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Kazmierski W.M.,Infectious Diseases Center for Excellence in Drug Discovery | Aquino C.,Metabolic Pathways Center for Excellence in Drug Discovery | Chauder B.A.,Metabolic Pathways Center for Excellence in Drug Discovery | Duan M.,Infectious Diseases Center for Excellence in Drug Discovery | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2011

We recently described (J. Med. Chem. 2008, 51, 6538-6546) a novel class of CCR5 antagonists with strong anti-HIV potency. Herein, we detail SAR converting leads 1 and 2 to druglike molecules. The pivotal structural motif enabling this transition was the secondary sulfonamide substituent. Further finetuning of the substituent pattern in the sulfonamide paved the way to enhancing potency and bioavailability and minimizing hERG inhibition, resulting in discovery of clinical compound 122 (GSK163929). © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Blanco D.,Diseases of the Developing World | Perez-Herran E.,Diseases of the Developing World | Cacho M.,Diseases of the Developing World | Ballell L.,Diseases of the Developing World | And 13 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2015

One way to speed up the TB drug discovery process is to search for antitubercular activity among compound series that already possess some of the key properties needed in anti-infective drug discovery, such as whole-cell activity and oral absorption. Here, we present MGIs, a new series of Mycobacterium tuberculosis gyrase inhibitors, which stem from the long-term efforts GSK has dedicated to the discovery and development of novel bacterial topoisomerase inhibitors (NBTIs). The compounds identified were found to be devoid of fluoroquinolone (FQ) cross-resistance and seem to operate through a mechanism similar to that of the previously described NBTI GSK antibacterial drug candidate. The remarkable in vitro and in vivo antitubercular profiles showed by the hits has prompted us to further advance the MGI project to full lead optimization. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


PubMed | From BioPharm Innovation., BioPharm Process Research, From BioPharm Innovation, BioPharm Discovery and. and Molecular Discovery Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of biological chemistry | Year: 2016

A potent VEGF inhibitor with novel antibody architecture and antigen binding mode has been developed. The molecule, hereafter referred to as VEGF dual dAb (domain antibody), was evaluated in vitro for binding to VEGF and for potency in VEGF-driven models and compared with other anti-VEGF biologics that have been used in ocular anti-angiogenic therapeutic regimes. VEGF dual dAb is more potent than bevacizumab and ranibizumab for VEGF binding, inhibition of VEGF receptor binding assays (RBAs), and VEGF-driven in vitro models of angiogenesis and displays comparable inhibition to aflibercept (Eylea). VEGF dual dAb is dimeric, and each monomer contains two distinct anti-VEGF domain antibodies attached via linkers to a human IgG1 Fc domain. Mechanistically, the enhanced in vitro potency of VEGF dual dAb, in comparison to other anti-VEGF biologics, can be explained by increased binding stoichiometry. A consistent model of the target engagement has been built based on the x-ray complexes of each of the two isolated domain antibodies with the VEGF antigen.


Chung C.-W.,Molecular Discovery Research | Coste H.,Lipid Metabolism Discovery Performance Unit | White J.H.,Molecular Discovery Research | Mirguet O.,Lipid Metabolism Discovery Performance Unit | And 26 more authors.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2011

Epigenetic mechanisms of gene regulation have a profound role in normal development and disease processes. An integral part of this mechanism occurs through lysine acetylation of histone tails which are recognized by bromodomains. While the biological and structural characterization of many bromodomain containing proteins has advanced considerably, the therapeutic tractability of this protein family is only now becoming understood. This paper describes the discovery and molecular characterization of potent (nM) small molecule inhibitors that disrupt the function of the BET family of bromodomains (Brd2, Brd3, and Brd4). By using a combination of phenotypic screening, chemoproteomics, and biophysical studies, we have discovered that the protein-protein interactions between bromodomains and acetylated histones can be antagonized by selective small molecules that bind at the acetylated lysine recognition pocket. X-ray crystal structures of compounds bound into bromodomains of Brd2 and Brd4 elucidate the molecular interactions of binding and explain the precisely defined stereochemistry required for activity. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Akwabi-Ameyaw A.,Glaxosmithkline | Caravella J.A.,Molecular Discovery Research | Caravella J.A.,Biogen Idec | Chen L.,Glaxosmithkline | And 12 more authors.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters | Year: 2011

To further explore the optimum placement of the acid moiety in conformationally constrained analogs of GW 4064 1a, a series of stilbene replacements were prepared. The benzothiophene 1f and the indole 1g display the optimal orientation of the carboxylate for enhanced FXR agonist potency. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


PubMed | California Institute for Biomedical Research Calibr, Molecular Discovery Research, Glaxosmithkline and Texas A&M University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: ChemMedChem | Year: 2016

Isoniazid (INH) remains one of the cornerstones of antitubercular chemotherapy for drug-sensitive strains of M. tuberculosis bacteria. However, the increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains containing mutations in the KatG enzyme, which is responsible for the activation of INH into its antitubercular form, have rendered this drug of little or no use in many cases of drug-resistant tuberculosis. Presented herein is a novel family of antitubercular direct NADH-dependent 2-trans enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (InhA) inhibitors based on an N-benzyl-4-((heteroaryl)methyl)benzamide template; unlike INH, these do not require prior activation by KatG. Given their direct InhA target engagement, these compounds should be able to circumvent KatG-related resistance in the clinic. The lead molecules were shown to be potent inhibitors of InhA and showed activity against M. tuberculosis bacteria. This new family of inhibitors was found to be chemically tractable, as exemplified by the facile synthesis of analogues and the establishment of structure-activity relationships. Furthermore, a co-crystal structure of the initial hit with the enzyme is disclosed, providing valuable information toward the design of new InhA inhibitors for the treatment of MDR/XDR tuberculosis.


Kost T.A.,Glaxosmithkline | Condreay J.P.,Glaxosmithkline | Ames R.S.,Molecular Discovery Research
Current Gene Therapy | Year: 2010

Modern drug discovery programs utilize a wide variety of technologies to aid in identification of potential drug targets, and progress them through the often long and winding path of finding novel drug-like molecules. Recombinant cell-based assays are an important tool in the drug discovery process for investigating the biological mechanisms of potential drug targets and conducting screening campaigns in the hunt for biologically active molecules. Historically, stable cell lines expressing the target protein(s) of interest have been used for these assays. Although such cell lines can be useful, their development can be laborious and the resulting cell line affords little experimental flexibility. Transient gene expression approaches provide an alternative to the often tedious task of developing and maintaining numerous stable cell lines. Recently the unique properties of modified baculoviruses, containing mammalian expression cassettes and referred to as BacMam viruses, have been exploited to facilitate rapid and reproducible transient cell-based assay development. This review will focus on the many features of BacMam virus gene delivery that make it a powerful system for cell-based assay development and screening. © 2010 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.


Zapatero M.C.,Molecular Discovery Research | Perez P.,Molecular Discovery Research | Vazquez M.J.,Molecular Discovery Research | Colmenarejo G.,Molecular Discovery Research | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Biomolecular Screening | Year: 2015

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a proinflammatory cytokine associated with multiple diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders. With the ultimate goal of providing novel chemotypes as starting points for development of disease-modifying therapeutics for neurodegeneration, we endeavored to screen the GSK compound collection for MIF inhibitors using a miniaturized, activity-based kinetic assay. The assay monitors the increase in absorbance at 320 nm resulting from keto-to-enol tautomerization of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate, a reaction catalyzed by MIF. We ran a full-diversity screen evaluating the inhibitory activity of 1.6 million compounds. Primary hits were confirmed and retested in an orthogonal assay measuring tautomerization of l-dopachrome methyl ester by the decrease in absorbance at 475 nm in kinetic mode. Selected compounds were progressed to medium-throughput mode-of-inhibition studies, which included time dependence, enzyme concentration dependence, and reversibility of their inhibitory effect. With these results and after inspection of the physicochemical properties of compounds, 17 chemotypes were prioritized and progressed to further stages of validation and characterization to better assess their therapeutic potential. © Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.


Provera S.,Molecular Discovery Research | Guercio G.,Glaxosmithkline | Turco L.,Molecular Discovery Research | Curcuruto O.,Molecular Discovery Research | And 3 more authors.
Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry | Year: 2010

Liquid chromatography-NMR (LC-NMR) spectroscopy was used to obtain detailed information regarding the structure of the major bulk drug impurities present in GW597599 (vestipitant). The one-dimensional 1H LC-NMR experiments were performed in both continuous and stop-flow modes on a sample of GW597599 (vestipitant) enriched with mother liquor impurities. The information derived from both LC-NMR and LC-MS data provided the structural information of all major impurities. The full characterisation of the impuritiesbyhigh-resolution NMR spectroscopywas ultimately performed on appropriately synthesised compounds. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Gordon L.J.,Molecular Discovery Research | Allen M.,Molecular Discovery Research | Artursson P.E.R.,Uppsala University | Hann M.M.,Molecular Discovery Research | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Biomolecular Screening | Year: 2016

One of the key challenges facing early stage drug discovery is understanding the commonly observed difference between the activity of compounds in biochemical assays and cellular assays. Traditionally, indirect or estimated cell permeability measurements such as estimations from logP or artificial membrane permeability are used to explain the differences. The missing link is a direct measurement of intracellular compound concentration in whole cells. This can, in some circumstances, be estimated from the cellular activity, but this may also be problematic if cellular activity is weak or absent. Advances in sensitivity and throughput of analytical techniques have enabled us to develop a high-throughput assay for the measurement of intracellular compound concentration for routine use to support lead optimization. The assay uses a RapidFire-MS based readout of compound concentration in HeLa cells following incubation of cells with test compound. The initial assay validation was performed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, and the assay was subsequently transferred to RapidFire tandem mass spectrometry. Further miniaturization and optimization were performed to streamline the process, increase sample throughput, and reduce cycle time. This optimization has delivered a semi-automated platform with the potential of production scale compound profiling up to 100 compounds per day. © Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

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