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Reblova M.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Gams W.,Molenweg 15 | Seifert A.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada
Studies in Mycology | Year: 2011

We examined the phylogenetic relationships of two species that mimic Chaetosphaeria in teleomorph and anamorph morphologies, Chaetosphaeria tulasneorum with a Cylindrotrichum anamorph and Australiasca queenslandica with a Dischloridium anamorph. Four data sets were analysed: a) the internal transcribed spacer region including ITS1, 5.8S rDNA and ITS2 (ITS), b) nc28S (ncLSU) rDNA, c) nc18S (ncSSU) rDNA, and d) a combined data set of ncLSU-ncSSU-RPB2 (ribosomal polymerase B2). The traditional placement of Ch. tulasneorum in the Microascales based on ncLSU sequences is unsupported and Australiasca does not belong to the Chaetosphaeriaceae. Both holomorph species are nested within the Glomerellales. A new genus, Reticulascus, is introduced for Ch. tulasneorum with associated Cylindrotrichum anamorph; another species of Reticulascus and its anamorph in Cylindrotrichum are described as new. The taxonomic structure of the Glomerellales is clarified and the name is validly published. As delimited here, it includes three families, the Glomerellaceae and the newly described Australiascaceae and Reticulascaceae. Based on ITS and ncLSU rDNA sequence analyses, we confirm the synonymy of the anamorph genera Dischloridium with Monilochaetes. Consequently Dischloridium laeënse, type species of the genus, and three related species are transferred to the older genus Monilochaetes. The teleomorph of D. laeënse is described in Australiasca as a new species. The Plectosphaerellaceae, to which the anamorph genus Stachylidium is added, is basal to the Glomerellales in the three-gene phylogeny. Stilbella annulata also belongs to this family and is newly combined in Acrostalagmus. Phylogenetic analyses based on ncLSU, ncSSU, and combined ncLSU-ncSSU-RPB2 sequences clarify family relationships within the Microascales. The family Ceratocystidaceae is validated as a strongly supported monophyletic group consisting of Ceratocystis, Cornuvesica, Thielaviopsis, and the type species of Ambrosiella. The new family Gondwanamycetaceae, a strongly supported sister clade to the Ceratocystidaceae, is introduced for the teleomorph genus Gondwanamyces and its Custingophora anamorphs. Four families are accepted in the Microascales, namely the Ceratocystidaceae, Gondwanamycetaceae, Halosphaeriaceae, and Microascaceae. Because of a suggested affinity of a Faurelina indica isolate to the Microascales, the phylogenetic position of the Chadefaudiellaceae is reevaluated. Based on the results from a separate ncLSU analysis of the Dothideomycetes, Faurelina is excluded from the Microascales and placed in the Pleosporales. © 2011 by the CBS Fungal Biodiversity Centre. Source


Seifert K.A.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Gams W.,Molenweg 15
Persoonia: Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Fungi | Year: 2011

This supplement to the taxonomic monograph The Genera of Hyphomycetes summarises information on 23 accepted new genera and c. 160 species described in 2011. These include three dematiaceous genera (Funbolia, Noosia, Pyrigemmula, all related to Dothideomycetes), a bulbil-producing genus, Spiroplana (Pleosporales), and two endophytic genera, the sterile Periglandula (Clavicipitaceae), and the hyaline, sympodial Micronematobotrys (Pyronemataceae). Slow-growing, morphologically-reduced, darkly pigmented fungi continue to be the source of new taxa, including the new genus Atramixtia (Dothioraceae). Eight new genera of darkly pigmented chlamydosporelike anamorphs were described from marine or subtidal environments (Glomerulispora, Halozoön, Hiogispora, Matsusporium, Moheitospora, Moleospora, Moromyces), mostly associated with subclades of the Lulworthiales. Several genera that are morphologically similar to but phylogenetically distinct from genera of the Capnodiales (Pseudopassalora, Scleroramularia) were introduced, as well as segregates from the classical concepts of Alternaria (Sinomyces), Chalara and Phialophora (Brachyalara, Infundichalara, Lasiadelphia), and Paecilomyces (Purpureocillium for the former Paecilomyces lilacinus complex). In addition, in anticipation of the new nomenclatural rules, newly configured formerly-teleomorph genera were proposed as segregates from classical hyphomycete genera in the Hypocreales, namely Acremonium (Cosmospora), Fusarium (Cyanonectria, Dialonectria, Geejayessia, Macroconia, Stylonectria), and Volutella (Pseudonectria) and the Trichocomaceae, Eurotiales, Penicillium (Talaromyces for the former Penicillium subg. Biverticillium). Standardized generic mini-diagnoses are provided for the accepted new genera, along with details of distribution, substrates, numbers of new species and phylogenetic affinities within the Dikarya. GenBank accession numbers for ITS DNA-barcodes are provided where available. New information on generic concepts of previously recognised genera, phylogenetic relationships, and corrections of factual errors are also included. Only two newly described genera, Fecundostilbum and Utrechtiana, seem to be synonyms of previously described genera. © 2011 Nationaal Herbarium Nederland & Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures. Source


Reblova M.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Gams W.,Molenweg 15 | Stepanek V.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic
Fungal Diversity | Year: 2011

The phylogenetic relationships of five morphologically similar strains labeled Exochalara longissima were studied with sequences of Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS1-nc5.8S-ITS2) and the small and large subunits of nuclear ribosomal DNA (nc18S and nc28S rDNA) in three different molecular data sets. The phylogenetic analyses, maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony heuristic search and Bayesian approach, revealed that these strains belong to three different genera. Based on the two-gene phylogeny of nc18S-nc28S rDNA, the true relationship of the anamorphic genus Exochalara, typified with E. longissima (strains CBS 393.82 and CBS 980.73), lies within the Helotiales of the Leotiomycetes. Exochalara is characterized by upright, pigmented conidiophores with terminally integrated cylindrical monophialides and hyaline fusiform to drop-shaped conidia, cohering end-to-end in basipetal chains. The holomorph genera Hyphodiscus (anamorph Catenulifera) and Chlorociboria (anamorph Dothiorina) are shown as closest relatives of Exochalara. The strains CBS 622.82 and CBS 114633, which differ from Exochalara in shorter, decumbent conidiophores, ampulliform monophialides, ellipsoidal to obovoidal, 1-celled hyaline conidia straw-yellow in mass and sympodial ramification/ branching of conidiophores in vitro also grouped in the Leotiomycetes but on a separate position from Exochalara. The new genus Brachyalara is introduced for them. Subsequently four strains of the morphologically similar Chalara microchona were analysed. Three strains, including the ex-type strain, which formed a strongly supported clade distinct from more typical species of Chalara, Brachyalara and Exochalara, are introduced as a new monotypic genus Infundichalara. Exochalara and the two newly recognized genera are compared with Chalara, Herreromyces and Phialophora. The strain MUCL 40959, according to the ITS (ITS1-ITS2) and three-gene phylogeny (nc18S-nc5.8S-nc28S rDNA) is found to belong to Monilochaetes, which is the anamorph of the holomorph genus Australiasca in the Glomerellales, Sordariomycetes. The fungus is described as a new anamorphic species and compared with the other four species in the genus. © 2010 Kevin D. Hyde. Source


Gams W.,Molenweg 15 | Humber R.A.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Jaklitsch W.,University of Vienna | Kirschner R.,National Central University | Stadler M.,Helmholtz Center for Infection Research
Mycotaxon | Year: 2012

We assert that the suppression at the 2011 Melbourne Botanical Congress of the dual nomenclature for pleomorphic fungi was premature since most fungal genera still remain inadequately typified and need molecularly based revisions. The new system turns a rule-determined nomenclature into a system of names to be decided by committees. The new system cannot be implemented until experts publish well-documented rationales about the generic names to be accepted or suppressed among alternative morphs and the responsible committees act officially. Prioritization vs. suppression is not the same as conservation vs. rejection. If a teleomorphic generic name is suppressed, it still remains valid and legitimate and can still serve as a basis for names of higher-rank taxa. In most cases the teleomorph genus name should be prioritized unless convincing arguments favor preference of the anamorph name. Paraphyletic genera must be recognized. Unless the phylogenetic positions of all type species for possible morphs are confirmed, no prioritization can be fixed. When a binomial in a prioritized genus has a younger epithet than the corresponding name in the suppressed genus, only priority of extant names in the prioritized genus should count. © 2012. Mycotaxon, Ltd. Source


Bissett J.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Gams W.,Molenweg 15 | Jaklitsch W.,University of Vienna | Jaklitsch W.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | And 2 more authors.
IMA Fungus | Year: 2015

A list of 254 names of species and two names of varieties in Trichoderma with name or names against which they are to be protected, following the ICN (Melbourne Code, Art. 14.13), is presented for consideration by the General Committee established by the Congress, which then will refer them to the Nomenclature Committee for Fungi (NCF). This list includes 252 species, one variety and one form. Two new names are proposed: T. neocrassum Samuel (syn. Hypocrea crassa P. Chaverri & Samuels), T. patellotropicum Samuels (syn. Hypocrea patella f. tropica Yoshim. Doi). The following new combinations in Trichoderma are proposed: T. brevipes (Mont.) Samuels, T. cerebriforme (Berk.) Samuels, T. latizonatum (Peck) Samuels, and T. poronioideum (A. Möller) Samuels. The following species are lectotypified: T. americanum (Canham) Jaklitsch & Voglmayr, Gliocladium flavofuscum J.H. Miller, Giddens & A.A. Foster, T. inhamatum Veerkamp & W. Gams, T. konilangbra Samuels, O. Petrini & C.P. Kubicek, T. koningii Oudem., T. pezizoides (Berk. & Broome) Jaklitsch & Voglmayr, T. sulphureum (Schwein.) Jaklitsch & Voglmayr and T. virens (J.H. Miller, Giddens & A.A. Foster) Arx. Epitypes are proposed for the following species: T. albocorneum (Yoshim. Doi) Jaklitsch & Voglmayr, T. albofulvum (Berk. & Broome) Jaklitsch & Voglmayr, T. atrogelatinosum (Dingley) Jaklitsch & Voglmayr, T. corneum (Pat.) Jaklitsch & Voglmayr, T. cornu-damae (Pat.) Z.X. Zhu & W.Y. Zhuang, T. flaviconidium (P. Chaverri, Druzhinina & Samuels) Jaklitsch & Voglmayr, T. hamatum (Bonord.) Bain., T. hunua (Dingley) Jaklitsch & Voglmayr, T. patella (Cooke & Peck) Jaklitsch & Voglmayr, Hypocrea patella f. tropica Yoshim. Doi, T. polysporum (Link) Rifai, T. poronioideum (A. Möller) Samuels T. semiorbis (Berk.) Jaklitsch & Voglmayr, T. sulphureum (Schwein.) Jaklitsch & Voglmayr, and T. tropicosinense (P.G. Liu) P.G. Liu, Z.X. Zhu & W.Y. Zhuang. © 2015 International Mycological Association. Source

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