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Landini M.M.,Virology Unit | Landini M.M.,University of Turin | Borgogna C.,Virology Unit | Peretti A.,Virology Unit | And 12 more authors.
Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology | Year: 2014

Background Correlating human papillomavirus (HPV) type with the clinical and histopathological features of skin lesions (from genital and nongenital sites) can present a diagnostic challenge. Objective In this study, HPV infection patterns were correlated with pathology and clinical presentation in lesional and nonlesional body sites from a young patient with a primary T-cell immunodeficiency. Methods HPV infection was evaluated at both DNA and protein levels by polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Results The patient's genital lesions were caused exclusively by α-genotypes (high-risk type HPV-51 in the anal and low-risk type HPV-72 in the penile condylomas). The opposite was true for the skin lesions, which were infected by β-genotypes alone (HPV-8 and HPV-24). HPV-24 was the predominant type in terms of viral load, and the only one found in productive areas of infection. The patient had already developed high-grade dysplasia in the anal condyloma-like lesions, and showed areas of early-stage dysplasia in the lesions caused by the β-genotype HPV-24. Limitations The basic origin of the immunodeficiency is not yet defined. Conclusion These findings provide proof of principle that both α- and β-genotypes can cause overt dysplastic lesions when immunosurveillance is lost, which is not restricted to epidermodysplasia verruciformis. © 2014 by the American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Source

Gambarino S.,University of Turin | Ravanini P.,Laboratory of Molecular Virology | Montanari P.,University of Turin | Galliano I.,University of Turin | Bergallo M.,University of Turin
Viral Immunology | Year: 2016

It is known that several viruses can alter or modulate the transcriptional and translational activity of host cells to obtain a rapid and efficient replication. In particular, Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) can interact with host cell at multiple levels, even modulating the expression of small signaling molecules called microRNAs. Especially, human miRNA mir-146a expression seems to be downregulated by HCMV infection in vitro. The aim of this study was to evaluate mir-146a expression in kidney transplant patients during HCMV infection. Sixty-four serum samples from 22 kidney transplant patients were analyzed and subdivided in three groups (high viral load, low viral load, and absent viral load). Mir-146a expression for each sample has been evaluated by a specific stem-loop Real Time polymerase chain reaction, and a statistical analysis was performed. Expression levels of mir-146a were similar among the three groups tested showing no statistical significant difference. Results obtained did not confirm data previously reported in literature, but the change of mir-146a expression levels has to be more clearly defined as it could not be directly caused by virus replication. © Copyright 2016, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2016. Source

Farci D.,University of Cagliari | Bowler M.W.,European Molecular Biology Laboratory | Bowler M.W.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Kirkpatrick J.,European Molecular Biology Laboratory | And 3 more authors.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Biomembranes | Year: 2014

We have analyzed the cell wall of the radio-resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans. Unexpectedly, the bacterial envelope appears to be organized in different complexes of high molecular weight. Each complex is composed of several proteins, most of which are coded by genes of unknown function and the majority are constituents of the inner/outer membrane system. One of the most abundant complexes is constituted by the gene DR-0774. This protein is a type of secretin which is a known subunit of the homo-oligomeric channel that represents the main bulk of the type IV piliation family. Finally, a minor component of the pink envelope consists of several inner-membrane proteins. The implications of these findings are discussed. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Bergallo M.,University of Turin | Galliano I.,University of Turin | Montanari P.,University of Turin | Gambarino S.,University of Turin | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Virology | Year: 2015

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate HERV-K and -W pol gene expression in kidney transplant recipients and to investigate the possible relationship between HERVs gene expression and CMV infection in these patients. Study design: Thirty-three samples of kidney transplant patients and twenty healthy blood donors were used to analyze, HERV-K and -W pol gene RNA expression by relative quantitative relative Real-Time PCR. Result: We demonstrated that HERVs pol gene expression levels were higher in kidney transplant recipients than in healthy subjects. Moreover, HERV-K and -W pol gene expression was significantly higher in the group of kidney transplant recipients with high CMV viral load than in the groups with no or moderate CMV viral load. Conclusion: Our data suggest that CMV may facilitate in vivo HERV activation. © 2015. Source

Wang X.,Laboratory of Molecular Virology | Tan J.,Laboratory of Molecular Virology | Zhao J.,Laboratory of Molecular Virology | Ye Z.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | Hewlett I.,Laboratory of Molecular Virology
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014

Background: Highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus has been shown to infect organs other than the lung, and this is likely to be mediated by systemic spread resulting from viremia which has been detected in blood in severe cases of infection with avian H5N1 viruses. The infectivity of virus in blood and the potential for virus transmission by transfusion has not been investigated.Methods: Using a susceptible ferret animal model, we evaluated viremia and transmission by blood transfusion. Blood was collected on day 2, 4, 6, and 10 post-infection (or before death) from donor ferrets infected with either low dose (1.0 × 102.6 EID50/ml) or high dose (1.0 × 103.6 EID50/ml) of H5N1 virus, A/VN/1203/04 and transfused to recipient animals.Results: Viremia was observed in 2/12 (16.67%) recipients that received blood from donor ferrets infected with low dose and 7/12 (58.33%) recipients who received blood from high dose infected donors. 1/12 (8.3%) low dose recipients and 6/12 (50%) high dose recipients died within 11 days after transfusion. Increased changes in body weight and temperatures were observed in high dose recipients, and high levels of viral RNA were detected in recipient ferrets after transfusion of blood from the early viremic phase, which also correlated with adverse impact on their survival.Conclusion: These data suggest that highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus, H5N1, is transmissible by blood transfusion in ferrets. Low levels of viremia were detected around the time of onset of symptoms and later in ferrets infected with highly pathogenic H5N1 virus. These findings may have implication for pathogenesis and transmissibility of H5N1. © 2014 Wang et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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