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Casanova G.,Gynecological Endocrinology Unit | Ramos R.B.,Gynecological Endocrinology Unit | Ziegelmann P.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Spritzer P.M.,Gynecological Endocrinology Unit | Spritzer P.M.,Laboratory of Molecular Endocrinology
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2015

Context: Hormone therapy (HT), the most efficient treatment for menopausal symptoms, might have deleterious cardiovascular (CV) effects. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of low-dose estrogen HT on CV risk factors vs conventional-dose HT and placebo in postmenopausal women with no established CV disease. Data Sources: MEDLINE, Cochrane Central, and EMBASE were searched for trials published in 1990-2013; a hand search of reference lists of selected articles was performed; and ClinicalTrials.gov was searched for unpublished trials. Study Selection: Within randomized controlled trials of healthy postmenopausal women comparing low-dose HT to placebo or conventional-dose HT, 11 418 studies were initially identified. Data Extraction: Data were independently extracted by two investigators. Disagreements were resolved by a third author. Data Synthesis: Twenty-eight trials (3360 patients) were included. Low-dose HT vs placebo or conventional-dose HT did not effect weight, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, C-reactive protein, or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Low-dose HT was associated with lower levels of total cholesterol (-12.16 mg/dL, 95% confidence interval [CI], -17.41--6.92) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (-12.16 mg/dL; 95% CI, -16.55--7.77) vs placebo. Compared with conventional-dose HT, low-dose HT was associated with higher total cholesterol (5.05 mg/dL; 95% CI, 0.88-9.21) and LDL-C (4.49 mg/dL; 95% CI, 0.59-8.39). Low-dose HT was not associated with differences in triglycerides vs placebo. Oral, low-dose HT was associated with lower triglycerides vs conventional-dose HT (-14.09 mg/dL; 95% CI, -24.2--3.93). Conclusion: In this population of apparently healthy postmenopausal women, the effect of low-dose HT did not differ from that of placebo or conventional-dose HT regarding weight, BMI, blood pressure, CRP, or HDL-C. In contrast, low-dose HT was associated with better lipid profile vs placebo, and induced higher total and LDL-C and lower triglycerides vs conventional-dose HT. Copyright © 2015 by the Endocrine Society. Source

Castinetti F.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Daly A.F.,University of Liege | Stratakis C.A.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Caberg J.-H.,University of Liege | And 13 more authors.
Hormone and Metabolic Research | Year: 2016

Patients with Xq26.3 microduplication present with X-linked acrogigantism (X-LAG) syndrome, an early-childhood form of gigantism due to marked growth hormone (GH) hypersecretion from mixed GH-PRL adenomas and hyperplasia. The microduplication includes GPR101, which is upregulated in patients' tumor tissue. The GPR101 gene codes for an orphan G protein coupled receptor that is normally highly expressed in the hypothalamus. Our aim was to determine whether GPR101 loss of function mutations or deletions could be involved in patients with congenital isolated GH deficiency (GHD). Taking advantage of the cohort of patients from the GENHYPOPIT network, we studied 41 patients with unexplained isolated GHD. All patients had Sanger sequencing of the GPR101 gene and array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH) to look for deletions. Functional studies (cell culture with GH secretion measurements, cAMP response) were performed. One novel GPR101 variant, c.589 G>T (p.V197L), was seen in the heterozygous state in a patient with isolated GHD. In silico analysis suggested that this variant could be deleterious. Functional studies did not show any significant difference in comparison with wild type for GH secretion and cAMP response. No truncating, frameshift, or small insertion-deletion (indel) GPR101 mutations were seen in the 41 patients. No deletion or other copy number variation at chromosome Xq26.3 was found on aCGH. We found a novel GPR101 variant of unknown significance, in a patient with isolated GH deficiency. Our study did not identify GPR101 abnormalities as a frequent cause of GH deficiency. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York. Source

Acuna-Alonzo V.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Acuna-Alonzo V.,Molecular Genetics Laboratory | Flores-Dorantes T.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Kruit J.K.,University of British Columbia | And 45 more authors.
Human Molecular Genetics | Year: 2010

It has been suggested that the higher susceptibility of Hispanics to metabolic disease is related to their Native American heritage. A frequent cholesterol transporter ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1) gene variant (R230C, rs9282541) apparently exclusive to Native American individuals was associated with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, obesity and type 2 diabetes in Mexican Mestizos. We performed a more extensive analysis of this variant in 4405 Native Americans and 863 individuals from other ethnic groups to investigate genetic evidence of positive selection, to assess its functional effect in vitro and to explore associations with HDL-C levels and other metabolic traits. The C230 allele was found in 29 of 36 Native American groups, but not in European, Asian or African individuals. C230 was observed on a single haplotype, and C230-bearing chromosomes showed longer relative haplotype extension compared with other haplotypes in the Americas. Additionally, single-nucleotide polymorphism data from the Human Genome Diversity Panel Native American populations were enriched in significant integrated haplo-type score values in the region upstream of the ABCA1 gene. Cells expressing the C230 allele showed a 27% cholesterol efflux reduction (P < 0.001), confirming this variant has a functional effect in vitro. Moreover, the C230 allele was associated with lower HDL-C levels (P = 1.77 × 3 10-11) and with higher body mass index (P = 0.0001) in the combined analysis of Native American populations. This is the first report of a common functional variant exclusive to Native American and descent populations, which is a major determinant of HDL-C levels and may have contributed to the adaptive evolution of Native American populations. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oxfordjournals.org. Source

Rodriguez-Trejo A.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Ortiz-Lopez M.G.,Laboratory of Molecular Endocrinology | Zambrano E.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Medicas Y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran | Granados-Silvestre M.A.,Laboratory of Molecular Endocrinology | And 5 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2012

Maternal low-protein diets (LP) impair pancreatic β-cell development, resulting in later-life failure and susceptibility to type 2 diabetes (T2D). We hypothesized that intrauterine and/or postnatal developmental programming seen in this situation involve altered β-cell structure and relative time course of expression of genes critical to β-cell differentiation and growth. Pregnant Wistar rats were fed either control (C) 20% or restricted (R) 6% protein diets during pregnancy (1st letter) and/or lactation (2nd letter) in four groups: CC, RR, RC, and CR. At postnatal days 7 and 21, we measured male offspring β-cell fraction, mass, proliferation, aggregate number, and size as well as mRNA level for 13 key genes regulating β-cell development and function in isolated islets. Compared with CC, pre- and postnatal LP (RR) decreased β-cell fraction, mass, proliferation, aggregate size, and number and increased Hnf1a, Hnf4a, Pdx1, Isl1, Rfx6, and Slc2a2 mRNA levels. LP only in pregnancy (RC) also decreased β-cell fraction, mass, proliferation, aggregate size, and number and increased Hnf1a, Hnf4a, Pdx1, Rfx6, and Ins mRNA levels. Postnatal LP offspring (CR) showed decreased β-cell mass but increased β-cell fraction, aggregate number, and Hnf1a, Hnf4a, Rfx6, and Slc2a2 mRNA levels. We conclude that LP in pregnancy sets the trajectory of postnatal β-cell growth and differentiation, whereas LP in lactation has smaller effects. We propose that LP promotes differentiation through upregulation of transcription factors that stimulate differentiation at the expense of proliferation. This results in a decreased β-cell reserve, which can contribute to later-life predisposition to T2D. © 2012 the American Physiological Society. Source

Lara-Riegos J.C.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Ortiz-Lopez M.G.,Laboratory of Molecular Endocrinology | Pena-Espinoza B.I.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Montufar-Robles I.,Laboratory of Molecular Endocrinology | And 4 more authors.
Gene | Year: 2015

Association of type 2 diabetes (T2D) with common variants in HHEX, HNF4α, KCNJ11, PPARγ, CDKN2A/2B, SLC30A8, CDC123/CAMK1D, TCF7L2, ABCA1 and SLC16A11 genes have been reported, mainly in populations of European and Asian ancestry and to a lesser extent in Latin Americans. Thus, we aimed to investigate the contribution of rs1111875 (HHEX), rs1800961 (HNF4α), rs5219 (KCNJ11), rs1801282 (PPARγ), rs10811661 (CDKN2A/2B), rs13266634 (SLC30A8), rs12779790 (CDC123/CAMK1D), rs7903146 (TCF7L2), rs9282541 (ABCA1) and rs13342692 (SLC16A11) polymorphisms in the genetic background of Maya population to associate their susceptibility to develop T2D. This is one of the first studies designed specifically to investigate the inherited component of T2D in the indigenous population of Mexico. SNPs were genotyped by allelic discrimination method in 575 unrelated Maya individuals. Two SNPs rs10811661 and rs928254 were significantly associated with T2D after adjusting for BMI; rs10811661 in a recessive and rs9282541 in a dominant model. Additionally, we found phenotypical alterations associated with genetic variants: HDL to rs9282541 and insulin to rs13342692. In conclusion, these findings support an association of genetic polymorphisms to develop T2D in Maya population. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

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