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Komi Y.,Molecular Ligand Biology Research Team | Komi Y.,Tokyo Medical and Dental University | Sogabe Y.,Molecular Ligand Biology Research Team | Ishibashi N.,Tokyo New Drug Research Laboratory | And 4 more authors.
Laboratory Investigation | Year: 2010

Acyclic retinoid (ACR) is currently under clinical trial as an agent to suppress the recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) through its ability to induce apoptosis in premature HCC cells. ACR has an anticancer effect in vivo as well, although it shows weak apoptosis-inducing activity against mature HCC cells, suggesting the existence of an additional action mechanism. In this study, we investigated the antiangiogenic activity of ACR. ACR inhibited angiogenesis within chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) in as similar a manner as all-trans retinoic acid (atRA). Although suppression of angiogenesis by atRA was partially rescued by the simultaneous addition of angiopoietin-1, suppression of angiogenesis by ACR was not rescued under the same condition at all. Conversely, although suppression of angiogenesis by ACR was partially inverted by the simultaneous addition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), suppression of angiogenesis by atRA was not affected under the same condition. These results suggested that mechanisms underlying the suppression of angiogenesis by ACR and atRA were different. ACR selectively inhibited the phosphorylation of VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) without changing their protein expression levels, and inhibited endothelial cell growth, migration, and tube formation. The inhibition of the phosphorylation of ERK, endothelial growth, migration, tube formation, and angiogenesis by ACR was rescued by the overexpression of constitutively active mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Finally, ACR, but not atRA, inhibited HCC-induced angiogenesis in a xenografted CAM model. These results delineate the novel activity of ACR as an antiangiogenic through a strong inhibition of the VEGFR2 MAPK pathway. © 2010 USCAP, Inc All rights reserved.

Miura A.,Kagoshima University | Kambe Y.,Kagoshima University | Inoue K.,Kagoshima University | Tatsukawa H.,Molecular Ligand Biology Research Team | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2013

Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) functions as a neuroprotective factor through the PACAP type 1 receptor, PAC1. In a previous work, we demonstrated that nerve growth factor augmented PAC1 gene expression through the activation of Sp1 via the Ras/MAPK pathway. We also observed that PAC1 expression in Neuro2a cells was transiently suppressed during in vitro ischemic conditions, oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). Because endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is induced by ischemia, we attempted to clarify how ER stress affects the expression of PAC1. Tunicamycin, which induces ER stress, significantly suppressed PAC1 gene expression, and salubrinal, a selective inhibitor of the protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase signaling pathway of ER stress, blocked the suppression. In luciferase reporter assay, we found that two Sp1 sites were involved in suppression of PAC1 gene expression due to tunicamycin or OGD. Immunocytochemical staining demonstrated that OGD-induced transglutaminase 2 (TG2) expression was suppressed by salubrinal or cystamine, a TG activity inhibitor. Further, the OGD-induced accumulation of cross-linked Sp1 in nuclei was suppressed by cystamine or salubrinal. Together with cystamine, R283, TG2-specific inhibitor, and siRNA specific for TG2 also ameliorated OGD-induced attenuation of PAC1 gene expression. These results suggest that Sp1 cross-linking might be crucial in negative regulation of PAC1 gene expression due to TG2 in OGD-induced ER stress. © 2013 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

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