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Nna E.,Safety Molecular Pathology Laboratory | Mbamalu C.,Nnamdi Azikiwe University | Ekejindu I.,Nnamdi Azikiwe University
Pathogens and Global Health | Year: 2014

Hepatitis B virus infection is endemic in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa including Nigeria. Occult hepatitis B virus infection (OBI) is a challenging clinical problem characterized by the absence of Hepatitis B surface Antigen (HBsAg) and low viral DNA load. We aimed at determining the prevalence of OBI among repeat blood donors in Abakaliki, south-eastern Nigeria. Of 113 informed consented repeat blood donors enrolled into the study, 12 donors (10.6%) tested positive to both serological HBsAg screening, anti-HBc total and hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA Nested PCR tests. One donor (0.9%) tested HBsAg positive, anti- HBC positive but Nested PCR negative. All donors were negative for HIV 1 and 2 and HCV infections. Of the 100 HbsAg negative repeat blood donors, 8.0% (eight donors) were HBV DNA positive by nested PCR method and anti-HBc total positive by ELISA. The median viral load, determined by real time PCR-Taqman chemistry, in the OBI blood samples was 51 IU/ml compared to 228 IU/ml of the HBsAg screen positive donors. The observed OBI prevalence of 8.0% corroborated with high endemicity of HBV infection in Abakaliki. We therefore recommend routine HBV DNA testing by real time PCR method on all sero-negative blood donations in Abakaliki and for a similar policy to be evaluated across the sub-Saharan Africa. © W. S. Maney & Son Ltd 2014.

Emilia A.E.,District Hospital Nsukka | Emilia A.E.,University of Nigeria | Victoria U.C.,University of Nigeria | Christian M.A.,University of Nigeria | Okechukwu N.E.,Safety Molecular Pathology Laboratory
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science | Year: 2016

We investigated and compared genetic variations in Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance 1 gene (Pfmdr 1) in patients showing good therapeutic response (GTR) and artemisinin resistance (AR) following artemether-lumefantrine (AL) treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Nigeria. Some 150 malaria patients were subjected to AL treatment and therapeutic efficacy was monitored for 28 days. Parasite genomic DNA was isolated followed by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Genotyping of Pfmdr 1 gene for specific genetic variants: N86Y, Y184F, S1034C and N1042D were done using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP).Out of 121 patients that were P. falciparum positive, 46 % (56) and 54 % (65) showed good therapeutic response and artemisinin resistance respectively, with 5.4 % and 98.3 % being mutated in the GTR and AR group respectively. The most prevalent mutations were Y184F (44.1 %) and N86Y (40.7 %). There was significant increase (p<0.001) in the prevalence of Pfmdr 1 mutation in the post treatment compared to the pre-treatment group.Prevalence of Pfmdr1 86Y and 184F alleles is associated with artemisinin resistance and presence of AL drug significantly induced genetic variation in the plasmodial gene. © 2016 Ayogu Ebere Emilia et al.

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