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Popota F.D.,CRC Corporacio Sanitaria Barcelona CO | Popota F.D.,University of Barcelona | Aguiar P.,Molecular Imaging Group | Herance J.R.,CRC Corporacio Sanitaria Barcelona CO | And 11 more authors.
IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science | Year: 2012

The purpose of this work was to evaluate the performance of the microPET R4 system for rodents according to the NU 4-2008 standards of the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) for small-animal positron emission tomography (PET) systems and to compare it against its previous evaluation according the adapted clinical NEMA NU 2-2001. The performance parameters evaluated here were spatial resolution, sensitivity, scatter fraction, counting rates for rat-and mouse-sized phantoms, and image quality. Spatial resolution and sensitivity were measured with a 22 Na point source, while scatter fraction and count rate performance were determined using a mouse and rat phantoms with an 18F line source. The image quality of the system was assessed using the NEMA image quality phantom. Assessment of attenuation correction was performed using γ-ray transmission and computed tomography (CT)-based attenuation correction methods. At the center of the field of view, a spatial resolution of 2.12 mm at full width at half maximum (FWHM) (radial), 2.66 mm FWHM (tangential), and 2.23 mm FWHM (axial) was measured. The absolute sensitivity was found to be 1.9% at the center of the scanner. Scatter fraction for mouse-sized phantoms was 8.5 %, and the peak count rate was 311 kcps at 153.5 MBq. The rat scatter fraction was 22%, and the peak count rate was 117 kcps at 123.24 MBq. Image uniformity showed better results with 2-D filtered back projection (FBP), while an overestimation of the recovery coefficients was observed when using 2-D and 3-D OSEM MAP reconstruction algorithm. All measurements were made for an energy window of 350-650 keV and a coincidence window of 6 ns. Histogramming and reconstruction parameters were used according to the manufacturer's recommendations. The microPET R4 scanner was fully characterized according to the NEMA NU 4-2008 standards. Our results diverge considerably from those previously reported with an adapted version of the NEMA NU 2-2001 clinical standards. These discrepancies can be attributed to the modifications in NEMA methodology, thereby highlighting the relevance of specific small-animal standards for the performance evaluation of PET systems. © 2012 IEEE.


Thielemans K.,Imanet | Thielemans K.,Algorithms and Software Consulting Ltd | Thielemans K.,University College London | Tsoumpas C.,Imanet | And 10 more authors.
Physics in Medicine and Biology | Year: 2012

We present a new version of STIR (Software for Tomographic Image Reconstruction), an open source object-oriented library implemented in C++for 3D positron emission tomography reconstruction. This library has been designed such that it can be used for many algorithms and scanner geometries, while being portable to various computing platforms. This second release enhances its flexibility and modular design and includes additional features such as Compton scatter simulation, an additional iterative reconstruction algorithm and parametric image reconstruction (both indirect and direct). We discuss the new features in this release and present example results. STIR can be downloaded from http://stir.sourceforge.net. © 2012 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine.


Padin-Iruegas M.-E.,Molecular Imaging Group | Herranz-Carnero M.,Molecular Imaging Group | Aguin-Losada S.,Molecular Imaging Group | Brozos-Vazquez E.,Molecular Imaging Group | And 4 more authors.
Oncology Reports | Year: 2013

Cancer stem cells play an important role in carcinogenesis and resistance to treatment and may lead to metastasis. The isolation of circulating stem cells involves cell sorting based on the presence of cell surface markers. Many surface markers such as CD133, c-Kit, SOX, OCT4 and TWIST have been reported. In the present study, we determined the expression of different stem cell markers and their variation in expression at different stages of the treatment process. Samples of EDTA blood were collected from metastatic colorectal cancer patients, and circulating cancer stem cells were isolated for the analysis of the expression of stem cell markers using RT-PCR. These findings were correlated with the response to therapy. All statistical analyses were performed using the GraphPad Prism 5.03 software. Significant differences were found in the expression levels of the markers CD133, SOX2, OCT4 and TWIST1. No differences were found in c-Kit expression. Correlation in the expression levels of most of the markers was observed. Expression of CD133, OCT4, SOX2 and TWIST1 had a predictive value for colon cancer behavior. Evaluation of this stem cell gene expression panel may be useful for predicting the response during the process of treatment, and the relative easy access to samples facilitates this method. Moreover the correlation between CD133 and TWIST1 expression may be associated with tumor regrowth and metastatic relapse.

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