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Martin-Moreno A.M.,Instituto Cajal | Martin-Moreno A.M.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Reigada D.,Instituto Cajal | Reigada D.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | And 10 more authors.
Molecular Pharmacology | Year: 2011

Microglial activation is an invariant feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is noteworthy that cannabinoids are neuroprotective by preventing β-amyloid (Aβ)-induced microglial activation both in vitro and in vivo. On the other hand, the phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) has shown anti-inflammatory properties in different paradigms. In the present study, we compared the effects of CBD with those of other cannabinoids on microglial cell functions in vitro and on learning behavior and cytokine expression after Aβ intraventricular administration to mice. CBD, (R)-(+)-[2,3-dihydro-5- methyl-3-(4-morpholinylmethyl) pyrrolo-[1,2,3-d,e]-1,4-benzoxazin-6-yl]-1- naphthalenylmethanone [WIN 55,212-2 (WIN)], a mixed CB1/CB 2 agonist, and 1,1-dimethylbutyl-1-deoxy-Δ9- tetrahydrocannabinol [JWH-133 (JWH)], a CB2-selective agonist, concentration-dependently decreased ATP-induced (400 μM) increase in intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) in cultured N13 microglial cells and in rat primary microglia. In contrast, 4-[4-(1,1-dimethylheptyl)-2,6- dimethoxyphenyl]-6,6-dimethyl-bicyclo[3.1.1]hept-2-ene-2-methanol [HU-308 (HU)], another CB2 agonist, was without effect. Cannabinoid and adenosine A2A receptors may be involved in the CBD action. CBD- and WIN-promoted primary microglia migration was blocked by CB1 and/or CB2 antagonists. JWH and HU-induced migration was blocked by a CB2 antagonist only. All of the cannabinoids decreased lipopolysaccharide-induced nitrite generation, which was insensitive to cannabinoid antagonism. Finally, both CBD and WIN, after subchronic administration for 3 weeks, were able to prevent learning of a spatial navigation task and cytokine gene expression in β-amyloid-injected mice. In summary, CBD is able to modulate microglial cell function in vitro and induce beneficial effects in an in vivo model of AD. Given that CBD lacks psychoactivity, it may represent a novel therapeutic approach for this neurological disease. Copyright © 2011 The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Source


Nieto-Diaz M.,Molecular Neuroprotection Group | Pita-Thomas D.W.,University of Miami | Munoz-Galdeano T.,Molecular Neuroprotection Group | Martinez-Maza C.,CSIC - National Museum of Natural Sciences | And 6 more authors.
Frontiers in Bioscience | Year: 2012

Nervous system injuries are a major cause of impairment in the human society. Up to now, clinical approaches have failed to adequately restore function following nervous system damage. The regenerative cycle of deer antlers may provide basic information on mechanisms underlying nervous system regeneration. The present contribution reviews the actual knowledge on the antler innervation and the factors responsible for its regeneration and fast growth. Growing antlers are profusely innervated by sensory fibers from the trigeminal nerve, which regenerate every year reaching elongation rates up to 2 cm a day. Antler nerves grow through the velvet in close association to blood vessels. This environment is rich in growth promoting molecules capable of inducing and guiding neurite outgrowth of rat sensory neurons in vitro. Conversely, endocrine regulation failed to show effects on neurite outgrowth in vitro, in spite of including hormones of known promoting effects on axon growth. Additional studies are needed to analyze unexplored factors promoting on growth in antlers such as electric potentials or mechanical stretch, as well as on the survival of antler innervating neurons. Source


Martinez-Maza C.,CSIC - National Museum of Natural Sciences | Alberdi M.T.,CSIC - National Museum of Natural Sciences | Nieto-Diaz M.,Molecular Neuroprotection Group | Prado J.L.,CONICET
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Histological analyses of fossil bones have provided clues on the growth patterns and life history traits of several extinct vertebrates that would be unavailable for classical morphological studies. We analyzed the bone histology of Hipparion to infer features of its life history traits and growth pattern. Microscope analysis of thin sections of a large sample of humeri, femora, tibiae and metapodials of Hipparion concudense from the upper Miocene site of Los Valles de Fuentidueña (Segovia, Spain) has shown that the number of growth marks is similar among the different limb bones, suggesting that equivalent skeletochronological inferences for this Hipparion population might be achieved by means of any of the elements studied. Considering their abundance, we conducted a skeletechronological study based on the large sample of third metapodials from Los Valles de Fuentidueña together with another large sample from the Upper Miocene locality of Concud (Teruel, Spain). The data obtained enabled us to distinguish four age groups in both samples and to determine that Hipparion concudense tended to reach skeletal maturity during its third year of life. Integration of bone microstructure and skeletochronological data allowed us to identify ontogenetic changes in bone structure and growth rate and to distinguish three histologic ontogenetic stages corresponding to immature, subadult and adult individuals. Data on secondary osteon density revealed an increase in bone remodeling throughout the ontogenetic stages and a lesser degree thereof in the Concud population, which indicates different biomechanical stresses in the two populations, likely due to environmental differences. Several individuals showed atypical growth patterns in the Concud sample, which may also reflect environmental differences between the two localities. Finally, classification of the specimens' age within groups enabled us to characterize the age structure of both samples, which is typical of attritional assemblages. © 2014 Martinez-Maza et al. Source


Martinez-Maza C.,CSIC - National Museum of Natural Sciences | Rosas A.,CSIC - National Museum of Natural Sciences | Nieto-Diaz M.,Molecular Neuroprotection Group
Journal of Anatomy | Year: 2013

Human skull morphology results from complex processes that involve the coordinated growth and interaction of its skeletal components to keep a functional and structural balance. Previous histological works have studied the growth of different craniofacial regions and their relationship to functional spaces in humans up to 14 years old. Nevertheless, how the growth dynamics of the facial skeleton and the mandible are related and how this relationship changes through the late ontogeny remain poorly understood. To approach these two questions, we have compared the bone modelling activities of the craniofacial skeleton from a sample of subadult and adult humans. In this study, we have established for the first time the bone modelling pattern of the face and the mandible from adult humans. Our analyses reveal a patchy distribution of the bone modelling fields (overemphasized by the presence of surface islands with no histological information) reflecting the complex growth dynamics associated to the individual morphology. Subadult and adult specimens show important differences in the bone modelling patterns of the anterior region of the facial skeleton and the posterior region of the mandible. These differences indicate developmental changes in the growth directions of the whole craniofacial complex, from a predominantly downward growth in subadults that turns to a forward growth observed in the adult craniofacial skeleton. We hypothesize that these ontogenetic changes would respond to the physiological and physical requirements to enlarge the oral and nasal cavities once maturation of the brain and the closure of the cranial sutures have taken place during craniofacial development. © 2013 Anatomical Society. Source


Reigada D.,Molecular Neuroprotection Group | Nieto-Diaz M.,Molecular Neuroprotection Group | Navarro-Ruiz R.,Molecular Neuroprotection Group | Caballero-Lopez M.J.,Molecular Neuroprotection Group | And 3 more authors.
Neuroscience | Year: 2015

Secondary death of neural cells plays a key role in the physiopathology and the functional consequences of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). Pharmacological manipulation of cell death pathways leading to the preservation of neural cells is acknowledged as a main therapeutic goal in SCI. In the present work, we hypothesize that administration of the neuroprotective cell-permeable compound ucf-101 will reduce neural cell death during the secondary damage of SCI, increasing tissue preservation and reducing the functional deficits. To test this hypothesis, we treated mice with ucf-101 during the first week after a moderate contusive SCI. Our results reveal that ucf-101 administration protects neural cells from the deleterious secondary mechanisms triggered by the trauma, reducing the extension of tissue damage and improving motor function recovery. Our studies also suggest that the effects of ucf-101 may be mediated through the inhibition of HtrA2/OMI and the concomitant increase of inhibitor of apoptosis protein XIAP, as well as the induction of ERK1/2 activation and/or expression. In vitro assays confirm the effects of ucf-101 on both pathways as well as on the reduction of caspase cascade activation and apoptotic cell death in a neuroblastoma cell line. These results suggest that ucf-101 can be a promising therapeutic tool for SCI that deserves more detailed analyses. © 2015 IBRO. Source

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