo-controlled trials have consistently shown that transdermal testosterone therapy improves sexual desire, arousal, orgasm frequency and satisfaction in premenopausal and postmenopausal women presenting with sexual desire/arousal problems. No adverse metabolic effects have been observed in these studies. In postmenopausal women, testosterone therapy has also been associated with favorable effects on body composition, bone, cardiovascular function and cognitive performance. Conclusions Although androgens have many varied roles, the focus of testosterone therapy for women has been on improving sexual desire. Not only do testosterone effects on sexuality extend beyond libido, but testosterone has other key physiological actions. Issues that urgently need to be addressed include approval of a testosterone formulation that delivers a female dose such that physicians refrain from prescribing compounded testosterone or modifying doses of testosterone formulated for men and regulation of prescription of compounded androgens for women. © 2013 International Menopause Society. Source

Better weather and seasonal predictions as well as more reliable climate projections require improved models of the components of the climate systems. It has been shown that the improvement of such models is intricately linked to improving the representation of the physical processes embedded in them. An analysis of the model development process revealed that to accelerate progress in the overall model performance, it is necessary to strengthen the links between model evaluation at the level of the application and the process-oriented refinement of the model formulation, in particular in the area of parameterization. To achieve this requires a closer collaboration of the data, model user, and model development communities on the one hand and the academic and "operational" model development community on the other. It is the responsibility of national and international research programs and the community as a whole to take up the challenge of generating the conditions in which model improvements can be developed on a sound scientific footing at the rate that satisfies society's needs for improved predictions at all time scales. ©2010 American Meteorological Society. Source

Alston M.,Monash University
Journal of Sociology | Year: 2011

Debate continues to rage as to the veracity of evidence around the permanence of climate change. There is no doubt that changes are occurring across the world and that these changes are causing significant social hardship, including food and water insecurity and large-scale movements of people. What is also emerging in research across the world is that these social impacts and adaptations are highly gendered. This article draws on several years of research on the Australian drought and more recent research on declining water availability in the Murray-Darling Basin of Australia. It notes the significant social impacts, particularly in remote and irrigation areas, and draws out the gendered impacts of these changes. The article argues for more sensitive rights-based social policy to address people who are under extraordinary stress during times of unparalleled change. © 2010 The Australian Sociological Association. Source

Dommenget D.,Monash University
Geophysical Research Letters | Year: 2010

In a series of Atmospheric model simulations coupled to a simple slab ocean model it is illustrated that El Nio type of SST variability can exist in the absence of any ocean dynamics. Atmospheric feedbacks in cloud cover and changes in the wind field can produce positive and delayed negative feedbacks that together with the heat capacity of the upper ocean can produce a damped interannual oscillation in the equatorial Pacific that is comparable in strength and has characteristics to the observed phenomenon. The evolution of the SST pattern is similar to the SST-mode of El Nio, but is entirely controlled by atmospheric feedbacks. The results challenge and extend our current understanding of the feedback mechanisms of El Nio in climate models and may also highlight possible atmospheric mechanisms that could partly control some observed ENSO events. © 2010 by the American Geophysical Union. Source

Weller C.D.,Monash University
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

Chronic venous ulcer healing is a complex clinical problem that requires intervention from skilled, costly, multidisciplinary wound-care teams. Compression therapy has been shown to help heal venous ulcers and to reduce the risk of recurrence. It is not known which interventions help people adhere to compression treatments. To assess the benefits and harms of interventions designed to help people adhere to venous leg ulcer compression therapy, and thus improve healing of venous leg ulcers and prevent their recurrence after healing. In May 2013 we searched The Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register; The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations); Ovid EMBASE; EBSCO CINAHL; trial registries, and reference lists of relevant publications for published and ongoing trials. There were no language or publication date restrictions. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions that help people with venous leg ulcers adhere to compression treatments compared with usual care, or no intervention, or another active intervention. Our main outcomes were number of people with ulcers healed, recurrence, time to complete healing, quality of life, pain, adherence to compression therapy and number of people with adverse events. Two review authors independently selected studies for inclusion, extracted data, assessed the risk of bias of each included trial, and assessed overall quality of evidence for the main outcomes in 'Summary of findings' tables. Low quality evidence from one trial (67 participants) indicates that, compared with home-based care, a community-based Leg Club® clinic that provided mechanisms for peer-support, assistance with goal setting and social interaction did not result in superior healing rates at three months (12/28 people healed in Leg Club clinic group versus 7/28 in home-based care group; risk ratio (RR) 1.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.79 to 3.71); or six months (15/33 healed in Leg Club group versus 10/34 in home-based care group; RR 1.55, 95% CI 0.81 to 2.93); or in improved quality of life outcomes at six months (MD 0.85 points, 95% CI -0.13 to 1.83; 0 to 10 point scale). However, the Leg Club resulted in a statistically significant reduction in pain at six months (MD -12.75 points, 95% CI -24.79, -0.71; 0 to 100 point scale), although this was not considered a clinically important difference. Time to complete healing, recurrence of ulcers, adherence and adverse events were not reported.Low quality evidence from another trial (184 participants) indicates that, compared with usual care in a wound clinic, a community-based and nurse-led self-management programme of six months' duration promoting physical activity (walking and leg exercises) and adherence to compression therapy via counselling and behaviour modification (Lively Legs®) may not result in superior healing rates at 18 months (51/92 healed in Lively Legs group versus 41/92 in usual care group; RR 1.24 (95% CI 0.93 to 1.67)); may not result in reduced rates of recurrence of venous leg ulcers at 18 months (32/69 with recurrence in Lively Legs group versus 38/67 in usual care group; RR 0.82 (95% CI 0.59 to 1.14)); and may not result in superior adherence to compression therapy at 18 months (42/92 people fully adherent in Lively Legs group versus 41/92 in usual care group; RR 1.02 (95% CI 0.74 to 1.41)). Time to complete healing, quality of life, pain and adverse events were not reported. We found no studies that investigated other interventions to promote adherence to compression therapy. There is a paucity of trials of interventions that promote adherence to compression therapy for venous ulcers. Low quality evidence from two trials was identified: one promoting adherence via socialisation and support (Leg Club®), and the other promoting adherence to compression, leg exercises and walking via counselling and behaviour modification (Lively Legs®).These trials did not reveal a benefit of community-based clinics over usual care in terms of healing rates, prevention of recurrence of venous leg ulcers, or quality of life. One trial indicated a small, but possibly clinically unimportant, reduction in pain, while adverse events were not reported. The small number of participants may have a hidden real benefit, or an increase in harm. Due to the lack of reliable evidence, at present it is not possible either to recommend or discourage nurse clinic care interventions over standard care. Source

Chamberlain C.,Monash University
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

Tobacco smoking in pregnancy remains one of the few preventable factors associated with complications in pregnancy, stillbirth, low birthweight and preterm birth and has serious long-term implications for women and babies. Smoking in pregnancy is decreasing in high-income countries, but counselling strategy is more effective than others (one study; RR 1.15, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.53). In studies comparing counselling and usual care (the largest comparison), it was unclear whether interventions prevented smoking relapse among women who had stopped smoking spontaneously in early pregnancy (eight studies; average RR 1.06, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.21). However, a clear effect was seen in smoking abstinence at zero to five months postpartum (10 studies; average RR 1.76, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.95), a borderline effect at six to 11 months (six studies; average RR 1.33, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.77), and a significant effect at 12 to 17 months (two studies, average RR 2.20, 95% CI 1.23 to 3.96), but not in the longer term. In other comparisons, the effect was not significantly different from the null effect for most secondary outcomes, but sample sizes were small.Incentive-based interventions had the largest effect size compared with a less intensive intervention (one study; RR 3.64, 95% CI 1.84 to 7.23) and an alternative intervention (one study; RR 4.05, 95% CI 1.48 to 11.11).Feedback interventions demonstrated a significant effect only when compared with usual care and provided in conjunction with other strategies, such as counselling (two studies; average RR 4.39, 95% CI 1.89 to 10.21), but the effect was unclear when compared with a less intensive intervention (two studies; average RR 1.19, 95% CI 0.45 to 3.12).The effect of health education was unclear when compared with usual care (three studies; average RR 1.51, 95% CI 0.64 to 3.59) or less intensive interventions (two studies; average RR 1.50, 95% CI 0.97 to 2.31).Social support interventions appeared effective when provided by peers (five studies; average RR 1.49, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.19), but the effect was unclear in a single trial of support provided by partners.The effects were mixed where the smoking interventions were provided as part of broader interventions to improve maternal health, rather than targeted smoking cessation interventions.Subgroup analyses on primary outcome for all studies showed the intensity of interventions and comparisons has increased over time, with higher intensity interventions more likely to have higher intensity comparisons. While there was no significant difference, trials where the comparison group received usual care had the largest pooled effect size (37 studies; average RR 1.34, 95% CI 1.25 to 1.44), with lower effect sizes when the comparison group received less intensive interventions (30 studies; average RR 1.20, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.31), or alternative interventions (two studies; average RR 1.26, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.53). More recent studies included in this update had a lower effect size (20 studies; average RR 1.26, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.59), I(2)= 3%, compared to those in the previous version of the review (50 studies; average RR 1.50, 95% CI 1.30 to 1.73). There were similar effect sizes in trials with biochemically validated smoking abstinence (49 studies; average RR 1.43, 95% CI 1.22 to 1.67) and those with self-reported abstinence (20 studies; average RR 1.48, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.87). There was no significant difference between trials implemented by researchers (efficacy studies), and those implemented by routine pregnancy staff (effectiveness studies), however the effect was unclear in three dissemination trials of counselling interventions where the focus on the intervention was at an organisational level (average RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.37 to 2.50). The pooled effects were similar in interventions provided for women with predominantly low socio-economic status (44 studies; average RR 1.41, 95% CI 1.19 to 1.66), compared to other women (26 studies; average RR 1.47, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.79); though the effect was unclear in interventions among women from ethnic minority groups (five studies; average RR 1.08, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.40) and aboriginal women (two studies; average RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.06 to 2.67). Importantly, pooled results demonstrated that women who received psychosocial interventions had an 18% reduction in preterm births (14 studies; average RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.70 to 0.96), and infants born with low birthweight (14 studies; average RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.94). There did not appear to be any adverse effects from the psychosocial interventions, and three studies measured an improvement in women's psychological wellbeing. Psychosocial interventions to support women to stop smoking in pregnancy can increase the proportion of women who stop smoking in late pregnancy, and reduce low birthweight and preterm births. Source

O'Brien L.,Monash University
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

Keloid and hypertrophic scars are common and are caused by a proliferation of dermal tissue following skin injury. They cause functional and psychological problems for patients, and their management can be difficult. The use of silicone gel sheeting to prevent and treat hypertrophic scarring is still relatively new and started in 1981 with treatment of burn scars. To determine the effectiveness of silicone gel sheeting for:(1) prevention of hypertrophic or keloid scarring in people with newly healed wounds (e.g. post surgery);(2) treatment of established scarring in people with existing keloid or hypertrophic scars. In May 2013 we searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations); Ovid EMBASE; and EBSCO CINAHL for this second update. Any randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials, or controlled clinical trials, comparing silicone gel sheeting for prevention or treatment of hypertrophic or keloid scars with any other non surgical treatment, no treatment or placebo. We assessed all relevant trials for methodological quality. Three review authors extracted data independently using a standardised form and cross-checked the results. We assessed all trials meeting the selection criteria for methodological quality. We included 20 trials involving 873 people, ranging in age from 1.5 to 81 years. The trials compared adhesive silicone gel sheeting with no treatment; non silicone dressing; other silicone products; laser therapy; triamcinolone acetonide injection; topical onion extract and pressure therapy. In the prevention studies, when compared with a no treatment option, whilst silicone gel sheeting reduced the incidence of hypertrophic scarring in people prone to scarring (risk ratio (RR) 0.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.21 to 0.98) these studies were highly susceptible to bias. In treatment studies, silicone gel sheeting produced a statistically significant reduction in scar thickness (mean difference (MD) -2.00, 95% CI -2.14 to -1.85) and colour amelioration (RR 3.49, 95% CI 1.97 to 6.15) but again these studies were highly susceptible to bias. There is weak evidence of a benefit of silicone gel sheeting as a prevention for abnormal scarring in high-risk individuals but the poor quality of research means a great deal of uncertainty prevails. Trials evaluating silicone gel sheeting as a treatment for hypertrophic and keloid scarring showed improvements in scar thickness and scar colour but are of poor quality and highly susceptible to bias. Source

Donohue M.,Australian National University | Denham T.,Monash University
Current Anthropology | Year: 2010

Current portrayals of Island Southeast Asia (ISEA) over the past 5,000 years are dominated by discussion of the Austronesian "farming/language dispersal," with associated linguistic replacement, genetic clines, Neolithic "packages," and social transformations. The alternative framework that we present improves our understanding of the nature of the Austronesian language dispersal from Taiwan and better accords with the population genetics, archaeological evidence, and crop domestication histories for ISEA. Genetic studies do not demonstrate that the dispersal of Austronesian languages through ISEA was associated with large-scale displacement, replacement, or absorption of preexisting populations. Linguistic phylogenies for Austronesian languages do not support staged movement from Taiwan through the Philippines into Indo-Malaysia; in addition, the lexical and grammatical structure of many Austronesian languages suggests significant interaction with pre-Austronesian languages and cultures of the region. Archaeological evidence, including domestication histories for major food plants, indicates that ISEA was a zone of considerable maritime interaction before the appearance of Austronesian languages. Material culture dispersed through ISEA from multiple sources along a mosaic of regional networks. The archaeological evidence helps us to shape a new interpretative framework of the social and historical processes that more parsimoniously accounts for apparent discrepancies between genetic phylogenies and linguistic distributions and allows for more nuanced models of the dispersal of technologies and societies without reference to the farming/language dispersal hypothesis.© 2010 by The Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research. Source

Mudd G.M.,Monash University | Mudd G.M.,University of Auckland
Ore Geology Reviews | Year: 2010

Nickel (Ni) is an important metal in modern infrastructure and technology, with major uses in stainless steel, alloys, electroplating and rechargeable batteries. Economic Ni resources are found in either sulfide or laterite-type ores. Although the majority of economic resources are contained in laterite ores, the bulk of historic Ni production has been derived from sulfide ores since laterites require more complex processing. To meet future demand for Ni, there is an increasing amount of Ni being mined from laterite ores-leading to increasing energy and greenhouse gas emission costs for Ni production. In many of the major Ni fields of the world, environmental impacts have also been significant, especially in Sudbury in Canada and the Taimyr and Kola Peninsulas in Russia. A major gap in the literature remains on historical trends in global Ni mining, especially with respect to primary aspects such as production, known economic resources and ore grades and type. This paper compiles and analyses a wide array of data on global Ni mining, presenting a coherent picture of major historical trends and the current industry configuration. The paper includes unique historical data sets for major Ni fields, especially the Sudbury Basin and Thompson fields in Canada and the Kambalda field in Australia. By understanding these critical 'mega-trends' in the Ni industry, it is possible to better understand unfolding global issues, such as environmental impacts, greenhouse gas emissions, climate change and potential industry responses, and whether 'peak nickel' is a viable concept and the implications these issues have for Ni production and demand. The data, trends and issues synthesized in this paper therefore provide a compelling picture of the Ni industry, and should help to inform current research and policy directions. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

The wetting behavior of As-rich sulfosalt melts against monosulfide solid solution (MSS) is investigated using experiments to elucidate late-stage fractionation processes in magmatic sulfide systems, which may control the distribution of platinum group elements. A range of As-rich melt compositions is found to wet MSS, including those that contain significant proportions (1%-45%) of precious metals (Pt, Pd, and Au). However, extremely Au rich or Pt rich sulfosalt melts (>~40% Au; >~50% Pt + 5% Au) do not wet MSS. These results imply that if magma contamination and/or fractionation processes were able to produce a late-stage As-rich melt (sulfosalt melts crystallize cooler than MSS) that exceeds ~0.2% of the rock volume, then an interconnected melt drainage network would be able to form along MSS crystal triple junctions. The dense sulfosalt melt could thereby drain downward, progressively sequestering incompatible Bi, Sb, Te, Pt, Pd, and Au to form sulfosalt melt accumulations that continue to fractionate to form the platinum group minerals. This late-stage fractionation model is consistent with the observed mineral distribution in numerous magmatic sulfide deposits. © 2010 Geological Society of America. Source

Goldberg A.S.,Monash University
Journal of Geodynamics | Year: 2010

The six large fanning dyke swarms mapped here using aeromagnetic data span two periods in the evolution of the Columbia supercontinent: (i) 1.9-1.7. Ga during and immediately following maximum packing of Columbia; and (ii) 1.3-1.2. Ga during the period of final Columbia break-up. The dyke swarms define the locus of hotspot generated magmatism associated with dyke intrusion and their current relationship to continental margins and or intracratonic rifts can be used to identify the tectonic setting associated with each swarm. Three swarms were associated with failed or aborted rifts and indicate multiple hotspots were active during the break-up of Columbia. Three dyke swarms were related to successful rifting and ocean opening. These swarms provide a constraint on palaeo-continental block positions that are not accounted for in the current reconstructions of Columbia. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Frauen C.,Leibniz Institute of Marine Science | Dommenget D.,Monash University
Geophysical Research Letters | Year: 2010

Interannual variability of tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures (SST) has an asymmetry with stronger positive events, El Nio, and weaker negative events, La Nia, which is generally attributed to processes in the ocean. Here we present evidence from a new hybrid coupled model that the asymmetry and seasonality of El Nio can be caused by nonlinear and seasonally varying atmospheric feedbacks. The model consists of the ECHAM5 global atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) coupled to the 2-dimensional El Nio linear recharge oscillator ocean model in the tropical Pacific and a mixed layer ocean elsewhere. Despite the models simplistic and, by construction, linear representation of the ocean dynamics, it is able to simulate the main statistical features of El Nio including period, seasonality, skewness, and kurtosis. Analyses of the model show that a nonlinear relationship between zonal wind stress and SST is causing the El Nio-La Nia asymmetry. © 2010 by the American Geophysical Union. Source

At the continent-scale, models of Moho depth based on seismic estimates alone can be inadequate due to irregular or sparse data. Gravity-based Moho modelling provides better coverage, however, the methods used are typically hampered by an inability to explicitly honour seismic constraints and are also limited by over simplistic model conditions, e.g. laterally-homogenous layering. I present a new method to generate a continent-scale Moho model, based on the constrained inversion of free-air gravity data. This method explicitly honours seismic Moho estimates and accounts for a laterally heterogeneous crust and mantle. Resolution and sensitivity testing shows that, for wavelengths greater than 200km, crustal density and Moho depth are recovered with reasonable accuracy, ±30kgm±3 and ±3km respectively. MoGGIE uses a six layer model incorporating ocean, sedimentary basin, upper crust, lower/oceanic crust, eclogitised crust and mantle. Inversion variables were the density of the crustal layers, constrained by a standard density model, and the depths to intra-crustal boundaries and the Moho, constrained by 230 seismic depth estimates. The results demonstrate that a balanced approach to seismically-constrained gravity inversion has the capability to generate detailed and well-constrained models of the Moho and crustal density at the continent-scale. For Australia, this is a clear improvement on the sparse and irregular resolution of the Moho provided by seismic estimates of crustal thickness, which fail to resolve short-wavelength features. Newly defined tectonic features include extensive magmatic underplates, crustal-scale shear zones, and the boundaries between tectonic blocks. Isostatic analysis reveals that little of the continent is close to isostatic equilibrium, with isostatic disequilibria preserved at multiple scales, from hundreds of kilometres to the entire continent. These disequilibria are interpreted to indicate long-wavelength flexure of highly competent continental lithosphere. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

Campbell I.H.,Australian National University | Squire R.J.,Monash University
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta | Year: 2010

The consensus view is that the O2 concentration of the Archean atmosphere was very low and that it rose to its present level of 21% in a series of steps, two of which dwarf the others in importance. The first, known as the Great Oxidation Event, occurred at ∼2.4Ga. It involved an increase in the relative abundance of O2, which has been estimated at three orders of magnitude, and it is important because it led to the first surface weathering. The second, although less important in relative terms, involved the addition of 9×1017kg of O2 to the atmosphere, at least ten times as much as that required to produce the Great Oxidation Event. Its importance lies in the fact that it correlates with the rise of animals in the Ediacaran and Early Cambrian periods. Although it is widely accepted that an increase in atmospheric O2 facilitated the appearance of animals at ∼575Ma, followed by the Cambrian Explosion ∼50Myr later, the cause of this increase remains controversial. We show that the surge in the O2 level near the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary correlates with major episodes of continent-continent collision associated with Gondwanas amalgamation, including convergence between East and West Gondwana, which produced the 8000-km-long Transgondwanan Supermountains. The eroded roots of these mountains include the oldest lawsonite-bearing blueschists and eclogites, and ultra high-pressure metamorphic rocks. The sudden appearance of these low-thermal gradient, high-pressure metamorphic rocks implies that the Gondwanan orogenic zones were cooler and stronger than those associated with the assembly of earlier supercontinents and therefore capable of supporting higher mountains.There is a log-linear relationship between relief and erosion rate, and a linear relationship between sedimentation rate and organic C burial. Taken together these two relationships imply a log-linear relationship between relief and C sequestration. We suggest that the Gondwanan supermountains were higher than those produced during the assembly of earlier supercontinents and that rapid erosion of these mountains released a large flux of essential nutrients, including Fe and P, into the rivers and oceans, which triggered an explosion of algae and cyanobacteria. This, in turn, produced a marked increase in the production rate of photosynthetic O2. Rapid sedimentation during this period promoted high rates of burial of biogenic pyrite and organic matter generated during photosynthesis so that they could not back react with O2, leading to a sustained increase in atmospheric O2. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source