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Durham, NC, United States

Colombo P.C.,Columbia University | Ganda A.,Columbia University | Lin J.,Columbia University | Onat D.,Columbia University | And 4 more authors.
Heart Failure Reviews | Year: 2012

Although inflammation is a physiologic response designed to protect us from infection, when unchecked and ongoing it may cause substantial harm. Both chronic heart failure (CHF) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are known to cause elaboration of several pro-inflammatory mediators that can be detected at high concentrations in the tissues and blood stream. The biologic sources driving this chronic inflammatory state in CHF and CKD are not fully established. Traditional sources of inflammation include the heart and the kidneys which produce a wide range of proinflammatory cytokines in response to neurohormones and sympathetic activation. However, growing evidence suggests that non-traditional biomechanical mechanisms such as venous and tissue congestion due to volume overload are also important as they stimulate endotoxin absorption from the bowel and peripheral synthesis and release of proinflammatory mediators. Both during the chronic phase and, more rapidly, during acute exacerbations of CHF and CKD, inflammation and congestion appear to amplify each other resulting in a downward spiral of worsening cardiac, vascular, and renal functions that may negatively impact patients' outcome. Anti-inflammatory treatment strategies aimed at attenuating end organ damage and improving clinical prognosis in the cardiorenal syndrome have been disappointing to date. A new therapeutic paradigm may be needed, which involves different anti-inflammatory strategies for individual etiologies and stages of CHF and CKD. It may also include specific (short-term) anti-inflammatory treatments that counteract inflammation during the unsettled phases of clinical decompensation. Finally, it will require greater focus on volume overload as an increasingly significant source of systemic inflammation in the cardiorenal syndrome. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

Schmitter D.,Momentum | Cotter G.,Momentum Research Inc. | Voors A.A.,University of Groningen
Heart Failure Reviews | Year: 2014

Biomarkers play an important role in heart failure. They provide us information about the mechanisms involved in specific types of heart failure and can identify patients at higher risk. Although the majority of biomarker studies in heart failure focus on their prognostic value, the clinical applicability of prognostication in heart failure needs to be established. However, biomarkers can be used for many other purposes. For example, they can help us with the diagnosis of heart failure, and they can be used to select our therapy, leading to personalized tailored therapy. Finally, when biomarkers are causally involved in the disease process, they can even become targets for therapy. The present paper reviews the established and potential value of the novel heart failure biomarkers, mid-regional atrial natriuretic peptide, soluble ST2, growth differentiation factor 15, galectin-3, renal tubular damage markers, and microRNAs. Their potential clinical value will be discussed and compared with the reference markers, the natriuretic peptides. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

Voors A.A.,University of Groningen | Dittrich H.C.,NovaCardia Inc. | Massie B.M.,University of California at San Francisco | Delucca P.,Merck And Co. | And 10 more authors.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | Year: 2011

Objectives: This study sought to assess the effects of rolofylline on renal function in patients with acute heart failure (AHF) and renal dysfunction randomized in PROTECT (Placebo-Controlled Randomized Study of the Selective A1 Adenosine Receptor Antagonist Rolofylline for Patients Hospitalized With Acute Decompensated Heart Failure and Volume Overload to Assess Treatment Effect on Congestion and Renal Function). Background: Small studies have indicated that adenosine A1 receptor antagonists enhance diuresis and may improve renal function in patients with chronic heart failure or AHF. Methods: A total of 2,033 patients with AHF, volume overload, estimated creatinine clearance between 20 and 80 ml/min, and elevated natriuretic peptide levels were randomized (2:1) within 24 h of hospital presentation to rolofylline 30 mg/day or intravenous placebo for up to 3 days. Creatinine was measured daily until discharge or day 7 and on day 14. Persistent worsening renal function was defined as an increase in serum creatinine <0.3 mg/dl at both days 7 and 14, or initiation of hemofiltration or dialysis or death by day 7. Results: At baseline, mean ± SD estimated creatinine clearance was 51.0 ± 20.5 ml/min in the placebo group and 50.4 ± 20.0 ml/min in the rolofylline group. Changes in creatinine and estimated creatinine clearance were similar between placebo- and rolofylline-treated patients during hospitalization and at day 14. After 4 days, mean body weight was reduced by 2.6 and 3.0 kg in placebo and rolofylline patients, respectively (p = 0.005). Persistent worsening renal function occurred in 13.7% of the placebo group and 15.0% of the rolofylline group (odds ratio vs. placebo: 1.11 [95% confidence interval: 0.85 to 1.46]; p = 0.44). Conclusions: In this large, phase III clinical trial, the adenosine A1 receptor antagonist rolofylline did not prevent persistent worsening renal function in AHF patients with volume overload and renal dysfunction. (A Study of the Selective A1 Adenosine Receptor Antagonist KW-3902 for Patients Hospitalized With Acute HF and Volume Overload to Assess Treatment Effect on Congestion and Renal Function [PROTECT-1], NCT00328692; and [PROTECT-2], NCT00354458) © 2011 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Source

Voors A.A.,University of Groningen | Davison B.A.,Momentum Research Inc. | Teerlink J.R.,University of California at San Francisco | Felker G.M.,Duke Clinical Research Institute | And 9 more authors.
European Journal of Heart Failure | Year: 2014

Aims We studied the characteristics and clinical outcome related to diuretic response and the effects of serelaxin in patients hospitalized for acute heart failure (AHF).Methods and results RELAX-AHF was a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, enrolling 1161 patients admitted to hospital for AHF who were randomized to 48 h i.v infusions of placebo or serelaxin (30 μg/kg per day) within 16 h from presentation. Diuretic response was defined as Δ weight kg/[(total i.v. dose)/40 mg] + [(total oral dose)/80 mg)] furosemide (or equivalent loop diuretic dose) up to day 5. Median diuretic response was -0.42 (-1.00, -0.14) kg/40 mg. A poor diuretic response was independently associated with Western-like region (Western Europe, North America, Israel, and Poland), lower diastolic blood pressure, the absence of oedema, higher blood urea nitrogen, and lower levels of aspartate aminotransferase and potassium (all P < 0.01). Randomization to serelaxin was associated with lower doses of i.v. loop diuretics and slightly less weight loss, resulting in a neutral effect on diuretic response. Worse diuretic response was independently associated both with less relief of dyspnoea, measured with a visual analogue scale (VAS) at day 5 (primary endpoint; P = 0.0002), and with a higher risk of cardiovascular death or rehospitalization for heart failure or renal failure through day 60 (secondary endpoint, P < 0.0001), but not with increased 180-day cardiovascular mortality (P = 0.507).Conclusions In patients hospitalized for AHF, a poor diuretic response was associated with a poor in-hospital and early post-discharge clinical outcome. Serelaxin had a neutral effect on diuretic response. Trial registration: NCT00520806. © 2014 The Authors European Journal of Heart Failure. Source

Background - Acute heart failure is a common reason for admission, and outcome is often poor. Improved prognostic risk stratification may assist in the design of future trials and in patient management. Using data from a large randomized trial, we explored the prognostic value of clinical variables, measured at hospital admission for acute heart failure, to determine whether a few selected variables were inferior to an extended data set. Methods and Results - The prognostic model included 37 clinical characteristics collected at baseline in PROTECT, a study comparing rolofylline and placebo in 2033 patients admitted with acute heart failure. Prespecified outcomes at 30 days were death or rehospitalization for any reason; death or rehospitalization for cardiovascular or renal reasons; and, at both 30 and 180 days, all-cause mortality. No variable had a c-index >0.70, and few had values >0.60; c-indices were lower for composite outcomes than for mortality. Blood urea was generally the strongest single predictor. Eighteen variables contributed independent prognostic information, but a reduced model using only 8 items (age, previous heart failure hospitalization, peripheral edema, systolic blood pressure, serum sodium, urea, creatinine, and albumin) performed similarly. For prediction of all-cause mortality at 180 days, the model c-index using all variables was 0.72 and for the simplified model, also 0.72. Conclusions - A few simple clinical variables measured on admission in patients with acute heart failure predict a variety of adverse outcomes with accuracy similar to more complex models. However, predictive models were of only moderate accuracy, especially for outcomes that included nonfatal events. Better methods of risk stratification are required. © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc. Source

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