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Chung J.-K.,Seoul National University | Youn H.W.,Seoul National University | Kang J.H.,Molecular Imaging Research Center | Lee H.Y.,Seoul National University | Kang K.W.,Seoul National University
Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

Since the specific accumulation of iodide in thyroid was found in 1915, radioiodine has been widely applied to diagnose and treat thyroid cancer. Iodide uptake occurs across the membrane of the thyroid follicular cells and cancer cells through an active transporter process mediated by the sodium iodide symporter (NIS). The NIS coding genes were cloned and identified from rat and human in 1996. Evaluation of the NIS gene and protein expression is critical in the management of thyroid cancer, and several approaches have been tried to increase NIS levels. Identification of the NIS gene has provided a means of expanding its role in the radionuclide gene therapy of nonthyroidal cancers as well as thyroid cancer. In this article, we explain the relationship between NIS expression and the treatment of thyroid carcinoma with I-131, and we include a review of the results of our experimental and clinical trials. © Korean Society of Nuclear Medicine 2010. Source

Kim J.,Kyungpook National University | Pandya D.N.,Kyungpook National University | Lee W.,Kyungpook National University | Park J.W.,Kyungpook National University | And 6 more authors.
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters

By developing a new bimodal radioactive tracer that emits both luminescence and nuclear signals, a trimodal liposome for optical, nuclear, and magnetic resonance imaging is efficiently prepared. Fast clearance of the radiotracer from reticuloendothelial systems enables vivid tumor imaging with minimum background. © 2014 American Chemical Society. Source

Cambon K.,Molecular Imaging Research Center | Deglon N.,University of Lausanne
Methods in Molecular Biology

This chapter describes the potential use of viral-mediated gene transfer in the central nervous system for the silencing of gene expression using RNA interference in the context of Huntington's disease (HD). Protocols provided here describe the design of small interfering RNAs, their encoding in lentiviral vectors (LVs) and viral production, as well as procedures for their stereotaxic injection in the rodent brain. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013. Source

Nam W.H.,KAIST | Ahn I.J.,KAIST | Kim K.M.,Molecular Imaging Research Center | Kim B.I.,Molecular Imaging Research Center | Ra J.B.,KAIST
Physics in Medicine and Biology

Positron emission tomography (PET) is widely used for diagnosis and follow up assessment of radiotherapy. However, thoracic and abdominal PET suffers from false staging and incorrect quantification of the radioactive uptake of lesion(s) due to respiratory motion. Furthermore, respiratory motion-induced mismatch between a computed tomography (CT) attenuation map and PET data often leads to significant artifacts in the reconstructed PET image. To solve these problems, we propose a unified framework for respiratory-matched attenuation correction and motion compensation of respiratory-gated PET. For the attenuation correction, the proposed algorithm manipulates a 4D CT image virtually generated from two low-dose inhale and exhale CT images, rather than a real 4D CT image which significantly increases the radiation burden on a patient. It also utilizes CT-driven motion fields for motion compensation. To realize the proposed algorithm, we propose an improved region-based approach for non-rigid registration between body CT images, and we suggest a selection scheme of 3D CT images that are respiratory-matched to each respiratory-gated sinogram. In this work, the proposed algorithm was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively by using patient datasets including lung and/or liver lesion(s). Experimental results show that the method can provide much clearer organ boundaries and more accurate lesion information than existing algorithms by utilizing two low-dose CT images. © 2013 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine. Source

Bel A.,Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris | Borik W.,Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris | Davidson S.,Royal Brompton Hospital | Helies J.-M.,Molecular Imaging Research Center | And 10 more authors.
European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery

OBJECTIVES: Heparin and protamine are standard for anticoagulation and reversal for cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). The REGADO biosciences protocol 1 (REG1) anticoagulant system, consisting of the Factor IXa (FIXa)-inhibitor pegnivacogin and its reversal agent (anivamersen), has been studied in patients undergoing coronary catheterization and in CPB in sheep and pigs. Prior to first human use in CPB, we wanted to test the safety and efficacy of REG1 in a primate model. METHODS: Fourteen baboons undergoing 2 h of CPB followed by 1 h of reperfusion were studied. Three received heparin/protamine and 11 received 1 of 2 doses of pegnivacogin followed by anivamersen. Thrombin-generating capacity was tested in additional in vitro experiments. RESULTS: Targeted drug levels and near-complete FIXa inhibition were achieved. Bypass was run uneventfully in all animals without any clotting in the circuit and bleeding was minimal in the two groups. However, in contrast to heparin-treated baboons, those receiving pegnivacogin/anivamersen displayed thrombi in the bypass cannulae upon cannulation and kidney cortical infarcts. Inter-species comparisons revealed that in the presence of high levels of FIXa inhibition, tissue factor-mediated thrombin generation in baboons was much higher than that in other species. CONCLUSIONS: These data highlight the limitations of the baboon model for assessing factor-specific coagulation inhibitors during CPB. The justification for Phase 1 human studies using REG1 for CPB is unclear. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved. Source

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