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Alers S.,University of Tubingen | Loffler A.S.,University of Tubingen | Loffler A.S.,Heinrich Heine University Dusseldorf | Paasch F.,University of Tubingen | And 11 more authors.

Under normal growth conditions the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) negatively regulates the central autophagy regulator complex consisting of Unc-51-like kinases 1/2 (Ulk1/2), focal adhesion kinase family-interacting protein of 200 kDa (FIP200) and Atg13. Upon starvation, mTORC1-mediated repression of this complex is released, which then leads to Ulk1/2 activation. In this scenario, Atg13 has been proposed as an adaptor mediating the interaction between Ulk1/2 and FIP200 and enhancing Ulk1/2 kinase activity. Using Atg13-deficient cells, we demonstrate that Atg13 is indispensable for autophagy induction. We further show that Atg13 function strictly depends on FIP200 binding. In contrast, the simultaneous knockout of Ulk1 and Ulk2 did not have a similar effect on autophagy induction. Accordingly, the Ulk1-dependent phosphorylation sites we identified in Atg13 are expendable for this process. This suggests that Atg13 has an additional function independent of Ulk1/2 and that Atg13 and FIP200 act in concert during autophagy induction. © 2011 Landes Bioscience. Source

Although chemotherapy of tumours has scored successes, drug resistance remains the major cause of death of cancer patients. Initial treatment often leaves residual disease, from which the tumour regrows. Eventually, most tumours become resistant to all available chemotherapy. I call this pan-resistance to distinguish it from multi-drug resistance, usually describing resistance caused by upregulation of drug transporters, such as P-glycoprotein. In this review, I discuss mechanisms proposed to explain both residual disease and panresistance. Although plausible explanations are at hand for residual disease, pan-resistance is still a mystery. My conclusion is that it is time for a major effort to solve this mystery using the new genetically modified mouse tumour models that produce real tumours resembling cancer in human patients. © 2012 The Authors. Source

Heald R.,7 9 Spire Green Center | Bowman K.K.,Genentech | Bryan M.C.,DNA Way | Burdick D.,DNA Way | And 27 more authors.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry

Because of their increased activity against activating mutants, first-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase inhibitors have had remarkable success in treating non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, but acquired resistance, through a secondary mutation of the gatekeeper residue, means that clinical responses only last for 8-14 months. Addressing this unmet medical need requires agents that can target both of the most common double mutants: T790M/L858R (TMLR) and T790M/del(746-750) (TMdel). Herein we describe how a noncovalent double mutant selective lead compound was optimized using a strategy focused on the structure-guided increase in potency without added lipophilicity or reduction of three-dimensional character. Following successive rounds of design and synthesis it was discovered that cis-fluoro substitution on 4-hydroxy- and 4-methoxypiperidinyl groups provided synergistic, substantial, and specific potency gain through direct interaction with the enzyme and/or effects on the proximal ligand oxygen atom. Further development of the fluorohydroxypiperidine series resulted in the identification of a pair of diastereomers that showed 50-fold enzyme and cell based selectivity for T790M mutants over wild-type EGFR (wtEGFR) in vitro and pathway knock-down in an in vivo xenograft model. © 2015 American Chemical Society. Source

Remily-Wood E.R.,Molecular Oncology | Koomen J.M.,Molecular Oncology
Journal of Mass Spectrometry

Structural analogs are evaluated as peptide internal standards for protein quantification with liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (LC-MRM); specifically, single conservative amino acid replacements (SCAR) are performed to create tagged standards that differ by the addition or subtraction of a single methylene group in one amino acid side chain. Because the performance of stable isotope-labeled standards (SIS) has been shown to be superior to structural analogs, differences in both development and quantitative performance between assays based on SIS and SCAR peptides are explored. To establish an assay using the structural analogs, analysis of endogenous, SCAR and SIS peptides was performed to examine their ion signal, fragmentation patterns and response in LC-MRM. Performance of SCAR and SIS peptides was compared for quantification of epidermal growth factor receptor from lung cancer cell lysates and immunoglobulin M in the serum of multiple myeloma patients. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

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