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Seok J.K.,Molecular Matrix | Boo Y.C.,Kyungpook National University
Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology | Year: 2015

Ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced loss of dermal extracellular matrix is associated with skin photoaging. Recent studies demonstrated that keratinocyte-releasable stratifin (SFN) plays a critical role in skin collagen metabolism by inducing matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1) expression in target fibroblasts. In the present study, we examined whether SFN released from UVB-irradiated epidermal keratinocytes increases MMP1 release from dermal fibroblasts, and whether these events are affected by p-coumaric acid (p-CA), a natural phenolic compound with UVB-shielding and antioxidant properties. HaCaT cells were exposed to UVB in the absence and presence of p-CA, and the conditioned medium was used to stimulate fibroblasts in medium transfer experiments. The cells and media were analyzed to determine the expressions/releases of SFN and MMP1. UVB exposure increased SFN release from keratinocytes into the medium. The conditioned medium of UVB-irradiated keratinocytes increased MMP1 release from fibroblasts. The depletion of SFN using a siRNA rendered the conditioned medium of UVB-irradiated keratinocytes ineffective at stimulating fibroblasts to release MMP1. p-CA mitigated UVB-induced SFN expression in keratinocytes, and attenuated the MMP1 release by fibroblasts in medium transfer experiments. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that the use of UV absorbers such as p-CA would reduce UV-induced SFN-centered signaling events involved in skin photoaging. Copyright © Korean J Physiol Pharmacol & MEDrang Inc.

Doern C.D.,Molecular Matrix | Doern C.D.,Virginia Commonwealth University | Butler-Wu S.M.,Molecular Matrix | Butler-Wu S.M.,University of Southern California
Journal of Molecular Diagnostics | Year: 2016

The performance of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MS) for routine bacterial and yeast identification as well as direct-from-blood culture bottle identification has been thoroughly evaluated in the peer-reviewed literature. Microbiologists are now moving beyond these methods to apply MS to other areas of the diagnostic process. This review discusses the emergence of advanced matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight MS applications, including the identification of filamentous fungi and mycobacteria and the current and future state of antimicrobial resistance testing. © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology

Nagamine S.,University of Tsukuba | Nagamine S.,Tokyo Metropolitan Neurological Hospital | Tamba M.,University of Tsukuba | Ishimine H.,University of Tsukuba | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2012

Heparan sulfate endosulfatases Sulf1 and Sulf2 hydrolyze 6-O-sulfate in heparan sulfate, thereby regulating cellular signaling. Previous studies have revealed that Sulfs act predominantly on UA2S-GlcNS6S disaccharides and weakly on UA-GlcNS6S disaccharides. However, the specificity of Sulfs and their role in sulfation patterning of heparan sulfate in vivo remained unknown. Here, we performed disaccharide analysis of heparan sulfate in Sulf1 and Sulf2 knock-out mice. Significant increases in ΔUA2S-GlcNS6S were observed in the brain, small intestine, lung, spleen, testis, and skeletal muscle of adult Sulf1 -/- mice and in the brain, liver, kidney, spleen, and testis of adult Sulf2 -/- mice. In addition, increases in ΔUA-GlcNS6S were seen in the Sulf1 -/- lung and small intestine. In contrast, the disaccharide compositions of chondroitin sulfate were not primarily altered, indicating specificity of Sulfs for heparan sulfate. For Sulf1, but not for Sulf2, mRNA expression levels in eight organs of wild-type mice were highly correlated with increases in ΔUA2S-GlcNS6S in the corresponding organs of knock-out mice. Moreover, overall changes in heparan sulfate compositions were greater in Sulf1 -/- mice than in Sulf2 -/- mice despite lower levels of Sulf1 mRNA expression, suggesting predominant roles of Sulf1 in heparan sulfate desulfation and distinct regulation of Sulf activities in vivo. Sulf1 and Sulf2 mRNAs were differentially expressed in restricted types of cells in organs, and consequently, the sulfation patterns of heparan sulfate were locally and distinctly altered in Sulf1 and Sulf2 knock-out mice. These findings indicate that Sulf1 and Sulf2 differentially contribute to the generation of organ-specific sulfation patterns of heparan sulfate. © 2012 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

Takashima Y.,University of Tsukuba | Keino-Masu K.,University of Tsukuba | Yashiro H.,University of Tsukuba | Hara S.,University of Tsukuba | And 4 more authors.
American journal of physiology. Renal physiology | Year: 2016

Glomerular integrity and functions are maintained by growth factor signaling. Heparan sulfate, the major component of glomerular extracellular matrixes, modulates growth factor signaling, but its roles in glomerular homeostasis are unknown. We investigated the roles of heparan sulfate 6-O-endosulfatases, sulfatase (Sulf)1 and Sulf2, in glomerular homeostasis. Both Sulf1 and Sulf2 were expressed in the glomeruli of wild-type (WT) mice. Sulf1 and Sulf2 double-knockout (DKO) mice showed glomerular hypercellularity, matrix accumulation, mesangiolysis, and glomerular basement membrane irregularity. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-B and PDGF receptor-β were upregulated in Sulf1 and Sulf2 DKO mice compared with WT mice. Glomeruli from Sulf1 and Sulf2 DKO mice in vitro stimulated by either PDGF-B, VEGF, or transforming growth factor-β similarly showed reduction of phospho-Akt, phospho-Erk1/2, and phospho-Smad2/3, respectively. Since glomerular lesions in Sulf1 and Sulf2 DKO mice were reminiscent of diabetic nephropathy, we examined the effects of Sulf1 and Sulf2 gene disruption in streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Diabetic WT mice showed an upregulation of glomerular Sulf1 and Sulf2 mRNA by in situ hybridization. Diabetic DKO mice showed significant increases in albuminuria and serum creatinine and an acceleration of glomerular pathology without glomerular hypertrophy; those were associated with a reduction of glomerular phospho-Akt. In conclusion, Sulf1 and Sulf2 play indispensable roles to maintain glomerular integrity and protective roles in diabetic nephropathy, probably by growth factor modulation. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

Naillat F.,Molecular Matrix | Prunskaite-Hyyrylainen R.,Molecular Matrix | Pietila I.,Molecular Matrix | Sormunen R.,University of Oulu | And 3 more authors.
Human Molecular Genetics | Year: 2010

Germ cells are the foundation of an individual, since they generate the gametes and provide the unique genome established through meiosis. The sex-specific fate of the germline in mammals is thought to be controlled by somatic signals, which are still poorly characterized. We demonstrate here that somatic Wnt signalling is crucial for the control of female germline development. Wnt-4 maintains germ cell cysts and early follicular gene expression and provides a female pattern of E-cadherin and β-catenin expression within the germ cells. In addition, we find that Stra8 expression is downregulated and the Cyp26b1 gene is expressed ectopically in the partially masculinized Wnt-4-deficient ovary. Wnt-4 may control meiosis via these proteins since the Cyp26b1 enzyme is known to degrade retinoic acid (RA) and inhibit meiosis in the male embryo, and Stra8 induces meiosis in the female through RA. Reintroduction of a Wnt-4 signal to the partially masculinized embryonic ovary, in fact, rescues the female property to a certain degree, as seen by inhibition of Cyp26b1 and induction of Irx3 gene expression. Wnt-4 deficiency allows only 20% of the germ cells to initiate meiosis in the ovary, whereas meiosis is inhibited completely in the Wnt-4/Wnt-5a double mutant. These findings indicate a critical role for Wnt signalling in meiosis. Thus, the Wnt signals are important somatic cell signals that coordinate presumptive female follicle development. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oxfordjournals.org.

Molecular Matrix | Date: 2014-10-20

Medical and scientific apparatus, namely, devices for growing cells in three dimensions.

PubMed | Molecular Matrix
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Oncogene | Year: 2011

Cell-type-specific signalling determines cell fate under physiological conditions, but it is increasingly apparent that also in cancer development the impact of any given oncogenic pathway on the individual cancer pathology is dependent on cell-lineage-specific molecular traits. For instance in colon and liver cancer canonical Wnt signalling produces increased cytoplasmic and nuclear localised beta-catenin, which correlates with invasion and poor prognosis. In contrast, in melanoma increased cytoplasmic and nuclear beta-catenin is currently emerging as a marker for good prognosis, and thus seems to have a different function compared with other cancer types; however, this function is unknown. We discovered that in contrast to its function in other cancers, in melanoma, beta-catenin blocks invasion. We demonstrate that this opposing role of nuclear beta-catenin in melanoma is mediated through MITF, a melanoma-specific protein that defines the lineage background of this cancer type. Downstream of beta-catenin MITF not only suppresses the Rho-GTPase-regulated cell morphology of invading melanoma cells, but also interferes with beta-catenin-induced expression of the essential collagenase MT1-MMP, thus affecting all aspects of an invasive phenotype. Importantly, overexpression of MITF in invasive colon cancer cells modifies beta-catenin-directed signalling and induces a melanoma phenotype. In summary, the cell-type-specific presence of MITF in melanoma affects beta-catenins pro-invasive properties otherwise active in colon or liver cancer. Thus our study reveals the general importance of considering cell-type-specific signalling for the accurate interpretation of tumour markers and ultimately for the design of rational therapies.

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