Center for Molecular Neuroscience
Center for Molecular Neuroscience
Erreger K.,Vanderbilt University |
Erreger K.,Center for Molecular Neuroscience |
Davis A.R.,Vanderbilt University |
Davis A.R.,Center for Molecular Neuroscience |
And 7 more authors.
Physiology and Behavior | Year: 2012
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is released in response to nutrient ingestion and is a regulator of energy metabolism and consummatory behaviors through both peripheral and central mechanisms. The GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is widely distributed in the central nervous system, however little is known about how GLP-1Rs regulate ambulatory behavior. The abused psychostimulant amphetamine (AMPH) promotes behavioral locomotor activity primarily by inducing the release of the neurotransmitter dopamine. Here, we identify the GLP-1R agonist exendin-4 (Ex-4) as a modulator of behavioral activation by AMPH. We report that in rats a single acute administration of Ex-4 decreases both basal locomotor activity as well as AMPH-induced locomotor activity. Ex-4 did not induce behavioral responses reflecting anxiety or aversion. Our findings implicate GLP-1R signaling as a novel modulator of psychostimulant-induced behavior and therefore a potential therapeutic target for psychostimulant abuse. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.
Zhu C.-B.,Vanderbilt University |
Lindler K.M.,Vanderbilt University |
Owens A.W.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio |
Daws L.C.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio |
And 3 more authors.
Neuropsychopharmacology | Year: 2010
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) has long been implicated in regulation of mood. Medications that block the neuronal 5-HT transporter (SERT) are used as major pharmacological treatment for mood disorders. Conversely, stimuli that enhance SERT activity might be predicted to diminish synaptic 5-HT availability and increase the risk for 5-HT-related CNS disorders. We have shown that the inflammatory cytokines enhance brain SERT activity in cultured serotonergic cells and nerve terminal preparations in vitro. In this study, we establish that intraperitoneal injection of the cytokine-inducer lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulates brain SERT activity, acting at doses below those required to induce overt motor suppression. SERT stimulation by LPS is paralleled by increased immobility in both the tail suspension test (TST) and the forced swim test (FST); antidepressant-sensitive alterations are thought to model aspects of behavioral despair. Both the stimulation of SERT activity and induced immobility are absent when LPS is administered to interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R)-deficient mice and in the presence of SB203580, an inhibitor of IL-1R-stimulated p38 MAPK. Moreover, the ability of LPS to enhance immobility in TST is lost in SERT knockout mice. These findings reveal an ability of peripheral inflammatory stimuli to enhance brain SERT activity through IL-1R and p38 MAPK pathways in vivo and identify a requirement for SERT expression in immune-system-modulated despair behaviors. Our studies identify IL-1R-and p38 MAPK-dependent regulation of SERT as one of the mechanisms by which environmentally driven immune system activation can trigger despair-like behavior in an animal model, encouraging future analysis of the pathway for risk factors in neuropsychiatric disorders. © 2010 Nature Publishing Group All rights reserved.