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McNees C.J.,Telomeres and Telomerase Group | Tejera A.M.,Telomeres and Telomerase Group | Martinez P.,Telomeres and Telomerase Group | Murga M.,Genomic Instability Group | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Cell Biology | Year: 2010

Telomere shortening caused by incomplete DNA replication is balanced by telomerase-mediated telomere extension, with evidence indicating that the shortest telomeres are preferred substrates in primary cells. Critically short telomeres are detected by the cellular DNA damage response (DDR) system. In budding yeast, the important DDR kinase Tel1 (homologue of ATM [ataxia telangiectasia mutated]) is vital for telomerase recruitment to short telomeres, but mammalian ATM is dispensable for this function. We asked whether closely related ATR (ATM and Rad3 related) kinase, which is important for preventing replicative stress and chromosomal breakage at common fragile sites, might instead fulfill this role. The newly created ATR-deficient Seckel mouse strain was used to examine the function of ATR in telomerase recruitment and telomere function. Telomeres were recently found to resemble fragile sites, and we show in this study that ATR has an important role in the suppression of telomere fragility and recombination. We also find that wild-type ATR levels are important to protect short telomeres from chromosomal fusions but do not appear essential for telomerase recruitment to short telomeres in primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts from the ATR-deficient Seckel mouse model. These results reveal a previously unnoticed role for mammalian ATR in telomere protection and stability. © 2010 McNees et al.

Abarrategi A.,Complutense University of Madrid | Abarrategi A.,Institute Salud Carlos III | Moreno-Vicente C.,Complutense University of Madrid | Martinez-Vazquez F.J.,University of Extremadura | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Porous ceramic scaffolds are widely studied in the tissue engineering field due to their potential in medical applications as bone substitutes or as bone-filling materials. Solid free form (SFF) fabrication methods allow fabrication of ceramic scaffolds with fully controlled pore architecture, which opens new perspectives in bone tissue regeneration materials. However, little experimentation has been performed about real biological properties and possible applications of SFF designed 3D ceramic scaffolds. Thus, here the biological properties of a specific SFF scaffold are evaluated first, both in vitro and in vivo, and later scaffolds are also implanted in pig maxillary defect, which is a model for a possible application in maxillofacial surgery. In vitro results show good biocompatibility of the scaffolds, promoting cell ingrowth. In vivo results indicate that material on its own conducts surrounding tissue and allow cell ingrowth, thanks to the designed pore size. Additional osteoinductive properties were obtained with BMP-2, which was loaded on scaffolds, and optimal bone formation was observed in pig implantation model. Collectively, data show that SFF scaffolds have real application possibilities for bone tissue engineering purposes, with the main advantage of being fully customizable 3D structures. © 2012 Abarrategi et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Saif J.,Nottingham Trent University | Schwarz T.M.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Chau D.Y.S.,University of Nottingham | Henstock J.,Nottingham Trent University | And 8 more authors.
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology | Year: 2010

Objective-: Vasculogenic progenitor cell therapy for ischemic diseases bears great potential but still requires further optimization for justifying its clinical application. Here, we investigated the effects of in vivo tissue engineering by combining vasculogenic progenitors with injectable scaffolds releasing controlled amounts of proangiogenic growth factors. Methods and results-: We produced biodegradable, injectable polylactic coglycolic acid-based scaffolds releasing single factors or combinations of vascular endothelial growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor, and angiopoietin-1. Dual and triple combinations of scaffold-released growth factors were superior to single release. In murine hindlimb ischemia models, scaffolds releasing dual (vascular endothelial growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor) or triple combinations improved effects of cord blood-derived vasculogenic progenitors. Increased migration, homing, and incorporation of vasculogenic progenitors into the vasculature augmented capillary density, translating into improved blood perfusion. Most importantly, scaffold-released triple combinations including the vessel stabilizer angiopoietin-1 enhanced the number of perivascular smooth muscle actin vascular smooth muscle cells, indicating more efficient vessel stabilization. Conclusion-: Vasculogenic progenitor cell therapy is significantly enhanced by in vivo tissue engineering providing a proangiogenic and provasculogenic growth factor-enriched microenvironment. Therefore, combined use of scaffold-released growth factors and cell therapy improves neovascularization in ischemic diseases and may translate into more pronounced clinical effects. © 2010 American Heart Association, Inc.

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