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Perez R.,Molecular Immunology Institute
Frontiers in Immunology | Year: 2012

P3 is a murine IgM mAb that recognize N-glycosylated gangliosides, sulfatides, and anti- gens expressed in melanoma, breast, and lung human tumors.This antibody has the ability to trigger an IgG antibody response in the syngeneic BALB/c model, even when it is admin- istered in the absence of adjuvant or carrier protein.The mechanism by which the P3 mAb, a self-immunoglobulin, induce this immune response in the absence of co-stimulatory or classical danger signals is still unknown. In the present paper we show that the high immunogenicity of P3 mAb depends not only on CD4 but also on CD8+ T cells, since the depletion of CD8+ or CD4+ T cells led to the loss of P3 mAb immunogenicity in the syngeneic model. Furthermore, the immunization with P3 mAb enhanced the recovery of the CD8+ T cell population in mice treated with an anti-CD8a antibody. Additionally, the immunization with P3 mAb restored the capacity of immunosuppressed mice to reject allogeneic tumors, a mechanism mediated by the action of CD8+ T cells. Finally, in mice with cyclophosphamide induced lymphopenia, the administration of P3 mAb accelerated the recovery of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. These results show new possibilities for B and CD8+ T cells interactions during the immune response elicited by a self-protein. Fur- thermore they point to P3 mAb as a potential interesting candidate for the treatment of immunosuppressed patients. © 2012 Martínez, Rodríguez,.

Garrido G.,Molecular Immunology Institute | Rabasa A.,Molecular Immunology Institute | Garrido C.,Hospital Universitario VirgenNieves | Garrido C.,University of Granada | And 7 more authors.
Oncogene | Year: 2014

To define the molecular basis of secondary resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-specific antibodies is crucial to increase clinical benefit in patients. The limited access to posttreatment tumor samples constitutes the major barrier to conduct these studies, representing preclinical experimentation as a useful alternative. Anti-EGFR antibody-based therapy has been reported to mediate tumor regression by interrupting oncogenic signals and, more recently, by inducing antitumor immunological responses. However, resistance models have been focused only on tumor escape associated with EGFR blockade, whereas studies describing immune-associated escape mechanisms have not been reported thus far. To address this idea, we modeled resistance induction in D122 metastasis-bearing C57BL/6 mice treated with 7A7 (an anti-murine EGFR antibody). Similarly to patients receiving EGFR-specific antibodies, 7A7 resistance promotion represents an important drawback to successful therapy. Characterization of primary cultures derived from metastasis in 7A7-treated mice revealed a high frequency of tumor variants resistant to in vivo and in vitro antibody treatment. We showed, for the first time, the convergence of alterations in oncogenic and immunological pathways in 7A7-resistant variants. To identify key molecules behind resistance, seven 7A7-resistant variants were screened. HER3 overexpression and PTEN deficiency leading to hyperactivation of protumoral downstream signaling were found in these variants as a consequence of 7A7-mediated EGFR inhibition. Concomitantly, we found a high percentage of resistant variants carrying abnormalities in the constitutive and/or interferon gamma (IFN-γ)-inducible major histocompatibility complex I (MHC-I) expression. A significant decrease in mRNA levels for MHC-I heavy chains, β 2 -microglogulin and antigen processing machinery genes as well as transcriptional alterations in IFN-γ pathway components were identified as the main mechanisms underlying MHC-I expression defects in 7A7-resistant variants. Notably, these defects have not been previously associated with EGFR-specific antibody resistance, providing novel immunological escape mechanisms. This study has strong implications for the development of new combination strategies to overcome anti-EGFR antibodies refractoriness. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Garrido G.,Molecular Immunology Institute | Rabasa A.,Molecular Immunology Institute | Sanchez B.,Molecular Immunology Institute
OncoImmunology | Year: 2013

Searching for biomarkers that associated with the acquired resistance of malignant cells to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeting monoclonal antibodies is crucial to improve the clinical benefits of these therapeutic agents. We have recently demonstrated that molecular alterations in both oncogenic and immunological pathways may be responsible for such an insensitivity. Our findings suggest that a combination of targeted anticancer agents and immunomodulatory drugs may be useful for overcoming the acquired resistance of cancer cells to EGFR-specific monoclonal antibodies. © 2013 Landes Bioscience.

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