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Al Sweidi S.,Molecular Endocrinology and Genomic Research Center | Al Sweidi S.,Laval University | Sanchez M.G.,Molecular Endocrinology and Genomic Research Center | Sanchez M.G.,Laval University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Neuroendocrinology | Year: 2012

Parkinson's disease (PD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder with a higher incidence in the male population. In the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD, 17β-oestradiol but not androgens were shown to protect dopamine (DA) neurones. We report that oestrogen receptors (ER)α and β distinctly contribute to neuroprotection against MPTP toxicity, as revealed by examining the membrane DA transporter (DAT), the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) and tyrosine hyroxylase in ER wild-type (WT) and knockout (ERKO) C57Bl/6 male mice. Intact ERKOβ mice had lower levels of striatal DAT and VMAT2, whereas ERKOα mice were the most sensitive to MPTP toxicity compared to WT and ERKOβ mice and had the highest levels of plasma androgens. In both ERKO mice groups, treatment with 17β-oestradiol did not provide neuroprotection against MPTP, despite elevated plasma 17β-oestradiol levels. Next, the recently described membrane G protein-coupled oestrogen receptor (GPER1) was examined in female Macaca fascicularis monkeys and mice. GPER1 levels were increased in the caudate nucleus and the putamen of MPTP-monkeys and in the male mouse striatum lesioned with methamphetamine or MPTP. Moreover, neuroprotective mechanisms in response to oestrogens transmit via Akt/glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) signalling. The intact and lesioned striata of 17β-oestradiol treated monkeys, similar to that of mice, had increased levels of pAkt (Ser 473)/βIII-tubulin, pGSK3 (Ser 9)/βIII-tubulin and Akt/βIII-tubulin. Hence, ERα, ERβ and GPER1 activation by oestrogens is imperative in the modulation of ER signalling and serves as a basis for evaluating nigrostriatal neuroprotection. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Bourque M.,Molecular Endocrinology and Genomic Research Center | Bourque M.,Laval University | Paolo T.D.,Molecular Endocrinology and Genomic Research Center | Paolo T.D.,Laval University
Frontiers in Endocrinology | Year: 2011

The existence of a sex difference in Parkinson's disease (PD) is observed as related to several variables, including susceptibility of the disease, age at onset, and symptoms. These differences between men and women represent a significant characteristic of PD, which suggest that estrogens may exert beneficial effects against the development and the progression of the disease. This paper reviews the neuroprotective and neuromodulator effects of 17β-estradiol and progesterone as compared to androgens in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic (NSDA) system of both female and male rodents. The 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mice model of PD and methamphetamine toxicity faithfully reproduce the sex differences of PD in that endogenous estrogen levels appear to influence the vulnerability to toxins targeting the NSDA system. Exogenous 17β-estradiol and/or progesterone treatments show neuroprotective properties against NSDA toxins while androgens fail to induce any beneficial effect. Sex steroid treatments show male and female differences in their neuroprotective action against methamphetamine toxicity. NSDA structure and function, as well as the distribution of estrogen receptors, show sex differences and may influence the susceptibility to the toxins and the response to sex steroids. Genomic and non-genomic actions of 17β-estradiol converge to promote survival factors and the presence of both estrogen receptors α and β are critical to 17β-estradiol neuroprotective action against MPTP toxicity. © 2011 Bourque, Dluzenand DiPaolo.

Gregoire L.,Molecular Endocrinology and Genomic Research Center | Jourdain V.A.,Molecular Endocrinology and Genomic Research Center | Jourdain V.A.,Laval University | Townsend M.,EMD Serono, Inc. | And 3 more authors.
Parkinsonism and Related Disorders | Year: 2013

Introduction: Safinamide is a compound under investigation for use in the treatment of Parkinson's disease for combination with pharmacological therapy currently available. The objective of this study was to test the effects of safinamide in an animal model of l-DOPA-induced dyskinesias (LID), the MPTP lesioned dyskinetic macaque monkey, in comparison to and in combination with amantadine. Methods: LID and parkinsonian symptoms were measured in dyskinetic monkeys treated with l-DOPA with and without several dose levels of safinamide, amantadine, and the two in combination. Safinamide plasma levels were monitored during the experiments. Results: Safinamide pre-treatment (3, 10, 20 and 30 mg/kg) dose-dependently reduced LID scores, in two acute and one semi-chronic experiment. Intensity and duration of LID were reduced and inversely correlated with safinamide blood levels. All doses of safinamide tested prolonged the duration of the beneficial antiparkinsonian effect of l-DOPA. Amantadine (5 and 20 mg/kg) reduced LID, but reduced duration of antiparkinsonian response to l-DOPA. When added to amantadine (5 mg/kg), safinamide showed no (3 mg/kg) or modest (20 mg/kg) additional beneficial effects on LID while the combined treatment prevented the reduction of the duration of the l-DOPA antiparkinsonian effect observed with amantadine only. Conclusions: Safinamide and amantadine reduced LID in this primate model while only safinamide increased the duration of the antiparkinsonian response of l-DOPA, suggesting that safinamide may have effects on LID that are pharmacologically distinct from amantadine, which is in current clinical use for control of LID. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Bourque M.,Molecular Endocrinology and Genomic Research Center | Bourque M.,Laval University | Di Paolo T.,Molecular Endocrinology and Genomic Research Center | Di Paolo T.,Laval University
Psychoneuroendocrinology | Year: 2011

Male mice were reported to display greater methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity than females. The present study evaluated the involvement of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) pathways in this sex-dependent methamphetamine toxicity. Intact female and male mice were administered methamphetamine (20 or 40 mg/kg) and euthanized a week later. Dopamine transporter (DAT) and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) autoradiography in the lateral striatum showed a greater sensitivity in male mice treated with 20 mg/kg methamphetamine compared to female mice. Striatal dopamine concentration and DAT autoradiography showed a more extensive depletion in male mice given 40 mg/kg methamphetamine compared to female mice. Mice administered 40 mg/kg methamphetamine showed no sex difference in striatal VMAT2 autoradiography. In the substantia nigra, DAT specific binding was decreased only in male mice treated with 40 mg/kg methamphetamine and DAT mRNA levels decreased in methamphetamine-treated female and male mice. Methamphetamine-treated male mice presented a dose-dependent decrease of VMAT2 mRNA levels. Methamphetamine reduced insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor levels in females at both methamphetamine doses tested whereas it elevated G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER1) only in male mice. Phosphorylated Akt levels decreased only in male mice treated with 40 mg/kg methamphetamine. Glycogen synthase kinase 3β levels were reduced in male mice at both methamphetamine doses tested and in females receiving 40 mg/kg. Bcl-2 levels were increased in male mice treated with methamphetamine, whereas ERK1/2 and BAD levels were unchanged. These results implicate some of the signaling pathways associated with the sex differences in methamphetamine-induced toxicity. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Bourque M.,Molecular Endocrinology and Genomic Research Center | Bourque M.,Laval University | Morissette M.,Molecular Endocrinology and Genomic Research Center | Cote M.,Laval University | And 3 more authors.
Neurobiology of Aging | Year: 2013

This study investigated the contribution of the new G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER1) in neuroprotection by 17β-estradiol in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of Parkinson's disease. In intact mice, administration of GPER1 agonist G1 reproduced the effect of 17β-estradiol in increasing striatal dopamine metabolite concentrations as well as the turnover of dopamine. GPER1 antagonist G15 blocked the effect of G1 on homovanillic acid/dopamine ratio and partially for 17β-estradiol. MPTP mice treated with G15 were more susceptible to MPTP toxicity with a greater decrease in striatal dopamine concentration and dopamine transporter specific binding. In MPTP mice, dopamine concentrations as well as dopamine and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 specific binding showed that G1 treatment was as potent as 17β-estradiol in protecting striatum and substantia nigra. G15 antagonized completely the neuroprotective effects of G1 in the striatum and substantia nigra as well as protection by 17β-estradiol in the striatum but partially in the substantia nigra. This study showed an important role of GPER1 in neuroprotection and that G1 is as potent as 17β-estradiol in mediating beneficial effects. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

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