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Houston, TX, United States

Jamaluddin M.S.,Molecular Surgeon Research Center | Lin P.H.,Molecular Surgeon Research Center | Lin P.H.,Michael bakey Va Medical Center | Yao Q.,Molecular Surgeon Research Center | And 3 more authors.
Atherosclerosis | Year: 2010

Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is often associated with endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular complications. In this study, we determined whether HIV non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor efavirenz (EFV) could increase endothelial permeability. Human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) were treated with EFV (1, 5 and 10 μg/ml) and endothelial permeability was determined by a transwell system with a fluorescence-labeled dextran tracer. HCAECs treated with EFV showed a significant increase of endothelial permeability in a concentration-dependent manner. With real time PCR analysis, EFV significantly reduced the mRNA levels of tight junction proteins claudin-1, occludin, zonula occluden-1 and junctional adhesion molecule-1 compared with controls (P < 0.05). Protein levels of these tight junction molecules were also reduced substantially in the EFV-treated cells by western blot and flow cytometry analyses. In addition, EFV also increased superoxide anion production with dihydroethidium and cellular glutathione assays, while it decreased mitochondrial membrane potential with JC-staining. Antioxidants (ginkgolide B and MnTBAP) effectively blocked EFV-induced endothelial permeability and mitochondrial dysfunction. Furthermore, EFV increased the phosphorylation of MAPK JNK and IκBα, thereby increasing NFκB translocation to the nucleus. Chemical JNK inhibitor and dominant negative mutant JNK and IκBα adenoviruses effectively blocked the effects of EFV on HCAECs. Thus, EFV increases endothelial permeability which may be due to the decrease of tight junction proteins and the increase of superoxide anion. JNK and NFκB activation may be directly involved in the signal transduction pathway of EFV action in HCAECs. © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Yu X.,Molecular Surgeon Research Center | Yu X.,Fudan University | Zhang Y.,Molecular Surgeon Research Center | Chen C.,Molecular Surgeon Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Reviews on Cancer | Year: 2010

Effective drug delivery in pancreatic cancer treatment remains a major challenge. Because of the high resistance to chemo and radiation therapy, the overall survival rate for pancreatic cancer is extremely low. Recent advances in drug delivery systems hold great promise for improving cancer therapy. Using liposomes, nanoparticles, and carbon nanotubes to deliver cancer drugs and other therapeutic agents such as siRNA, suicide gene, oncolytic virus, small molecule inhibitor, and antibody has been a success in recent preclinical trials. However, how to improve the specificity and stability of the delivered drug using ligand or antibody directed delivery represent a major problem. Therefore, developing novel, specific, tumor-targeted drug delivery systems is urgently needed for this terrible disease. This review summarizes the current progress on targeted drug delivery in pancreatic cancer and provides important information on potential therapeutic targets for pancreatic cancer treatment. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

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