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Vene R.,Molecular Oncology and Angiogenesis | Benelli R.,Immunology | Minghelli S.,Clinical and Experimental Immunology | Astigiano S.,Embryogenesis and Tumorigenesis in Animal Models | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Medicine | Year: 2012

Despite recent advances in understanding the biological basis of prostate cancer, management of the disease, especially in the phase resistant to androgen ablation, remains a significant challenge. The long latency and high incidence of prostate carcinogenesis provides the opportunity to intervene with chemoprevention to prevent or eradicate prostate malignancies. In this study, we have used human hormone-resistant prostate cancer cells, DU145 and PC3, as an in vitro model to assess the efficacy of xanthohumol (XN) against cell growth, motility and invasion. We observed that treatment of prostate cancer cells with low micromolar doses of XN inhibits proliferation and modulates focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and AKT phosphorylation leading to reduced cell migration and invasion. Oxidative stress by increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was associated with these effects. Transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) transgenic mice were used as an in vivo model of prostate adenocarcinoma. Oral gavage of XN, three times per week, beginning at 4 wks of age, induced a decrease in the average weight of the urogenital (UG) tract, delayed advanced tumor progression and inhibited the growth of poorly differentiated prostate carcinoma. The ability of XN to inhibit prostate cancer in vitro and in vivo suggests that XN may be a novel agent for the management of prostate cancer. Source


Amaro A.,Integrated Molecular Pathology | Mirisola V.,Integrated Molecular Pathology | Angelini G.,Integrated Molecular Pathology | Musso A.,Molecular Oncology and Angiogenesis | And 11 more authors.
European Journal of Cancer | Year: 2013

Despite advances in surgery and radiotherapy of uveal melanoma (UM), many patients develop distant metastases that poorly respond to therapy. Improved therapies for the metastatic disease are therefore urgently needed. Expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a target of kinase inhibitors and humanised antibodies in use for several cancers, had been reported. Forty-eight human UMs were analysed by expression profiling. Signalling was tested in three EGFR expressing UM cell lines by Western blotting using phosphorylation specific antibodies for EGFR and the downstream mediators AKT (v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Evidence for signalling in tumours was obtained through the application of a UM-specific EGF-signature. The EGFR specific kinase inhibitor, Gefitinib and the humanised monoclonal antibody, Cetuximab, were tested for their effect on EGFR signalling. Natural killer cell mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) release was analysed for Cetuximab. Fourteen of 48 UMs and three of 14 cell lines (over-)express EGFR, at least in part due to trisomy of the EGFR locus on chromosome 7p12. EGFR and the downstream mediator, AKT, are phosphorylated upon stimulation with EGF in EGFR expressing cell lines. EGFR over-expressing tumours but not EGFR negative tumours show an activated EGF-signature. Gefitinib inhibits EGFR and AKT phosphorylation and Cetuximab induces EGFR phosphorylation but inhibits signalling to AKT induced with EGF. Cetuximab triggers natural killer (NK) cells to lyse EGFR+ cell lines and to release TNF-α. EGFR appears suited as a novel molecular drug target for therapy of uveal melanoma. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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