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Borstel-Hohenraden, Germany

Kohl T.A.,Molecular Mycobacteriology | Diel R.,University of Kiel | Harmsen D.,University of Munster | Rothganger J.,Ridom GmbH | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2014

Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) allows for effective tracing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) (tuberculosis pathogens) transmission. However, it is difficult to standardize and, therefore, is not yet employed for interlaboratory prospective surveillance. To allow its widespread application, solutions for data standardization and storage in an easily expandable database are urgently needed. To address this question, we developed a core genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST) scheme for clinical MTBC isolates using the Ridom SeqSphere+ software, which transfers the genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) diversity into an allele numbering system that is standardized, portable, and not computationally intensive. To test its performance, we performed WGS analysis of 26 isolates with identical IS6110 DNA fingerprints and spoligotyping patterns from a longitudinal outbreak in the federal state of Hamburg, Germany (notified between 2001 and 2010). The cgMLST approach (3,041 genes) discriminated the 26 strains with a resolution comparable to that of SNP-based WGS typing (one major cluster of 22 identical or closely related and four outlier isolates with at least 97 distinct SNPs or 63 allelic variants). Resulting tree topologies are highly congruent and grouped the isolates in both cases analogously. Our data show that SNP- and cgMLSTbased WGS analyses facilitate high-resolution discrimination of longitudinal MTBC outbreaks. cgMLST allows for a meaningful epidemiological interpretation of the WGS genotyping data. It enables standardized WGS genotyping for epidemiological investigations, e.g., on the regional public health office level, and the creation of web-accessible databases for global TB surveillance with an integrated early warning system. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source


Weniger T.,University of Munster | Krawczyk J.,Molecular Mycobacteriology | Supply P.,Institute Pasteur Of Lille | Supply P.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 3 more authors.
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2012

Molecular diagnostics and genotyping of pathogens have become indispensable tools in clinical microbiology and disease surveillance. For isolates of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC, causative agents of tuberculosis), multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) targeting mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRU) has been internationally adopted as the new standard, portable, reproducible, and discriminatory typing method. Here, we review new sets of specialized web based bioinformatics tools that have become available for analyzing MLVA data especially in combination with other, complementary genotyping markers (polyphasic analysis). Currently, there are only two databases available that are not restricted to store one kind of genotyping data only, namely SITVIT/SpolDB4 and MIRU-VNTR. plus. SITVIT/SpolDB4 (http://www.pasteur-guadeloupe.fr:8081/SITVITDemo) contains spoligotyping data from a large number of strains of diverse origin. However, besides options to query the data, the actual version of SITVIT/SpolDB4 offers no functionality for more complex analysis e.g. tree-based analysis.In comparison, the MIRU-VNTR. plus web application (http://www.miru-vntrplus.org), represents a freely accessible service that enables users to analyze genotyping data of their strains alone or in comparison with a currently limited but well characterized reference database of strains representing the major MTBC lineages. Data (MLVA-, spoligotype-, large sequence polymorphism, and single nucleotide polymorphism) can be visualized and analyzed using just one genotyping method or a weighted combination of several markers. A variety of analysis tools are available such as creation of phylogenetic and minimum spanning trees, semi-automated phylogenetic lineage identification based on comparison with the reference database and mapping of geographic information. To facilitate scientific communication, a universal, expanding genotype nomenclature (MLVA MtbC15-9 type) service that can be queried via a web- or a SOAP-interface has been implemented. An extensive documentation guides users through all application functions. Perspectives for future development, including generalization to other bacterial species, are presented. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.. Source


Niemann S.,Molecular Mycobacteriology | Niemann S.,German Center for Infection Research | Supply P.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Supply P.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 2 more authors.
Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine | Year: 2014

Genotyping of clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) strains has become a standard tool for epidemiological tracing and for the investigation of the local and global strain population structure. Of special importance is the analysis of the expansion of multi- drug (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains. Classical genotyping and, more recently, whole-genome sequencing have revealed that the strains of the MTBC are more diverse than previously anticipated. Globally, several phylogenetic lineages can be distin- guished whose geographical distribution is markedly variable. Strains of particular (sub)- lineages, such as Beijing, seem to be more virulent and associated with enhanced resistance levels and fitness, likely fueling their spread in certain world regions. The upcoming gener- alization of whole-genome sequencing approaches will expectedly provide more compre- hensive insights into the molecular and epidemiological mechanisms involved and lead to better diagnostic and therapeutic tools. © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. All rights reserved. Source


Feuerriegel S.,Molecular Mycobacteriology | Feuerriegel S.,German Center for Infection Research | Koser C.U.,University of Cambridge | Koser C.U.,Public Health England | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy | Year: 2014

Objectives: Sequence analysis of known antibiotic resistance genes of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) is increasingly being used to infer phenotypic resistance to a variety of antibiotics. However, a clear understanding of the genotype-phenotype relationship is required to interpret genotypic susceptibility results accurately. In this context, it is particularly important to distinguish phylogenetically informative neutral polymorphisms from true resistance-conferring mutations. Methods: Using a collection of 71 strains that encompasses all major MTBC genotypes, we mapped the genetic diversity in 18 genes that are known to be involved or were previously implicated in antibiotic resistance to eight current as well as two novel antibiotics. This included bedaquiline, capreomycin, ethambutol, fluoroquinolones, isoniazid, PA-824, para-aminosalicylic acid, prothionamide, rifampicin and streptomycin. Moreover, we included data from one of our prior studies that focused on two of the three known pyrazinamide resistance genes. Results: We found 58 phylogenetic polymorphisms that were markers for the genotypes M. tuberculosis Beijing, Haarlem, Latin American-Mediterranean (LAM), East African Indian (EAI), Delhi/Central Asian (CAS), Ghana, Turkey (Tur), Uganda I and II, Ural and X-type, as well as for Mycobacterium africanum genotypes West African I (WA I) and II (WA II), Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium caprae, Mycobacterium pinnipedii, Mycobacterium microti and Mycobacterium canettii. Conclusions: This study represents one of the most extensive overviews of phylogenetically informative polymorphisms in known resistance genes to date, and will serve as a resource for the design and interpretation of genotypic susceptibility assays ©The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. Source


Weniger T.,University of Munster | Krawczyk J.,Molecular Mycobacteriology | Supply P.,University of Lille Nord de France | Niemann S.,Molecular Mycobacteriology | Harmsen D.,University of Munster
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2010

Harmonized typing of bacteria and easy identification of locally or internationally circulating clones are essential for epidemiological surveillance and disease control. For Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) species, multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) targeting mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRU) has been internationally adopted as the new standard, portable, reproducible and discriminatory typing method. However, no specialized bioinformatics web tools are available for analysing MLVA data in combination with other, complementary typing data. Therefore, we have developed the web application MIRU-VNTRplus (http://www.miruvntrplus. org). This freely accessible service allows users to analyse genotyping data of their strains alone or in comparison with a reference database of strains representing the major MTBC lineages. Analysis and comparisons of genotypes can be based on MLVA-, spoligotype-, large sequence polymorphism and single nucleotide polymorphism data, or on a weighted combination of these markers. Tools for data exploration include search for similar strains, creation of phylogenetic and minimum spanning trees and mapping of geographic information. To facilitate scientific communication, an expanding genotype nomenclature (MLVA MtbC15-9 type) that can be queried via a web-or a SOAP-interface has been implemented. An extensive documentation guides users through all application functions. © The Author(s) 2010. Published by Oxford University Press. Source

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