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Pareyson D.,Clinic of Central and Peripheral Degenerative Neuropathies Unit | Piscosquito G.,Clinic of Central and Peripheral Degenerative Neuropathies Unit | Moroni I.,Child Neurology Unit | Salsano E.,Clinic of Central and Peripheral Degenerative Neuropathies Unit | And 3 more authors.
The Lancet Neurology | Year: 2013

Why is peripheral neuropathy common but mild in many mitochondrial disorders, and why is it, in some cases, the predominant or only manifestation? Although this question remains largely unanswered, recent advances in cellular and molecular biology have begun to clarify the importance of mitochondrial functioning and distribution in the peripheral nerve. Mutations in proteins involved in mitochondrial dynamics (ie, fusion and fission) frequently result in a Charcot-Marie-Tooth phenotype. Peripheral neuropathies with different phenotypic presentations occur in mitochondrial diseases associated with abnormalities in mitochondrial DNA replication and maintenance, or associated with defects in mitochondrial respiratory chain complex V. Our knowledge of mitochondrial disorders is rapidly growing as new nuclear genes are identified and new phenotypes described. Early diagnosis of mitochondrial disorders, essential to provide appropriate genetic counselling, has become crucial in a few treatable conditions. Recognising and diagnosing an underlying mitochondrial defect in patients presenting with peripheral neuropathy is therefore of paramount importance. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Van Der Vos K.E.,Harvard University | Van Der Vos K.E.,Netherlands Cancer Institute | Abels E.R.,Harvard University | Zhang X.,Harvard University | And 14 more authors.
Neuro-Oncology | Year: 2016

Background To understand the ability of gliomas to manipulate their microenvironment, we visualized the transfer of vesicles and the effects of tumor-released extracellular RNA on the phenotype of microglia in culture and in vivo. Methods Extracellular vesicles (EVs) released from primary human glioblastoma (GBM) cells were isolated and microRNAs (miRNAs) were analyzed. Primary mouse microglia were exposed to GBM-EVs, and their uptake and effect on proliferation and levels of specific miRNAs, mRNAs, and proteins were analyzed. For in vivo analysis, mouse glioma cells were implanted in the brains of mice, and EV release and uptake by microglia and monocytes/macrophages were monitored by intravital 2-photon microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis, as well as RNA and protein levels. Results Microglia avidly took up GBM-EVs, leading to increased proliferation and shifting of their cytokine profile toward immune suppression. High levels of miR-451/miR-21 in GBM-EVs were transferred to microglia with a decrease in the miR-451/miR-21 target c-Myc mRNA. In in vivo analysis, we directly visualized release of EVs from glioma cells and their uptake by microglia and monocytes/macrophages in brain. Dissociated microglia and monocytes/macrophages from tumor-bearing brains revealed increased levels of miR-21 and reduced levels of c-Myc mRNA. Conclusions Intravital microscopy confirms the release of EVs from gliomas and their uptake into microglia and monocytes/macrophages within the brain. Our studies also support functional effects of GBM-released EVs following uptake into microglia, associated in part with increased miRNA levels, decreased target mRNAs, and encoded proteins, presumably as a means for the tumor to manipulate its environs. © 2015 The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology.


Nery F.C.,Molecular Neurogenetics Unit | Nery F.C.,Harvard University | da Hora C.C.,Molecular Neurogenetics Unit | da Hora C.C.,Harvard University | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Neuroscience Methods | Year: 2014

Background: Microfluidic platforms for quantitative evaluation of cell biologic processes allow low cost and time efficient research studies of biological and pathological events, such as monitoring cell migration by real-time imaging. In healthy and disease states, cell migration is crucial in development and wound healing, as well as to maintain the body's homeostasis. New method: The microfluidic chambers allow precise measurements to investigate whether fibroblasts carrying a mutation in the TOR1A gene, underlying the hereditary neurologic disease - DYT1 dystonia, have decreased migration properties when compared to control cells. Results: We observed that fibroblasts from DYT1 patients showed abnormalities in basic features of cell migration, such as reduced velocity and persistence of movement. Comparison with existing method: The microfluidic method enabled us to demonstrate reduced polarization of the nucleus and abnormal orientation of nuclei and Golgi inside the moving DYT1 patient cells compared to control cells, as well as vectorial movement of single cells. Conclusion: We report here different assays useful in determining various parameters of cell migration in DYT1 patient cells as a consequence of the TOR1A gene mutation, including a microfluidic platform, which provides a means to evaluate real-time vectorial movement with single cell resolution in a three-dimensional environment. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Li A.,Fudan University | Li A.,Harvard University | Li A.,Shandong University | Wu Y.,Fudan University | And 18 more authors.
Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy | Year: 2016

Currently, there is no stable and flexible method to label and track cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in vivo in CTL immunotherapy. We aimed to evaluate whether the sulfo-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS)-biotin–streptavidin (SA) platform could chemically modify the cell surface of CTLs for in vivo tracking. CD8+ T lymphocytes were labeled with sulfo-NHS-biotin under different conditions and then incubated with SA–Alexa647. Labeling efficiency was proportional to sulfo-NHS-biotin concentration. CD8+ T lymphocytes could be labeled with higher efficiency with sulfo-NHS-biotin in DPBS than in RPMI (P < 0.05). Incubation temperature was not a key factor. CTLs maintained sufficient labeling for at least 72 h (P < 0.05), without altering cell viability. After co-culturing labeled CTLs with mouse glioma stem cells (GSCs) engineered to present biotin on their surface, targeting CTLs could specifically target biotin-presenting GSCs and inhibited cell proliferation (P < 0.01) and tumor spheres formation. In a biotin-presenting GSC brain tumor model, targeting CTLs could be detected in biotin-presenting gliomas in mouse brains but not in the non-tumor-bearing contralateral hemispheres (P < 0.05). In vivo fluorescent molecular tomography imaging in a subcutaneous U87 mouse model confirmed that targeting CTLs homed in on the biotin-presenting U87 tumors but not the control U87 tumors. PET imaging with 89Zr-deferoxamine-biotin and SA showed a rapid clearance of the PET signal over 24 h in the control tumor, while only minimally decreased in the targeted tumor. Thus, sulfo-NHS-biotin–SA labeling is an efficient method to noninvasively track the migration of adoptive transferred CTLs and does not alter CTL viability or interfere with CTL-mediated cytotoxic activity. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg


PubMed | Fudan University, Molecular Neurogenetics Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Cancer immunology, immunotherapy : CII | Year: 2016

Currently, there is no stable and flexible method to label and track cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in vivo in CTL immunotherapy. We aimed to evaluate whether the sulfo-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS)-biotin-streptavidin (SA) platform could chemically modify the cell surface of CTLs for in vivo tracking. CD8+ T lymphocytes were labeled with sulfo-NHS-biotin under different conditions and then incubated with SA-Alexa647. Labeling efficiency was proportional to sulfo-NHS-biotin concentration. CD8+ T lymphocytes could be labeled with higher efficiency with sulfo-NHS-biotin in DPBS than in RPMI (P<0.05). Incubation temperature was not a key factor. CTLs maintained sufficient labeling for at least 72h (P<0.05), without altering cell viability. After co-culturing labeled CTLs with mouse glioma stem cells (GSCs) engineered to present biotin on their surface, targeting CTLs could specifically target biotin-presenting GSCs and inhibited cell proliferation (P<0.01) and tumor spheres formation. In a biotin-presenting GSC brain tumor model, targeting CTLs could be detected in biotin-presenting gliomas in mouse brains but not in the non-tumor-bearing contralateral hemispheres (P<0.05). In vivo fluorescent molecular tomography imaging in a subcutaneous U87 mouse model confirmed that targeting CTLs homed in on the biotin-presenting U87 tumors but not the control U87 tumors. PET imaging with

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