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Boisgerault F.,Molecular Immunology and Innovative Biotherapies Group | Boisgerault F.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Boisgerault F.,University of Evry Val dEssonne | Gross D.-A.,Molecular Immunology and Innovative Biotherapies Group | And 14 more authors.
Human Gene Therapy | Year: 2013

Gene transfer efficacy is limited by unwanted immunization against transgene products. In some models, immunization may be avoided by regulating transgene expression with mir142.3p target sequences. Yet, it is unclear if such a strategy controls T-cell responses following recombinant adeno-associated viral vector (rAAV)-mediated gene transfer, particularly in muscle. In mice, intramuscular rAAV1 gene delivery of a tagged human sarcoglycan muscle protein is robustly immunogenic and leads to muscle destruction. In this model, the simple insertion of mir142.3p-target sequences in the transgene expression cassette modifies the outcome of gene transfer, providing high and persistent levels of muscle transduction in C57Bl/6 mice. Such regulated vector fails to prime specific CD4 and CD8 T cells; although, transgene tolerance seems to result from ignorance and could be broken by a robust antigenic challenge. While effective in normal mice, the mir142.3p-regulated transgene remains immunogenic in sarcoglycan-deficient dystrophic mice. In these mice, transgene expression is only prolonged but does not persist as effector CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses develop. Thus, using a mir142.3p-regulated transgene can improve rAAV muscle gene transfer results, but the level of efficacy depends on the context of application. In normal muscle, this strategy is sufficient to prevent immunization and functions even more effectively than tissue-specific promoters. In dystrophic models, additional strategies are required to fully control T-cell responses. © Copyright 2013, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Ferrand M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Ferrand M.,Molecular Immunology and Innovative Biotherapies Group | Galy A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Galy A.,Molecular Immunology and Innovative Biotherapies Group | And 2 more authors.
Gene Therapy | Year: 2014

Recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors (rAAVs) are used for therapeutic gene transfer in skeletal muscle, but it is unclear if immune reactivity to gene transfer and persistence of transgene are affected by pathologic conditions such as muscular dystrophy. Thus, we compared dystrophic mice devoid of α-sarcoglycan with healthy mice to characterize immune cell activation and cellular populations contributing to the loss of gene-modified myofibers. Following rAAV2/1 delivery of an immunogenic α-sarcoglycan reporter transgene in the muscle, both strains developed strong CD4 and CD8 T-cell-mediated immune responses in lymphoid organs associated with muscle CD3+ T and CD11b+ mononuclear cell infiltrates. Selective cell subset depletion models revealed that CD4+ T cells were essential for transgene rejection in both healthy and pathologic mice, but macrophages and CD8+ T cells additionally contributed as effector cells of transgene rejection only in dystrophic mice. Vectors restricting transgene expression in antigen-presenting cells showed that endogenous presentation of transgene products was the sole mechanism responsible for T-cell priming in normal mice, whereas additional and protracted antigenic presentation occurred in dystrophic animals, leading to secondary CD4+ T-cell activation and failure to maintain transgene expression. Therefore, the dystrophic environment diversifies cellular immune response mechanisms induced by gene transfer, with a negative outcome. © 2014 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

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