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Venugopalan V.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Venugopalan V.,University of Delhi | Tripathi S.K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Tripathi S.K.,Molecular Immunology Group | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2013

Canthaxanthin (cx) is a potent antioxidant that is chemically synthesized at the industrial scale and has imperative applications in the cosmetic and feed industries. An orange pigmented mesophilic bacterium, designated as K44, was isolated from soil samples of Kargil, India. Biochemical tests, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and FAME analysis of the bacterium indicated it to belong in the genus Dietzia and is distinct from human isolates. The strain showed 98% 16S rRNA gene sequence homology with Dietzia maris DSM 43102. High-performance liquid chromatography profile of the pigments isolated from K44 showed two major peaks absorbing at 465.3 and 475 nm. The liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis of both these peaks revealed their m/z to be 564. The molecular weights, LC-MS/MS fragmentation patterns, and λmax of these fractions corresponded to all-trans- (475 nm) and 9-cis-(465.3 nm) cx isomers. The antioxidant activities of cis- and trans-cx isomers isolated from this bacterium were found to differ, where the cis-isomer showed higher free radical, superoxide radical, and reactive oxygen species scavenging activities than the alltrans- isomer, suggesting that 9-cis-cx is more effective as an antioxidant than the all-trans-cx. © The Korean Society for Microbiology and Biotechnology.

Fyhrquist N.,Finnish Institute of Occupational Health | Ruokolainen L.,University of Helsinki | Suomalainen A.,Finnish Institute of Occupational Health | Lehtimaki S.,Molecular Immunology Group | And 18 more authors.
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2014

Background The human commensal microbiota interacts in a complex manner with the immune system, and the outcome of these interactions might depend on the immune status of the subject. Objective Previous studies have suggested a strong allergy-protective effect for Gammaproteobacteria. Here we analyze the skin microbiota, allergic sensitization (atopy), and immune function in a cohort of adolescents, as well as the influence of Acinetobacter species on immune responses in vitro and in vivo.MethodsThe skin microbiota of the study subjects was identified by using 16S rRNA sequencing. PBMCs were analyzed for baseline and allergen-stimulated mRNA expression. In in vitro assays human monocyte-derived dendritic cells and primary keratinocytes were incubated with Acinetobacter lwoffii. Finally, in in vivo experiments mice were injected intradermally with A lwoffii during the sensitization phase of the asthma protocol, followed by readout of inflammatory parameters.Results In healthy subjects, but not in atopic ones, the relative abundance of Acinetobacter species was associated with the expression of anti-inflammatory molecules by PBMCs. Moreover, healthy subjects exhibited a robust balance between anti-inflammatory and TH1/TH2 gene expression, which was related to the composition of the skin microbiota. In cell assays and in a mouse model, Acinetobacter species induced strong TH1 and anti-inflammatory responses by immune cells and skin cells and protected against allergic sensitization and lung inflammation through the skin.Conclusion These results support the hypothesis that skin commensals play an important role in tuning the balance of TH1, TH2, and anti-inflammatory responses to environmental allergens. © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.

Piperno G.M.,Molecular Immunology Group | Lopez-Requena A.,Molecular Immunology Group | Lopez-Requena A.,Catholic University of Leuven | Predonzani A.,Molecular Immunology Group | And 3 more authors.
Gene Therapy | Year: 2015

The ganglioside GM3(Neu5Gc) has gained increasing attention as therapeutic target because of its selective expression in various human tumours, such as melanoma, breast and lung cancer. 14F7 is a mouse IgG1 with specific reactivity to GM3(Neu5Gc)-positive tumours. The therapeutic activity of 14F7 has also been demonstrated in vivo, through its repetitive passive administration in tumour-bearing animals. In this work we used an alternative strategy to deliver recombinant 14F7 in vivo and analysed the therapeutic efficacy of this approach. We engineered a recombinant adeno-associated vector to direct the expression of secretable recombinant 14F7 in BALB/c animals. A single administration of the rAAV induced efficient production and secretion of the antibody in the bloodstream, with an expression level reaching plateau at ∼3 weeks after injection and persisting for almost a year. Strikingly, upon challenge with GM3(Neu5Gc)-positive X63-AG8.653 myeloma cells, tumour development was significantly delayed in animals treated with rAAV-14F7 with respect to animals treated with a control rAAV codifying for an irrelevant antibody. Finally, no significant differences in survival proportion were detected in animals injected with rAAV-14F7 or treated by standard administration of repetitive doses of purified monoclonal antibody 14F7. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Sasset L.,Molecular Immunology Group | Petris G.,University of Trento | Cesaratto F.,Molecular Immunology Group | Burrone O.R.,Molecular Immunology Group
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2015

Endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) is an essential quality control mechanism of the folding state of proteins in the secretory pathway that targets unfolded/misfolded polypeptides for proteasomal degradation. The cytosolic p97/valosin-containing protein is an essential ATPase for degradation of ERAD substrates. It has been considered necessary during retro-translocation to extract proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum that are otherwise supposed to accumulate in the endoplasmic reticulum lumen. The activity of the p97-associated deubiquitinylase YOD1 is also required for substrate disposal. We used the in vivo biotinylation retro-translocation assay in mammalian cells under conditions of impaired p97 or YOD1 activity to directly discriminate their requirements and diverse functions in ERAD. Using differentERADsubstrates, we found that both proteins participate in two distinct retro-translocation steps. For CD4 and MHC-I α, which are induced to degradation by the HIV-1 protein Vpu and by the CMV immunoevasins US2 and US11, respectively, p97 and YOD1 have a retro-translocation-triggering role. In contrast, for three other spontaneous ERAD model substrates (NS1, NHK-α1AT, and BST-2/Tetherin), p97 and YOD1 are required in the downstream events of substrate deglycosylation and proteasomal degradation. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

Patterson N.J.,Molecular Immunology Group | Gunther J.,Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology | Gibson A.J.,Molecular Immunology Group | Offord V.,Molecular Immunology Group | And 5 more authors.
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2014

Staphylococcus aureus, sequence type (ST) 398, is an emerging pathogen and the leading cause of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus infections in Europe and North America. This strain is characterized by high promiscuity in terms of host-species and also lacks several traditional S. aureus virulence factors. This does not, however, explain the apparent ease with which it crosses species-barriers. Recently, TIR-domain containing proteins (Tcps) which inhibit the innate immune response were identified in some Gram-negative bacteria. Here we report the presence of two proteins, S. aureus TIR-like Protein 1 (SaTlp1) and S. aureus TIR-like Protein 2 (SaTlp2), expressed by ST398 which contain domain of unknown function 1863 (DUF1863), similar to the Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain. In contrast to the Tcps in Gram-negative bacteria, our data suggest that SaTlp1 and SaTlp2 increase activation of the transcription factor NF-?B as well as downstream pro-inflammatory cytokines and immune effectors. To assess the role of both proteins as potential virulence factors knock-out mutants were created. These showed a slightly enhanced survival rate in a murine infectious model compared to the wild-type strain at one dose. Our data suggest that both proteins may act as factors contributing to the enhanced ability of ST398 to cross species-barriers. © 2014 Patterson, Günther, Gibson, Offord, Coffey, Splitter, Monk, Seyfert and Werling.

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