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Vasilieva L.E.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | Papadhimitriou S.I.,Molecular Cytogenetics Unit | Dourakis S.P.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Diseases International | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND: Cholangiocarcinoma is a very aggressive tumor with poor survival. Therefore, early diagnosis and surgical resection are of paramount importance. Its diagnosis is difficult because access to the tumor is not easy. Biopsy is possible only for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, which accounts for 10% of cases. Routine brush cytology from endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) has a high specificity of 100% but unfortunately a low sensitivity of 30%. In this review we briefly describe new diagnostic techniques applicable to ERCP brush cytology specimens and targeting the genetic background of the disease, in particular fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and digital image analysis (DIA). DATE SOURCES: The PubMed database up to 2011 was used for the retrieval of relevant articles. The search terms FISH, fluorescence in situ hybridization, DIA, digital image analysis and cholangiocarcinoma were used. Both original and review articles were used. RESULTS: FISH identifies cells with chromosomal abnormalities, mainly numerical aberrations, using a mixture of fluorescencelabeled probes. FISH offers a higher sensitivity than routine cytology, retaining a high level of specificity. The DIA criterion for malignancy is demonstration of aneuploidy. This technique increases the sensitivity to 40%, but the specificity remains low. Preliminary data from application to other tumors suggest that combination of FISH and DIA may be of further benefit. CONCLUSIONS: The new techniques offer a significantly enhanced diagnostic efficacy in the evaluation of ERCP brush specimens. Apart from contributing to a more timely diagnosis, their wider application to cholangiocarcinoma may also facilitate the genetic study of the disease and add to our understanding of oncogenesis at the molecular level, with the prospect of identifying targets for novel therapeutic interventions. © 2012, Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. All rights reserved. Source

Gasparini P.,Molecular Cytogenetics Unit | Bertolini G.,Molecular Cytogenetics Unit | Binda M.,Translational Research Unit | Magnifico A.,Molecular Targeting Unit | And 9 more authors.
Cancer Letters | Year: 2010

There is indication that tumor growth is sustained by subpopulation of cells with stem-like features but little is known on their genomic characterization and their genetic stability. We report a detailed molecular cytogenetic characterization using Spectral Karyotyping and fluorescent in situ hybridization of parental serum-cultured adherent cells and their sphere-growing stem-like counterpart before and after differentiation from six cell lines established from solid tumors. Our findings indicate increased cytogenetic complexity in sphere-growing stem-like and their differentiated adherent cells compared to parental adherent component suggesting the existence within cell lines of heterogeneous and genetically unstable subpopulations of cells endowed with stem-like features. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

De Girolamo L.,Galeazzi Orthopaedic Institute | Bertolini G.,Molecular Cytogenetics Unit | Cervellin M.,Galeazzi Orthopaedic Institute | Sozzi G.,Molecular Cytogenetics Unit | Volpi P.,Galeazzi Orthopaedic Institute
Injury | Year: 2010

Cartilage repair is still an unsolved problem. In the last years many cell-based treatments have been proposed, in order to obtain good regeneration of cartilage defects. The Autologous Matrix-Induced Chondrogenesis technique (AMIC®) combines the micro-fracture procedure with the use of a specific biological membrane. The phenotypic feature of bone marrow cell population, harvested from iliac crest and knee subchondral bone of patients treated with the AMIC® technique, enhanced by autologous concentrated bone marrow, was analysed to evaluate potential variations of the cell population. Samples of eleven patients, with isolated chondral lesions grade III or IV were treated with the AMIC® technique, enhanced by the use of autologous concentrated bone marrow. A small fraction of bone marrow samples, both from iliac crest and from the created micro-fractures, was analysed by FACS analysis and then cultured to verify their proliferative and differentiation potential. An average of 0.04% of concentrated bone marrow cells harvested from the iliac crest, presented mesenchymal stem cell phenotype (CD34-/CD45low/CD271high), whereas just 0.02% of these cells were identified from the samples harvested during the creation of micro-fractures at the knee. After two passages in culture, cells expressed a peculiar profile for MSC. Only MSC from bone marrow could be long-term propagated and were able to efficiently differentiate in the cultures. Although the AMIC® approach has many advantages, the surgical technique in the application of the microfracture technique remains essential and affects the final result. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Pusceddu S.,Fondazione Istituto Nazionale Dei Tumori | Gasparini P.,Molecular Cytogenetics Unit | Maisonneuve P.,Italian National Cancer Institute | Mazzaferro V.,Fondazione Istituto Nazionale Dei Tumori | And 2 more authors.
Cancers | Year: 2012

Immunohistochemical loss of the succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB) has recently been reported as a surrogate biomarker of malignancy in sporadic and familial pheocromocytomas and paragangliomas through the activation of hypoxia pathways. However, data on the prevalence and the clinical implications of SDHB immunoreactivity in ileal neuroendocrine tumors are still lacking. Thirty-one consecutive, advanced primary midgut neuroendocrine tumors and related lymph node or liver metastases from 24 males and seven females were immunohistochemically assessed for SDHB. All patients were G1 tumors (Ki-67 labeling index ≤2%). SDHB immunohistochemistry results were expressed as immunostaining intensity and scored as low or strong according to the internal control represented by normal intestinal cells. Strong positivity for SDHB, with granular cytoplasmatic reactivity, was found in 77% of primary tumors (T), whilst low SDHB expression was detected in 90% of metastases (M). The combined analysis (T+M) confirmed the loss of SDHB expression in 82% of metastases compared to 18% of primary tumors. SDHB expression was inversely correlated with Ki-67 labeling index, which accounted for 1.54% in metastastic sites and 0.7% in primary tumors. A correlation between SDHB expression loss, increased Ki-67 labeling index and biological aggressiveness was shown in advanced midgut neuroendocrine tumors, suggesting a role of tumor suppressor gene. © 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source

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