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Starr J.R.,University of Washington | Lin H.J.,Molecular Imaging Program | Ruiz-Correa S.,Center for Mathematical Investigation | Cunningham M.L.,University of Washington | And 4 more authors.

OBJECTIVES: To measure severity of trigonocephaly among infants with single-suture metopic craniosynostosis by using a novel shape descriptor, the trigonocephaly severity index (TSI), and to evaluate whether degree of trigonocephaly correlates with their neurodevelopmental test scores. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter cross-sectional and longitudinal study, identifying and recruiting 65 infants with metopic synostosis before their corrective surgery. We obtained computed tomography images for 49 infants and measured the presurgical TSI, a 3-dimensional outline-based cranial shape descriptor. We evaluated neurodevelopment by administering the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Second Edition, and the Preschool Language Scale, Third Edition, before surgery and at 18 and 36 months of age. We fit linear regression models to estimate associations between test scores and TSI values adjusted for age at testing and race/ethnicity. We fit logistic regression models to estimate whether the odds of developmental delay were increased among children with more severe trigonocephaly. RESULTS: We observed little adjusted association between neurodevelopmental test scores and TSI values, and no associations that persisted at 3 years. Trigonocephaly was less severe among children referred at older ages. CONCLUSION: We observed little evidence of an association between the severity of trigonocephaly among metopic synostosis patients and their neurodevelopmental test scores. Detecting such a relationship with precision may require larger sample sizes or alternative phenotypic quantifiers. Until studies are conducted to explore these possibilities, it appears that although associated with the presence of metopic synostosis, the risk of developmental delays in young children is unrelated to further variation in trigonocephalic shape. Copyright © 2010 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons. Source

Kobayashi H.,Molecular Imaging Program
Japanese Journal of Clinical Radiology

The goal of this review is to introduce the definition, and the past and current status of the molecular imaging in the United States, including grants, infrastructures, and directions of scientific researches. In the research and development of the molecular imaging, in vivo imaging methods to visualize the molecular events and functions in organs or animals/humans are stressed and discussed especially focusing on the multimodality imaging agents based on the nanotechnology. Source

Muller B.G.,Molecular Imaging Program | Muller B.G.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Sankineni S.,Molecular Imaging Program | Marko J.,University of Amsterdam | And 9 more authors.

Purpose: To evaluate accuracy and interobserver variability with the use of the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) version 2.0 for detection of prostate cancer at multiparametric magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in a biopsy-naïve patient population. Materials and Methods: This retrospective HIPAA-compliant study was approved by the local ethics committee, and written informed consent was obtained from all patients for use of their imaging and histopathologic data in future research studies. In 101 biopsy-naïve patients with elevated prostate-specific antigen levels who underwent multiparametric MR imaging of the prostate and subsequent transrectal ultrasonography (US)-MR imaging fusion-guided biopsy, suspicious lesions detected at multiparametric MR imaging were scored by five readers who were blinded to pathologic results by using to the newly revised PI-RADS and the scoring system developed in-house. Interobserver agreement was evaluated by using k statistics, and the correlation of pathologic results with each of the two scoring systems was evaluated by using the Kendall t correlation coefficient. Results: Specimens of 162 lesions in 94 patients were sampled by means of transrectal US-MR imaging fusion biopsy. Results for 87 (54%) lesions were positive for prostate cancer. Kendall t values with the PI-RADS and the in-house-developed scoring system, respectively, at T2-weighted MR imaging in the peripheral zone were 0.51 and 0.17 and in the transitional zone, 0.45 and 20.11; at diffusion-weighted MR imaging, 0.42 and 0.28; at dynamic contrast material-enhanced MR imaging, 0.23 and 0.24, and overall suspicion scores were 0.42 and 0.49. Median k scores among all possible pairs of readers for PI-RADS and the in-house-developed scoring system, respectively, for T2-weighted MR images in the peripheral zone were 0.47 and 0.15; transitional zone, 0.37 and 0.07; diffusion-weighted MR imaging, 0.41 and 0.57; dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging, 0.48 and 0.41; and overall suspicion scores, 0.46 and 0.55. Conclusion: Use of the revised PI-RADS provides moderately reproducible MR imaging scores for detection of clinically relevant disease. © RSNA, 2015. Source

Turkbey B.,Molecular Imaging Program | Xu S.,Laboratory of Pathology | Kruecker J.,Laboratory of Pathology | Locklin J.,Urologic | And 7 more authors.
BJU International

OBJECTIVE: To develop a system that documents the location of transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsies by fusing them to MRI scans obtained prior to biopsy, as the actual location of prostate biopsies is rarely known. PATIENTS AND METHODS Fifty patients (median age 61) with a median prostate-specific antigen (PSA) of 5.8 ng/ml underwent 3T endorectal coil MRI prior to biopsy. 3D TRUS images were obtained just prior to standard TRUS-guided 12-core sextant biopsies wherein an electromagnetic positioning device was attached to the needle guide and TRUS probe in order to track the position of each needle pass. The 3D-TRUS image documenting the location of each biopsy was fused electronically to the T2-weighted MRI. Each biopsy needle track was marked on the TRUS images and these were then transposed onto the MRI. Each biopsy site was classified pathologically as positive or negative for cancer and the Gleason score was determined. RESULTS The location of all (n= 605) needle biopsy tracks was successfully documented on the T2-weighted (T2W) MRI. Among 50 patients, 20 had 56 positive cores. At the sites of biopsy, T2W signal was considered 'positive' for cancer (i.e. low in signal intensity) in 34 of 56 sites. CONCLUSION It is feasible to document the location of TRUS-guided prostate biopsies on pre-procedure MRI by fusing the pre-procedure TRUS to an endorectal coil MRI using electromagnetic needle tracking. This procedure may be useful in documenting the location of prior biopsies, improving quality control and thereby avoiding under-sampling of the prostate as well as directing subsequent biopsies to regions of the prostate not previously sampled. © 2010 BJU International. Source

Baek S.,University of Ulsan | Choi C.-M.,University of Ulsan | Ahn S.,University of Ulsan | Lee J.,University of Ulsan | And 13 more authors.
Clinical Cancer Research

Purpose: (4S)-4-(3-[18F]fluoropropyl)-L-glutamate (BAY 94-9392, alias [18F]FSPG) is a new tracer to image xC - transporter activity with positron emission tomography (PET). We aimed to explore the tumor detection rate of [18F]FSPG in patients relative to 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ([18F]FDG). The correlation of [18F]FSPG uptake with immunohistochemical expression of x C - transporter and CD44, which stabilizes the xCT subunit of system xC -, was also analyzed. Experimental Design: Patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, n = 10) or breast cancer (n = 5) who had a positive [18F]FDG uptake were included in this exploratory study. PET images were acquired following injection of approximately 300 MBq[18F]FSPG. Immunohistochemistry was done using xCT- and CD44-specific antibody. Results: [18F]FSPG PET showed high uptake in the kidney and pancreas with rapid blood clearance. [18F]FSPG identified all 10 NSCLC and three of the five breast cancer lesions that were confirmed by pathology. [18F]FSPG detected 59 of 67 (88%) [ 18F]FDG lesions in NSCLC, and 30 of 73 (41%) in breast cancer. Seven lesions were additionally detected only on [18F]FSPG in NSCLC. The tumor-to-blood pool standardized uptake value (SUV) ratio was not significantly different from that of [18F]FDG in NSCLC; however, in breast cancer, it was significantly lower (P < 0.05). The maximum SUV of [ 18F]FSPG correlated significantly with the intensity of immunohistochemical staining of xC - transporter and CD44 (P < 0.01). Conclusions: [18F]FSPG seems to be a promising tracer with a relatively high cancer detection rate in patients with NSCLC. [ 18F]FSPG PET may assess xC - transporter activity in patients with cancer. ©2012 AACR. Source

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