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Piperno G.M.,Molecular Immunology Group | Lopez-Requena A.,Molecular Immunology Group | Lopez-Requena A.,Catholic University of Leuven | Predonzani A.,Molecular Immunology Group | And 4 more authors.
Gene Therapy | Year: 2015

The ganglioside GM3(Neu5Gc) has gained increasing attention as therapeutic target because of its selective expression in various human tumours, such as melanoma, breast and lung cancer. 14F7 is a mouse IgG1 with specific reactivity to GM3(Neu5Gc)-positive tumours. The therapeutic activity of 14F7 has also been demonstrated in vivo, through its repetitive passive administration in tumour-bearing animals. In this work we used an alternative strategy to deliver recombinant 14F7 in vivo and analysed the therapeutic efficacy of this approach. We engineered a recombinant adeno-associated vector to direct the expression of secretable recombinant 14F7 in BALB/c animals. A single administration of the rAAV induced efficient production and secretion of the antibody in the bloodstream, with an expression level reaching plateau at ∼3 weeks after injection and persisting for almost a year. Strikingly, upon challenge with GM3(Neu5Gc)-positive X63-AG8.653 myeloma cells, tumour development was significantly delayed in animals treated with rAAV-14F7 with respect to animals treated with a control rAAV codifying for an irrelevant antibody. Finally, no significant differences in survival proportion were detected in animals injected with rAAV-14F7 or treated by standard administration of repetitive doses of purified monoclonal antibody 14F7. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Fyhrquist N.,Finnish Institute of Occupational Health | Ruokolainen L.,University of Helsinki | Suomalainen A.,Finnish Institute of Occupational Health | Lehtimaki S.,Molecular Immunology Group | And 18 more authors.
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2014

Background The human commensal microbiota interacts in a complex manner with the immune system, and the outcome of these interactions might depend on the immune status of the subject. Objective Previous studies have suggested a strong allergy-protective effect for Gammaproteobacteria. Here we analyze the skin microbiota, allergic sensitization (atopy), and immune function in a cohort of adolescents, as well as the influence of Acinetobacter species on immune responses in vitro and in vivo.MethodsThe skin microbiota of the study subjects was identified by using 16S rRNA sequencing. PBMCs were analyzed for baseline and allergen-stimulated mRNA expression. In in vitro assays human monocyte-derived dendritic cells and primary keratinocytes were incubated with Acinetobacter lwoffii. Finally, in in vivo experiments mice were injected intradermally with A lwoffii during the sensitization phase of the asthma protocol, followed by readout of inflammatory parameters.Results In healthy subjects, but not in atopic ones, the relative abundance of Acinetobacter species was associated with the expression of anti-inflammatory molecules by PBMCs. Moreover, healthy subjects exhibited a robust balance between anti-inflammatory and TH1/TH2 gene expression, which was related to the composition of the skin microbiota. In cell assays and in a mouse model, Acinetobacter species induced strong TH1 and anti-inflammatory responses by immune cells and skin cells and protected against allergic sensitization and lung inflammation through the skin.Conclusion These results support the hypothesis that skin commensals play an important role in tuning the balance of TH1, TH2, and anti-inflammatory responses to environmental allergens. © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.


PubMed | University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research, North Carolina State University and Molecular Immunology Group
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Parasite immunology | Year: 2015

Previously, vaccination of cattle with Escherichia coli-expressed bovine lungworm paramyosin (EcPMY) adjuvanted with Quil A resulted in considerable reduction in worm burden and larvae shedding (Strube et al., 2015). To further evaluate the protective potential of PMY, cattle vaccination trials were performed using either E. coli- (EcPMY) or Pichia pastoris-expressed PMY (PpPMY) with different adjuvants (Matrix-Q() or Quil A). Combinations EcPMY+Matrix-Q() (trial 1), PpPMY+Matrix-Q() (trial 2) and PpPMY+Quil A (trial 3) were tested against challenge infections with 2000 Dictyocaulus viviparus larvae. Even though GM worm burden and larvae shedding was lower in almost all vaccinated groups, there were high variations between individuals hampering significant differences. However, in all vaccinated groups, lungworms were significantly shorter compared with those in controls. In vitro stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with recombinant (r)PMY revealed no significant proliferation following vaccinations or challenge infection. All vaccinated cattle showed a significant rise in specific antibodies, particularly IgG and its subclass IgG1, and detected the native lungworm PMY in immunoblots starting 2 weeks after the first vaccination. The use of a different rPMY-adjuvant combination or combined vaccination with additional recombinant antigens might be a promising future approach towards a new vaccine against lungworms in cattle.


Desselberger U.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Desselberger U.,Molecular Immunology Group | Desselberger U.,University of Cambridge | Richards J.,University of Cambridge | And 6 more authors.
Virus Research | Year: 2013

Rotavirus (RV) cores were released from double-layered particles (DLPs) by high concentrations of CaCl2, purified and 'opened' by treatment with EDTA or EGTA. Under appropriate in vitro conditions DLPs have been shown to have transcriptase and 'open cores' replicase activity. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that transcriptase activity and infectivity of native cores can be restored by transcapsidation with VP6, VP7 and VP4. The missing link for particle reconstitution in vitro has been the manipulation of 'open cores' to become functionally active cores again. The experiments described here were undertaken with the aim of exploring packaging of RV RNAs into opened cores in vitro. Rotavirus cores were opened by approximately 200μM EGTA, leading to the release of genomic dsRNA. Conversely, RV cores were found to be stable in the presence of minimum concentrations of Ca2+, Mg2+, spermidine3+ and cobalthexamine3+ of between 40 and 300μM. Aggregates of purified cores were resolved in the presence of 0.3mM deoxycholate (minimum concentration). Core shells opened with EGTA were reconstituted by the addition of di- or trivalent cations within 2min of the opening procedure. Addition of purified, baculovirus recombinant-expressed VP6 to native and reconstituted cores led to the formation of DLPs or DLP-like particles, which upon transfection into MA104 cells were infectious. The rescued infectivity likely originated in part from unopened and in part from reconstituted cores. Radiolabelled RV (+) ssRNAs could be packaged into reconstituted cores and DLPs, as indicated by resistance to RNase I digestion. The packaging reaction was, however, not RV RNA sequence-specific, since unrelated ssRNAs, such as those transcribed from HIV-2 cDNAs, were also packaged. The kinetics of packaging of homologous and heterologous RNAs were similar, as evidenced by competitive packaging assays. None of the packaged in vitro engineered RNA segments has so far been rescued into infectious virus. © 2013 The Authors.


PubMed | University of Eastern Finland, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, University of Helsinki and Molecular Immunology Group
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology | Year: 2014

The human commensal microbiota interacts in a complex manner with the immune system, and the outcome of these interactions might depend on the immune status of the subject.Previous studies have suggested a strong allergy-protective effect for Gammaproteobacteria. Here we analyze the skin microbiota, allergic sensitization (atopy), and immune function in a cohort of adolescents, as well as the influence of Acinetobacter species on immune responses invitro and invivo.The skin microbiota of the study subjects was identified by using 16S rRNA sequencing. PBMCs were analyzed for baseline and allergen-stimulated mRNA expression. In invitro assays human monocyte-derived dendritic cells and primary keratinocytes were incubated with Acinetobacter lwoffii. Finally, in invivo experiments mice were injected intradermally with A lwoffii during the sensitization phase of the asthma protocol, followed by readout of inflammatory parameters.In healthy subjects, but not in atopic ones, the relative abundance of Acinetobacter species was associated with the expression of anti-inflammatory molecules by PBMCs. Moreover, healthy subjects exhibited a robust balance between anti-inflammatory and TH1/TH2 gene expression, which was related to the composition of the skin microbiota. In cell assays and in a mouse model, Acinetobacter species induced strong TH1 and anti-inflammatory responses by immune cells and skin cells and protected against allergic sensitization and lung inflammation through the skin.These results support the hypothesis that skin commensals play an important role in tuning the balance of TH1, TH2, and anti-inflammatory responses to environmental allergens.


Venugopalan V.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Venugopalan V.,University of Delhi | Tripathi S.K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Tripathi S.K.,Molecular Immunology Group | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2013

Canthaxanthin (cx) is a potent antioxidant that is chemically synthesized at the industrial scale and has imperative applications in the cosmetic and feed industries. An orange pigmented mesophilic bacterium, designated as K44, was isolated from soil samples of Kargil, India. Biochemical tests, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and FAME analysis of the bacterium indicated it to belong in the genus Dietzia and is distinct from human isolates. The strain showed 98% 16S rRNA gene sequence homology with Dietzia maris DSM 43102. High-performance liquid chromatography profile of the pigments isolated from K44 showed two major peaks absorbing at 465.3 and 475 nm. The liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis of both these peaks revealed their m/z to be 564. The molecular weights, LC-MS/MS fragmentation patterns, and λmax of these fractions corresponded to all-trans- (475 nm) and 9-cis-(465.3 nm) cx isomers. The antioxidant activities of cis- and trans-cx isomers isolated from this bacterium were found to differ, where the cis-isomer showed higher free radical, superoxide radical, and reactive oxygen species scavenging activities than the alltrans- isomer, suggesting that 9-cis-cx is more effective as an antioxidant than the all-trans-cx. © The Korean Society for Microbiology and Biotechnology.


Sasset L.,Molecular Immunology Group | Petris G.,University of Trento | Cesaratto F.,Molecular Immunology Group | Burrone O.R.,Molecular Immunology Group
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2015

Endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) is an essential quality control mechanism of the folding state of proteins in the secretory pathway that targets unfolded/misfolded polypeptides for proteasomal degradation. The cytosolic p97/valosin-containing protein is an essential ATPase for degradation of ERAD substrates. It has been considered necessary during retro-translocation to extract proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum that are otherwise supposed to accumulate in the endoplasmic reticulum lumen. The activity of the p97-associated deubiquitinylase YOD1 is also required for substrate disposal. We used the in vivo biotinylation retro-translocation assay in mammalian cells under conditions of impaired p97 or YOD1 activity to directly discriminate their requirements and diverse functions in ERAD. Using differentERADsubstrates, we found that both proteins participate in two distinct retro-translocation steps. For CD4 and MHC-I α, which are induced to degradation by the HIV-1 protein Vpu and by the CMV immunoevasins US2 and US11, respectively, p97 and YOD1 have a retro-translocation-triggering role. In contrast, for three other spontaneous ERAD model substrates (NS1, NHK-α1AT, and BST-2/Tetherin), p97 and YOD1 are required in the downstream events of substrate deglycosylation and proteasomal degradation. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.


Vecchi L.,Molecular Immunology Group | Petris G.,Molecular Immunology Group | Bestagno M.,Molecular Immunology Group | Burrone O.R.,Molecular Immunology Group
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2012

The endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) is a cellular quality control mechanism to dispose of misfolded proteins of the secretory pathway via proteasomal degradation. SEL1L is an ER-resident protein that participates in identification of misfolded molecules as ERAD substrates, therefore inducing their ER-to-cytosol retrotranslocation and degradation. Wehave developed a novel class of fusion proteins, termed degradins, composed of a fragment of SEL1L fused to a target-specific binding moiety located on the luminal side of the ER. The target-binding moiety can be a ligand of the target or derived from specific mAbs. Here, we describe the ability of degradins with two different recognition moieties to promote degradation of a model target. Degradins recognize the target protein within the ER both in secretory and membrane-bound forms, inducing their degradation following retrotranslocation to the cytosol. Thus, degradins represent an effective technique to knock-out proteins within the secretory pathway with high specificity. © 2012 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

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