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Pensato V.,Genetics of Neurodegenerative and Metabolic Diseases Unit | Castellotti B.,Genetics of Neurodegenerative and Metabolic Diseases Unit | Gellera C.,Genetics of Neurodegenerative and Metabolic Diseases Unit | Pareyson D.,Clinic of Central and Peripheral Degenerative Neuropathies Unit | And 13 more authors.

Hereditary spastic paraplegias are a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders, clinically classified in pure and complex forms. Genetically, more than 70 different forms of spastic paraplegias have been characterized. A subgroup of complicate recessive forms has been distinguished for the presence of thin corpus callosum and white matter lesions at brain imaging. This group includes several genetic entities, but most of the cases are caused by mutations in the KIAA1840 (SPG11) and ZFYVE26 genes (SPG15). We studied a cohort of 61 consecutive patients with complicated spastic paraplegias, presenting at least one of the following features: mental retardation, thin corpus callosum and/or white matter lesions. DNA samples were screened for mutations in the SPG11/KIAA1840, SPG15/ZFYVE26, SPG21/ACP33, SPG35/FA2H, SPG48/AP5Z1 and SPG54/DDHD2 genes by direct sequencing. Sequence variants were found in 30 of 61 cases: 16 patients carried SPG11/KIAA1840 gene variants (26.2%), nine patients carried SPG15/ZFYVE26 variants (14.8%), three patients SPG35/FA2H (5%), and two patients carried SPG48/AP5Z1 gene variants (3%). Mean age at onset was similar in patients with SPG11 and with SPG15 (range 11-36), and the phenotype was mostly indistinguishable. Extrapyramidal signs were observed only in patients with SPG15, and epilepsy in three subjects with SPG11. Motor axonal neuropathy was found in 60% of cases with SPG11 and 70% of cases with SPG15. Subjects with SPG35 had intellectual impairment, spastic paraplegia, thin corpus callosum, white matter hyperintensities, and cerebellar atrophy. Two families had a late-onset presentation, and none had signs of brain iron accumulation. The patients with SPG48 were a 5-year-old child, homozygous for a missense SPG48/AP5Z1 variant, and a 51-year-old female, carrying two different nonsense variants. Both patients had intellectual deficits, thin corpus callosum and white matter lesions. None of the cases in our cohort carried mutations in the SPG21/ACP33 and SPG54/DDH2H genes. Our study confirms that the phenotype of patients with SPG11 and with SPG15 is homogeneous, whereas cases with SPG35 and with SPG48 cases present overlapping features, and a broader clinical spectrum. The large group of non-diagnosed subjects (51%) suggests further genetic heterogeneity. The observation of common clinical features in association with defects in different causative genes, suggest a general vulnerability of the corticospinal tract axons to a wide spectrum of cellular alterations. © 2014 The Author. Source

Bertolino N.,Neuroradiology Unit | Marchionni C.,Nerviano Medical science S.r.l | Ghielmetti F.,Neuroradiology Unit | Burns B.,University of California at Los Angeles | And 4 more authors.
Physica Medica

Purpose: We set out to investigate the potential confounding effect of variable concentration of N-acetyl. l-aspartate (NAA) and Glutamate (Glu) on measurement of the brain oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) using a standard MRS protocol. This issue may arise due to spectral overlap at clinical magnetic field strengths and thus complicate the usage of 2HG as a putative biomarker of gliomas bearing mutations of the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1 and 2 genes. Methods: Spectra from 25 phantoms (50mL falcon test tubes) containing a range of known concentrations of 2HG, NAA and Glu were acquired using a clinical 3T scanner with a quadrature head coil, single-voxel point-resolved spectroscopy sequence with TE=30ms. Metabolite concentrations were estimated by linear combination analysis and a simulated basis set. Results: NAA and Glu concentrations can have a significant confounding effect on 2HG measurements, whereby the negative changes in concentration of these metabolites typically observed in (peri)lesional areas can lead to under-estimation of 2HG concentration with respect to spectra acquired in presence of physiological levels of NAA and Glu. Conclusion: The confounding effect of NAA and Glu concentration changes needs to be considered: in patients, it may mask the presence of 2HG at low concentrations, however it is not expected to lead to false positives. 2HG data acquired using standard short echo-time MRS protocols should be considered with caution. © 2014 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Source

Aquino D.,Neuro Radiology Unit | Di Stefano A.L.,General Neurology Unit | Scotti A.,Neuro Radiology Unit | Cuppini L.,Molecular Neuro Oncology Unit | And 4 more authors.

Background: Perfusion weighted imaging (PWI) can be used to measure key aspects of tumor vascularity in vivo and recent studies suggest that perfusion imaging may be useful in the early assessment of response to angiogenesis inhibitors. Aim of this work is to compare Parametric Response Maps (PRMs) with the Region Of Interest (ROI) approach in the analysis of tumor changes induced by bevacizumab and irinotecan in recurrent glioblastomas (rGBM), and to evaluate if changes in tumor blood volume measured by perfusion MRI may predict clinical outcome. Methods: 42 rGBM patients with KPS ≥50 were treated until progression, as defined by MRI with RANO criteria. Relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) variation after 8 weeks of treatment was calculated through semi-automatic ROI placement in the same anatomic region as in baseline. Alternatively, rCBV variations with respect to baseline were calculated into the evolving tumor region using a voxel-by-voxel difference. PRMs were created showing where rCBV significantly increased, decreased or remained unchanged. Results: An increased blood volume in PRM (PRMCBV+) higher than 18% (first quartile) after 8 weeks of treatment was associated with increased progression free survival (PFS; 24 versus 13 weeks, p = 0.045) and overall survival (OS; 38 versus 25 weeks, p = 0.016). After 8 weeks of treatment ROI analysis showed that mean rCBV remained elevated in non responsive patients (4.8±0.9 versus 5.1±1.2, p = 0.38), whereas decreased in responsive patients (4.2±1.3 versus 3.861.6 p = 0.04), and re-increased progressively when patients approached tumor progression. Conclusions: Our data suggest that PRMs can provide an early marker of response to antiangiogenic treatment and warrant further confirmation in a larger cohort of GBM patients. © 2014 Aquino et al. Source

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